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50% ON THE MEANING OF THE WORDS OKOÇ AND oikia.

cannot, with any justice, be re-faith of one person ensures the Stricted to the former? But salvation of his relatives. But, the word here used is) oikos, on this ground, I presume that which the editor of Calmet's pious pædobaptists would not Dictionary asserts, uniformly be supposed to stand.-Now, denotes kindred only.

the word used in this passage Let us take another exam-is oikos; and, notwithstanding ple.--In Acts, vii. 10, we are the dictum of the editor of Cal informed, that Pharaoh made met's Dictionary, it appears to Joseph" governor over Egypt, me to extend to all the inhabitand over all his house." By ants of the jailor's house. which, I suppose, we are to But, perhaps, additional light understand, that the king gave may be thrown on the subject, Joseph (not a specific control by examining some of the paover his own children and rela- rallel passages in the different tives, merely and exclusively, evangelists. if at all, but) an authority over In Matt. X. 13, it is said, the royal domestic establish-“ If the house be worthy, let ment, superior to that of any your peace come upon it; but, other officer. Now, the term if it be not worthy, let your here employed is oikosthe very peace return to you. term which the editor of Cal- To this

passage,

I

presume, met's Dictionary assures us, Luke, x. 5, is parallel. “Into can signify nothing but kindred whatsoever house ye enter, first only.

say, Peace be to this house, When the Philippian jailor And if the son of peace be inquired, “ What must I do to there, your peace shall rest upon be saved ?" the apostles an- it; if not, it shall turn to you swered, “ Believe on the Lord again." Jesus Christ, and thou shalt

be In these passages, Matthew sayed, and thy house." To has used the term oixia, and whom does the word house here Luke oikos; but I cannot conrefer? To the jailor and his ceive any possibility of doubt, children, his relations, only? whether the same persons are Did then the assertion, that referred to in both. It cannot, those who believe shall be surely, be supposed, that our saved, refer to his kindred only? Lord's instructions to his disWould not his servants be saved eiples, as recorded by one evanalso by faith? And, in pro- gelist, refer to all the inhabitants claiming this general and all of the houses into which they important truth, can we believe might enter, and, as preserved by the apostlesemployed a term, another, only to a part of them; which necessarily excluded and, if this be not maintained, some of those whom, in all pro- then the two words are used bability, they then addressed?interchangeably; and are, of I can see but one ground, on necessity, in spite of the editor which the word here used can of Calmet's Dictionary, co-exbe restricted to kindred; it is tensive in their import. on the supposition, that the Another instance occurs in

xi. 17.

Matt. xii. 25. “Every king- Whether he refers to the same dom divided against itself, is persons in both ?' Does he not, brought to desolation; and in the latter, plainly commend every city, or house, divided to the affectionate regard of the against itself, shall not stand.” church, those whom, in the The parallel is found in Luke, former, he tells us he baptized?

“ Every kingdom di- In the former, the apostle uses vided against itself, is brought the term oikos, and, in the latto desolation; and a house di- ter, oikia. Now, admitting, for vided against a house, falleth.” a moment, the distinction be

It is true, that the expres-tween these words, let us see sion employed by Luke,“ a what will follow. Paul baphouse against a house," differs tized the children (oikos) of Stefrom that employed by Mat-phanas; but; by his recomthew, “, a house against itself.” mending the household (oikea) to But none, I apprehend, will the esteem of the church, it apdoubt, whether the sentiment pears, that the servants also conveyed, be the same in both. were baptized; and, as. Paul Here again Matthew has em- says nothing of baptizing them, ployed the word olkia,

and it is fair to conclude, that they Luke oikos; but it will not, were baptized at a subsequent surely, be supposed, that in period. But the apostle comrecording this discourse of our mends them all (oikia) to the Lord, Luke should have thought church, and calls them all.“ the it necessary to use a term, which first-fruits of Achaia ;" which, necessarily excludes a part of I suppose, he would not have that collection of persons, of done, had they not all been whom Matthew speaks; and, if baptized, as the house (oikos) it be not, then non obstante the was, on his first journey, and editor of Calmet's Dictionary, at the same time. Hence, I the signification of aikos, is not think, it is evident, that he emmore limited than that of oikia. ploys the two words inter

There are two passages, in changeably; and, if so, noto which the apostle speaks of withstanding the support of the “ the house of Stephanas;" In editor of Calmet's Dictionary, 1 Cor. i. 16, he says, “ Í bap- the distinctiou falls to the tized the house of Stephanas;" ground. and, in 1 Cor. xvi. 15, he says, I trust, that your readers will “ I beseech you, brethren, know receive, with candid attention, the house of Stephanas."*_these plain observations, from Can any question be raised, one who is not much accus.

* With all humility, I would solicit Greek scholars to examine, whether the following rendering of 1 Cor, xvi. 15, 16, which I conceive to be much preferable to the common translation, be not critically accurate:-“ I be seech you, brethren, affectionately regard (see Schleusneri Lexicon) the house of Stephanas, because it is the first-fruits of Achaia, and they have devoted themselves to the relief of the saints; in order that ye may hold in honour (see Schleusner) such persons, even every fellow labourer."

ON

tomed to critical research; but An exhortation, so introduced one, who is happy to know and so enforced, must necesenough of Greek, to consult his sarily be an object of considerNew Testament, and to try for able interest, not only with himself, by that plain and all those to whom it was first adsufficient test, the validity of an dressed, but with all, in every argument, though it has been age, who are liable to the erdiscovered by the editor of Cal- rors, which it was intended to met's Dictionary, and, in sup- counteract. port of it, he“ defies the utmost It was addressed to one of severity of criticism!”

the seven churches of Asia, to TROPHIMUS. a church which had been plant

ed, and watered, by apostolic REMARKS

care, and supernatural gifts; there apostles had laboured,

and martyrs had bled; and it REVELATION, III. 2. had ranked as a candlestick Be watchful, and strengthen the among the seven golden can

things which remain, that are ready dlesticks before the throne of to die."

God.. The Sun of Righteous

ness had blessed it with his That all the commands of meridian beams, but clouds of our Lord Jesus Christ, are error had now arisen to involve equally binding on those who it in obscurity; the form of profess his name, will be rea- sound words still remained, but dily admitted; but when he who so mutilated and disguised, by knows the secrets of all hearts, the errors which sin had introand in whose hands are the duced, that even “ the things ways of men, thinks proper to which remained, were ready to communicate some of them in die.” It was at this period of a manner more solemn and ma- their history, that Jesus himjestic than others, we cannot self arose, to awake them from err in concluding, that he in- their lethargy, to convince them tends them to be met with a of their danger, to bid them more than common degree of “ be watchful.” reverence and attention.

But the church of Sardis no This remark appears to be longer exists to profit by the supported by the exhortation injunction; let us, then, apply quoted at the head of this pa- it to ourselves, to our own per; it was introduced by all churches, and we shall readily the circumstances, and enforced perceive with what painful acby all the considerations, that curacy it may be adapted, with could give it importance. The all its awful enforcements, to speaker announced himself, as the present day. he that had the “

seven spirits

18 "Here we look round, and see of God, and the seven stars;" a church, where the truth of and his appearance struck his God indeed “ remains,” but so beloved disciple, John, as dead fettered, or so distorted, by at his feet!

erroneous representations, or

66

treated so like speculative opi- the barrenness of his soul and nions, that it is most truly his want of enjoyment, in the “ ready to die;" instead of work of God, and while he

distilling as the dew;" and observes, with pain, the colda

dropping as the rain,” it sinks ness and indifference of many unnoticed and unfelt, as lead a- around him, he feels deeply mid the mighty waters, while (to solicitous to impress on his preserve the original metaphor,) own mind, and on the minds of the gladdening light, which his fellow Christians and fellow once beamed from the golden labourers, the importance of candlestick, has gradually de- the solemn exhortation, adclined, till the expiring spark dressed to the church of Sardis, glimmers in the socket, and but preserved, as a warning, to serves to mark the total gloom every other—" Be watchful!" which threatens soon to ensue. Feeling the evil, let us en

Sometimes we find, here and deavour to analyze it, let us there, scattered and lost, amid find what things remain, which the frigid body, a few that re- may be strengthened, and by tain their youthful warmth, their exertion and prayer, prevent pristine vigour; they meet often the death which threatens them. together, but, alas! their book Let us endeavour to strengthen of remembrance is so sad, when the purity which remains. A comparing the once flourishing laxity of discipline has insinustate of the church, with its ated itself into our churches, subsequent barrenness, that and into our hearts : let us bé even these are “ ready to die.” watchful; our own conduct,

We meet with another, where and the conduct of our brethe doctrines of religion, purethren, alike require our attenand undefiled, are still honest- tion. As individuals, let us ly maintained, and faithfully recollect, that lusts, however preached; but here, the covet- dear, must be sacrificed; and, ousness of the one part, the as church members, that roots censoriousness of another, and of bitterness, however fair the the indifference and neglect of flower, must be plucked up; all, so counteract its influence, that wealth and consequence that he who depended on the are unavailing, if humble piety co-operation of their prayers, be wanting ; and, that right and exertions in promoting their eyes must be plucked out, and spiritual prosperity, faints, at right hands cut off, if we would length, amidst baffled exertions preserve the body from death. and disappointed hopes, and Let us strengthen the spirit overwearied with his labour, of prayer which remains : He lays down his burden, and is that said, “ Be watchful,” holds ready to die.”

in his hand “ the seven spirits That this picture, however of God:” the residue of the melancholy, is but too correct, spirit is with him, and he can, will need no proof; and, while according to his will, supply, the writer feels, and laments as or withhold, its influence. In a Christian, and as a minister, his hand, too, are the seven

32

VOL. VII.

stars," the ministers of his ject, and ardent to promote, the churches, whom he can, at his benevolent exertions of the

age; will, remove, or continue; whose every one has his talent, let it labours he may permit to be be thrown into the treasury. unavailing, by withholding those Let the old contribute their adinfluences, or by bestowing vice, the young their strength, them, render abundantly useful. the rich their property, the Let us look up to him; the ef- poor

their
prayers :

let us learn fectual fervent prayer of a righ- the value of life, the value of teous man, availeth much ; and, money, from its application. not individually only, but as Bible and missionary societies churches, the heart is warmed invite the concurrent support by association; and, as iron of all ranks. Schools, with all sharpeneth iron, so doth the their incalculable advantages to countenance of man his friend, the child, the parent, the When Jesus promised to an- teacher, the world, demand the swer his disciples' prayers, it support of the young. Let was when, in his name, two or pastor and people be of one three should agree to ask. When heart and one mind, and whatPeter was delivered from pri- ever their hands find to do, do it ¡son, it was in answer to the with all their might. prayer of the whole church." Do we need any further stiLet ministers, let deacons, let mulus thus to strengthen the the people cherish this spirit, as things which remain ? We shall that which will most assuredly find one in our Lord's warning: rekindle the dying flame, and “ If, therefore, thou shalt not open the broadest channel of watch, I will come as a thief, divine communications. and thou shalt not know in what

Let us strengthen the spirit hour I will come upon thee.” of benevolent exertion which Where now is the church of may remain.

Some of our Sardis ? Lost in oblivion? The churches appear to have de- candlestick is removed out of clined, from an inattention to its place, and darkness covers the general character of the the land'it illumined. Where

age; while the preacher has are now many of our churches 'contented himself with laying that were once the glory and down the beneficent principles hight of our own country! They of the gospel, his more adven- declined by imperceptible de turous fellow labourer has ex- grees, grew weaker and weakhibited them in action; while er, till, at length, the last the one has been descanting on faithful minister, the last godly the moral beauty of our Savi- hearer, was, as by the hand of our's golden rule, the other has a thief

, removed from them; acted it out; and, by a sym- and, ere they were aware that pathy of feeling, has attracted the anger of the Lord was around him almost all those who, awakened against them, Ichabod till then, had remained with was written on their doors; and this warmth latent in their bo- now, the place that once knew

Let us dread this; ra- a flourishing church of Christ, ther let us be ingenious to pro-) knows it no more. .. JOTA,

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