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§ 127. of the veil. 141
mean a diadem, and not a mitre. Both men and women, as is now common in the East, remained with their heads covered both at prayers and in the temple.
§ 127. Of the Veil.
The difference between the dress of the men and the women was small. It consisted chiefly in the fineness of the materials and in the length of the garment. The dress of the hair in the two sexes was different, as already observed, and another mark of distinction was, that the women wore a veil. This distinction of dress, small as it was, was the ground of the command, prohibiting the assumption by one sex of the dress, which was appropriate to the other, Deut. 22:5. All females, excepting maidservants and others in a low condition in life, wore the veil, nor did they ever lay it aside, except in the presence of servants and those relations, with whom nuptials were interdicted, Lev. xviii. comp. Koran 24; 34. 33:54. This custom in regard to the veil still prevails in the East. When journeying, the ladies threw the veil over the hinder part of the head, but if they saw a man approaching they restored it to its original position, Gen. 24: 65. When at home they did not speak with a guest, without being veiled and in the presence of maids. They never entered the guest's chamber, but standing at the door, made known to the servant what they wanted, 2 K. 4: 13. This is observed to be the ease in Homer. It scarcely needs to be observed, that prostitutes went unveiled. Tamar, who was one of that class, assumed a veil merely for the purpose of concealing herself from her father in law Judah. The position, which some maintain from Gen. 20: 16. viz. that virgins did not wear the veil, is not clear from that passage and is the less so, when the fact is taken into consideration, that the custom of modern orientals is an evidence, that they did. In Asia there are various kinds of veils in use, which correspond with those mentioned in the Bible. Like the matrons of the East at the present day, those of antiquity used veils of four kinds.
I. T.T. It somewhat resembled the hood of the French country women, covering the top of the head and extending down behind the back, Cant. 5: 7. Is. 3: 23.
142 § 128. STAFF, seAL, AND RINGs.
II. Hog. This covered the breast, neck, and chin to the nose, Cant. 4: 1, 3.. 6: 7. Is. 47: 2.
III. Hoz". It hung down from the eyes over the face, [called in the English version mufflers, Is. 3. 19.
IV. The fourth kind of veil received different names, viz. Hetoo for the fashion of the winter, and Hrieto for that of the summer. It covered the whole body from the top of the head to the sole of the foot, Is. 3:22. Ruth 3: 15. Gen. 38: 14.
V. Foxx, or the double veil, in as much as it fulfilled the office of two other veils, covering the top of the head, and falling down both behind and before. It was so large, that in many countries the matrons who wore it dispensed with any other.
VI. Eveo, a thin gauze-like fabric, [denominated in the English version a caul.) which was used as a veil, comp. the corresponding Arabic. The phrase, boy nobz, Gen. 20: 16. probably does not mean a veil; perhaps the reading as Michaelis conjectures, should be toy natz, that is, the fine or punishment of the eyes, viz. of Abimelech. What sort of a veil it is, called in the Greek of the New Testament Šovola ini trig reqaims, is not known, 1 Cor. 11: 10.
§ 128. StAFF, SEAL, AND RINGs.
The Hebrews bore a staff, Htoo, Epo, &c. not only the traveller, as a help to him on his journey, but others also, who, like the Babylonians, must necessarily have carried one merely for ornament, and not for any positive benefit, Exod. 12; 11. Gen. 38: 18, 25. The Hebrews wore also in imitation of the Babylonians a seal or signet, Erin, which was suspended from the neck over the breast, Gen. 38; 18. Cant. 8: 6. Hag. 2:23. Sometimes merely the name of the owner, and sometimes an additional sentence was engraved upon the signet. If a door or box was to be sealed, it was first fastened with some ligament, over which was placed some clay or wax, which then received an impression from the seal or signet. Frequently a ring, with some inscription upon it, was used as a seal, by a delivery or transfer of which, from a monarch, the highest offices of the kingdom were created, Gen. 41: 42. Est. 3: 10, 12. 8: 2. Jer. 22: 24. Dan. 6: 10. 13:17. Rings, from the circumstance of their being employed for the same purpose as seals, were called niyat, which is derived from a verb, signify§ 130. Necklaces, bracelets, etc. 143
ing to imprint, and also to seal; they were worn commonly as an ornament on a finger of the right hand, Is. 22: 24. Exod. 35:22: Luke 15:22. James 2: 2.
The ladies wore a number of rings upon their fingers, also pendants in the ear and nose, Gen. 24:22. oxod. 32: 2,3. 35:22. Is. 3: 21. Ezek. 16: 12. The rings were made of silver, gold, or other metal according to the person's property; the pendants also, which sometimes, however, consisted of pearls merely, suspended by a thread. When the pendants were of gold, they were denominated too, when of precious stones, niro, Num, 31:50. Ezek. 16: 12. Ear-pendants may be seen sculptured out on the ruins of Persepolis, for they were worn by men as well as women, among other nations. But this was not often the case among the Hebrews, Pliny II. 50. Judg. 8:24. The women also wore rings of silver and gold and other materials around the ankles, Hebrew pre-2. The rings of the two ankles were sometimes connected with each other by a chain, called ni-tos; perhaps the chain was comprehended also under the name above given for the rings, Is. 3: 18.
§ 130. Necklaces, BRAcelets, Etc.
The dress of the ladies in the East was always expensive, Gen. 24; 22, 23, 53. Num. 31:50. Is. 3: 16–26. Ezek. 16; 10. et seq. They wear at the present day, as formerly, not only rings and pendants, but necklaces, bracelets, &c. These ornaments were worn also in some cases by distinguished men, as a present from the monarch, as may be seen on the Persepolitan figures, Gen. 41. 42. Prov. 3: 3, 22. 6: 21. Cant. 1: 11. Dan. 5: 7. Necklaces and bracelets were made, sometimes of silver and gold, sometimes of a series of jewels, sometimes of coral, too, Num. 31:50. Exod. 35:22. Three necklaces were commonly worn, one reaching lower than the other; from the one, that was suspended to the waist, there was hung a bottle of perfume, filled with amber and musk, called in Is. 3:20. ce: *nz, Half-moons also of silver and gold were suspended in this way, as may be inferred from the
144 § 133. PURSE AND NAPKiN.
5 d > word to:hop itself, comp. . With these the Arabians ornamented the necks of their camels, Is. 3: 18. Judg. 8:21, 26.
§ 131. Amulets, niet; it.
The orientals from the earliest ages have believed in the influence of the stars, in incantations, and other magic arts. To defend themselves against them, they wore amulets, which consisted of precious stones, gems, gold, and sometimes of pieces of parchment, written over with some inscription. The small gold effigies of serpents, coro, which the Hebrew women carried about in their hands were amulets, and like the others, while they served to keep off incantations, served none the less for ornament, Is, 3:20. Exod. 38; 8.
Mirrors were made of molten brass polished ; hence they were called to:*::, or shining. In Job 37: 18, the heavens are compared to a molten mirror. The ladies carried their mirrors in their hands. Their chambers were not ornamented with them, but the chamber doors latterly were made of a polished stone, in which objects might be obscurely seen, I Cor. 13: 12.
§ 133. Purse AND NAPKIN.
A man's girdle fulfilled for him all the purposes of a purse. The purse of a lady, which was made of solid metal, sometimes of pure gold, and fashioned like a cone with a border of rich cloth at the top, was suspended from the girdle which she wore ; these purses were called in Hebrew Ere--n, Is. 3:22. 2 K. 5:23. Both sexes either wore napkins attached to their girdle, or bore them upon the hand or left arm ; those of the rich and powerful were valuable and ornamented with embroidery. They were frequently employed to carry things in, and were wrapped around the heads of those who had departed from life, Luke 19:20. John 11:44. The aprons so called in Acts 19: 12. were a sort of napkin, which were
placed round the neck for the purpose of receiving the sweat.
§ 135. DREss at Festivals, Etc. 145
§ 134. PAINTING AND BRANDING on SEALING.
Various kinds of painting have been practised by all nations in all ages. It is our object, however, at the present time, only to speak of that mode of painting, which in the Bible is denominated
#2, and in the Arabic 5 c. o The principal material used in this mode of painting, the object of which is to communicate a dark tint to the eyebrows, is a sort of black lead, which is found to be used throughout all the East as far as India. It is applied to the eyebrews by a silver instrument, so as to give them the appearance of being very long, which is esteemed a great ornament, 2 K. 9:30. Jer. 4:30. Ezek. 23:40. The paint, which is prepared from the ashes of the plant Alkanet, and which is used by oriental matrons to communicate a yellow colour to the arms and feet, and a tint of redness to the nails, though very ancient, is not mentioned in the Bible; a mere allusion to it occurs in Jer. 2:22, under the word cr:. The red paint in use among the Roman matrons, which was spread upon the idols on festival days, is mentioned in the book of Wisdom, 13: 14. A custom, which prevailed in the East anciently, and which is connected with this subject, has been perpetuated in that region even to our day : viz. that whoever visited a temple should either devote himself to some god, or brand the image of the temple or the name of the god on his right arm. This custom as far as concerned the Hebrews was interdicted in Lev. 19:28, but the words ‘branding,” “marking,' and ‘sealing,' frequently occur with a tropical signification, Gal. 6: 17. Ephes. 1: 13. Rev. 7:4,8. 14:1–5. 13:17, 18. Ezek. 9:2–12.
§ 135. DRess AT Festivals ANd on Occasions of Mourning.
The festival dress was very splendid, it was white, and as of ten as the festival returned, was newly washed and perfumed with myrrh, cassia, and aloes, Gen. 27:27. Ps. 45:8. Cant 4:11. It was worn on the festivals of the family, of the state, and of religion, but when the festival was over, it was laid aside. The splendid garments of festivals were denominated in Hebrew For Hop, wop "non, &c. Vast expense was bestowed upon them both as respected their quality and number, 2 K. 5: 5. Matt. 10:10. James