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136 § 122. of Upper GARMENTs.

gird up your loins,” I K. 18:46. Prov. 21: 17. Is. 11: 5. Jer, 1. 17. The girdle, worn by females, was sometimes ornamented with bosses; they wore stomachers also for ornament, Hebrew :^3°ne. The Arabians carry a knife or poniard in the girdle. This was the custom likewise among the Hebrews, 2 Sam. 20:8– 10; a fact, which admits of confirmation from the ruins of Persepolis. The girdle also answered the purpore of a pouch, to carry money and other necessary things, 1 Sam. 25: 13. 2 Sam. 18: 11. Matt, 10: 9. Mark 6: 8.

§ 122. Of Upper GARMENTs.

The garment immediately over the tunic was denominated Hop, also 7:3, Greek iudittov; it was very simple, and of course we may suppose very ancient. It was a piece of cloth nearly square, of different sizes, five or six cubits long and five or six feet broad, and was wrapped round the body. When the weather was serene, it was more conveniently worn over the shoulders than by being wrapped round the body. The two corners, which were drawn over the shoulders, were called the skirts, or as it is in the Hebrew, the wings of the garment, Hag. 2; 12. Zech. 8:23. Frequently this garment was hung over the left shoulder, where it accordingly hung lengthwise, partly over the back and partly over the breast, and was fastened by the two corners under the right cheek. While it answered the purposes of a cloak, it was so large, that burdens, if necessary, might be carried in it, Exod. 12: 34.2 K. 4:39. The poor wrapped themselves up wholly in this garment at night, spread their leathern girdle upon a rock and rested their head upon it, as is customary to this day in Asia. Moses, therefore, enacted as a law what had before existed as a custom, that the upper garment, when given as a pledge, should not be retained over night, Job 22:6. 24: . 7. Exod. 22:25, 26. Deut. 24: 13. In the time of Christ the creditors did not take the upper garment or cloak, which it was not lawful for them to retain, but the coat or tunic, which agrees with the representation of Jesus in Matt. 5:40. There having occurred an instance of the violation of the sabbath, Num. 15: 32–41, Moses enacted a law, that there should be a fringe upon the four corners of this garment together with a blue ribband, to remind the people of his statutes, Matt. 9:20. Luke 8: 44.

§ 122. or upper GARMENTs. 137

There were other upper garments worn among the Hebrews as follows, I. Soo, Meil, a garment of cotton, which extended below the knees, open at the top so as to be drawn over the head, and having holes for the insertion of the arms. II. Thes, Ephod. It consisted of two parts, the one of which was suspended over the back, the other over the forepart of the body, both pieces being united by a clasp or buckle on the shoulders. In the time of Josephus the ephod had sleeves, a circumstance which is not mentioned by Moses, Exod. 2S: 6, 7. Joseph. Antiq. Bk. III. ch. 7.5. According to the Mosaic law the Ephod and Meil, were appropriately garments of the high priest, but we learn that they were sometimes worn by other illustrious men, Job 29: 14. 1 Sam. 18; 4. 2 Sam. 6: 14. Ezek. 26:16. We may infer from 2 Sam. 6: 14. and 1 Chron. 15:27. that +2 ones and yaz S-zo, [rendered in the English version, a linen ephod, and a fine linen robe, were convertible expressions for the same thing; still there is no doubt, that there were two kinds of ephods. III. Eve, A HAT or turb AN, as may be seen to this day on the ruins of Persepolis. Garments of fur appear to have been used in the East, although the climate was warm. We undoubtedly hear of them under the word royos. The phrase -zip n-yos means a garment of hair, worn commonly by poor people and prophets, 2 K. 1: 8. 2: S. 13: 14. Zech. 13:4. Heb. 11:37. There were certain garments of hair, which were precious and were worn by the rich and princes, Josh. 7: 21, 24. 1 K, 19:13, 19. Jonah 3: 6. The words one and ouvêav, though the same, signified different things; "To was a precious tunic of cotton, Judg. 14:12, 13, 19. Prov. 31: 24. Is. 3: 23. but ouvčov was a sort of coverlet, under which the people slept at night, Mark 14:51, 52. 15:46. Luke 23: 53. XXauts is the name of a robe, common among the Greeks, which extended down to the knees, and was fastened over the breast, but the złaut's zoxxiv.m, which is mentioned Matt. 27:28, and Mark 15: 17. called in common speech togqūga or the purple, was a red robe of the Roman military, nearly of the same length with the Greek robe. The word y?cuts is not to be collated in this case with the Heb. nobi, for the noon "obs mentioned in Ezek. 27:24, were not Grecian robes, but blue cloths, brought from Arabia. The cloak, mentioned 2 Tim.4: 13, in Greek psad– 138 § 123. SANDALS AND shoes.

wns or pat?dvms, was a Roman garment, meant for protection against the rain, and to be worn on journies. It was closed throughout except an open neck, by which it was admitted over the head and supported on the shoulders.

§ 123. SANDALs AND Shoes.

At first in order to prevent the feet from being cut by sharp rocks, or burnt by the hot sand, or injured by pinching cold, small pieces of wood or leather were bound to the bottom of the feet. Sandals of this kind are still seen in the East; afterwards shoes were made, and greaves, as may be seen on the ruins of Persepolis, and as is related by Strabo. Originally no covering of the foot was used at all, but sandals, Goz, owódata, Ümoënjuara; which were bound round the feet with leather thongs, Tonip, iués, iudviso, Gen. 14: 23. Exod. 12:11. Is. 5:27. Judith 10:4. Matt. 3: 11. 10: 10. Mark 1: 7. 6: 9. John 1:27. These sandals were held at a very low price, Amos 2:6. 8: 6. Matrons sometimes wore elegant ones, Judith 10: 3. 16: 11. How precious the sandal was, mentioned in Ezek. 16:10. of badger's skin, is not clear. The people put off their sandals when they entered a house, and put them on when they left it. Whence the phrases, to loose one's sandals from off his feet, &c. Exod. 3: 5. Deut. 25: 9. Is. 20:4. Ruth 4:7, 8. Ezek. 24; 7. To loose and to bind on sandals was the business of the lowest servants. Disciples performed this of fice, however, for their teachers; but the Rabbins advised them not to do it before strangers, lest they should be mistaken for servants. The business of a servant recently purchased was to loose and carry about his master's sandals; whence the expressions in Mark 1: 7. and Matt. 3: 11. to “loose one's shoes,” and “to bear them” are proverbial and mean the same thing. As the wearers did not have on stockings, their feet became dusty and soiled; accordingly when they had laid aside their sandals and entered a house, they washed their feet; which also was the office of the lowest serwants. In some instances where the guests were very distinguished men, the master of the family performed this office, Gen. 18; 4. Luke 7:44. The poor sometimes went barefoot; the more rich and honoured never, except in case of mourning, 2 Sam. 15: 30. Jer. 2: 25. In contracts the seller gave his sandals to the buyer

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§ 125. of the HAIR. 139

in confirmation of the bargain. Hence, “a man without sandals,” became proverbial expressions, implying the reproach of prodigality, Deut. 25: 9. Ruth 4: 7.

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The beard was considered a great ornament among the Hebrews, as it is to this day, among oriental nations. No one was allowed to touch it except for the purpose of kissing it. To pluck or to shave the beard, or to mar it any way, was considered a great disgrace, 1 Chron. 19: 3–5. 2 Sam. 10:4–10. Hence the beard is used tropically for the distinguished men of any people, and the shaving of the beard was considered a mark, and used tropically as a representation of servitude, Is. 7:20: The beard was preserved in different ways by different people, 2 Sam. 19: 24. The Hebrews alone were forbidden to shave the beard, i.e. as the phrase is to be interpreted, to round the corners of the beard where it joins the hair of the head, Lev. 19:27; because the Arabian tribes by shaving off or rather rounding the beard, where it connects with the hair of the head, devoted themselves to a certain deity, who held the place among them, that Bacchus did among the Greeks, Herod. III. 8. Jer. 9:26, 25; 23. 49:32. To pull out or cut off the beard was an indication of great grief, and mourning; every ornament whatever at such a time being laid aside. This, however, must be done by the person himself. If a stranger should undertake to pull out his beard, it would be the greatest insult.

§ 125. Of the HAIR, nylp.

Anciently the Egyptians alone, and some of the Arabians were in the habit of shaving their beards; the Hebrews and other nations let them grow. Sometimes indeed they applied the razor, with the exception of the Nazarites, to whom shaving was absolutely interdicted, Num. 6: 5. Judg. 13: 7. 16. 17. 1 Sam. 1: 11. 2 Sam. 14:26. Is. 7:20. Ezek. 5: 1. Baldness was a source of contempt, 2 K. 2:23; a heavy head of hair was esteemed a great ornament, 2 Sam. 14:26. Cant. 5: 11 ; the hair was combed and set in order, Is, 3:24, and anointed, especially on festival occasions, Ps. 23: 5. 92: 10. 133: 2. 2 Sam. 14: 2. Ruth 3: 3. Prov. 21: 17. The ointment used was the very precious oil of olives, mixed with spices, 140 § 126. coverings For THE HEAD.

particularly spikenard, which was brought from India, but was commonly adulterated. The spikenard, mentioned Mark 14: 3, vögdos wouzi, seems to have been pure. The colour of the hair of the people of the East, is commonly black, rarely red, which was esteemed a favourite colour. Females, as is commonly the case, let the hair grow long, Luke 7: 38. 1 Cor. 11:6–12. and braided it, Num. 5: 18. Judith 10: 3. 1 Peter 3: 3; which is clear also from the Talmud. They interwove into their hair gems and gold, 2 K. 9; 30.

§ 126. Coverings for the HEAD.

At first the hair of the head was its only covering. To prevent its being dishevelled by the wind, it was at length bound round the head by a fillet, as is now customary among the servants in the East, and as may be seen on the ruins of Persepolis. Subsequently a piece of cloth was worn upon the head, which was afterwards converted into mitres of different forms. There were two kinds of mitres among the ancients; the one mentioned in Esther 8: 15. of fine linen, purple in colour, and enriched with gold; the other resembled a triangle in form, being pointed at the top, though not always made in the same way; it is denominated in Dan. 3: 21, N:3-2 and in the Greek zigguous and xvgBaola. Josephus speaks of a piece of cloth, which was rolled round the head exterior to the mitre, Antiq. Bk. III. ch. 7. § 3. and 7; but of this article of head-dress it is not clear, that there is any express mention made in Scripture. We must suppose, therefore, it was introduced at a late period, certainly after the captivity. The Hebrew word *::: was applied to the mitres in common use worn by both sexes; the word Hoz; to the mitres of priests, which were of greater height, Exod. 28:40. 29. 9. 39; 28. The mitre of the high priest, called ne:xx, was distinguished from that of the priests by a plate of gold bound in front of it. The mitres worn by princes and illustrious men, were the same with those of the priests and the high priests, Exod. 28; 4,37. 29. 6. 39:31. Lev. 8: 9. 16:4. In the progress of time new and more elegant headdresses, called -se, were introduced, and were common to both sexes. The phrase H-ser nonex and the word no--ex mean a head dress or turban of much splendour ; the words on!: and Hot:

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