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§ 331. of the TABLE of shew-BREAD. 421

golden snuffers, boro, and carried away the filth, that might have gathered upon them, in golden vessels made for that purpose, ninnz. The weight of the whole candlestick was a talent or one hundred and twenty five pounds, Exod. 25: 31–40. 27:20. 37: 17 –24. Lev. 24: 1–4. Num. 4: 9.

§331. Of the Table of SHEw-BREAD.

In the first apartment of the Tabernacle also, on the North side, was a Table, jog, made of acacia wood ; two cubits long, one broad, and one and a half high, and covered over with laminae of gold. The top or leaf of this table was encircled with a border, or rim of gold. The frame of the table, immediately below the leaf, was encircled with a piece of wood, not?, of about four inches in breadth, around the edge of which there was a rim or border, -i, the same, as around the leaf. A little lower down, but at equal distances from the top of the Table, there were four rings of gold, fastened to the legs of it, through which staves covered with gold, were placed, for the purpose of carrying it, Exod. 25: 23–2S. 37: 10–16. The rings here mentioned, any noszt, were not found in the table of shew-bread, which was afterwards made for the Temple, nor indeed in any of the sacred furniture, where they had previously been, except in the Ark of the covenant. Twelve unleavened loaves were placed upon this table, which were sprinkled over with frankincense, and, it is stated in the Alexandrine version, (Lev. 24; 7.) with salt likewise. They were placed in two piles, one above another, were changed every sabbath day by the priests, and were called to bri; the bread of the face, because it was exhibited before the face or throne of Jehovah, For pro the bread arranged in order, and or pro the perpetual bread, Lev. 24: 6, 7. 1 Chron. 23:29. WINe was placed upon the table in bowls, some larger, ni-sp, and some smaller, niez, also in a sort of vessels, that were covered, nipp, and in cups, no-p:”, which were employed in pouring in and taking out the wine from the other vessels, Exod, 25: 29, 30. 37: 10–16. 40: 4, 24. Lev. 24: 5–9. Num. 4: 7.

422 $333. Ask of the coven ANT IN THE Holy of Holies.

§ 332. The ALTAR of INCENse.

The altar or incense, not oppo rain, was situated between the Table of shew-bread and the golden candlestick, towards the veil, which enclosed the interiour apartment of the Tabernacle, or the Holy of holies. It was constructed of shittim or acacia wood, a cubit long and broad, and two high. It was ornamented at the four corners, and overlaid throughout with laminae of gold. Hence it was called the golden altar, Eri1 roto, also the interiour altar, "r"::: nzo, in contradistinction from the altar for the victims, which was in the large court.

The upper surface of this altar, 33, was encirled by a border, no, and on each of the two sides, were fastened at equal distances, two rings for the admission of the rods of gold, by which it was carried. Incense was offered on this altar daily, morning and evening, a description of which is given in Exod. 30: 34–37. comp. Exod. 30: 1–10. 37:25–29. 40:5, 26. Josephus, Antiquities, III. 6, 8. Jewish War, W. 3: 5.

§ 333. Ark of the Coven ANT IN the Holy of Holies.

The Ark of the Covenant, no-iri ji-s, nator; 15-s, li zoorós is daoxns, was deposited in that part of the Tabernacle, called the Holy of holies, a place so secluded, that the light of day never found an entrance within it. It was a box of an oblong shape, made of shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high, and two cubits long, and covered on all sides with the purest gold. It was ornamented on its upper surface with a border or rim of gold, and on each of the two sides, at equal distances from the top, were two gold rings, in which were placed, (to remain there perpetually,) the staves of gold, by which the Ark was carried, and which continued with it, after it was deposited in the Temple. It was so situated in the Holy of holies, that the ends of the rods touched the ceil, which separated the two apartments of the Tabernacle, Exod. 25: 10–15. 37: 1–9. 1 K. 8:8.

The lid or corer of the Ark, nnez, incorriguov, onlènua, was of the same length, and breadth, and made of the purest gold.

Over it, at the two extremities, were two Cherubim, with

§ 334. Respecting the Holy LAND. 423

their faces turned towards each other, and inclined a little to the lid, [otherwise called the mercy-seat.] Their wings, which were spread out over the top of the ark, formed the throne of God, the king, while the ark itself was his footstool.

There was nothing within the ark, excepting the two Tables of stone, on which were inscribed the TEN FUNDAMENTAL LAws of the Jewish religion and commonwealth.

A quantity of MANNA was laid up beside the ark, in a vase of gold, nixx, Exod. 17:32, 86; also the rod of Aaron, Num. 17: 10. and a copy of the Books of Moses, Deut. 31: 26.

Note. It is stated, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, that the altar of incense was placed in the interiour apartment of the Tabernacle or Holiest of all, and that the rod of Aaron, and the vase of MANNA were deposited within the ark of the covenant. The writer of this Epistle, (even supposing Paul was not the author of it,) gives far too decided indications of his erudition, to permit us to suppose, that he was ignorant of the statements in Exod. 16:33, 34. Num. 17: 10. and 1 K. 8:9. The assertions, therefore, to which we have referred, are to be considered the errours of the person, who translated the Epistle from the Hebrew into the Greek.

§ 334. Respecting the Holy LAND.

The cAMPs of the Hebrews participated, in some degree, in that sacredness, which attached itself to the tabernacle, Deut. 23: 13–15. Lev. 13:46. This idea of consecration and holiness became connected afterwards with the country of the Hebrews itself, which had formerly been consecrated to the true God by the patriarchs in the erection of altars, and was now the residence of the only true religion, Exod. 15: 16, 2 Macc. 1:7.

The more recent Jews assigned different degrees of holiness, etc. to different regions, the highest to the countries occupied by Moses and Joshua, and the least to the regions, subdued by David. As to all other lands and districts, they considered them profane, the very dust of which would contaminate a Jew, Matt. 10: 14. Acts 18: 51. 18; 6. That place or town was considered peculiarly holy, the most so of any other, in which the Tabernacle was fix424 § 335. of JERUsALEM the Holy city.

ed and the Ark of the covenant. For instance, Gilgal, and afterwards Shiloh, a city situated on a pleasant mountain, twenty three miles north of Jerusalem, in the tribe of Ephraim, Josh. 18: 1, 8, 9. Judg. 20: 1. 1 Sam. 1: 3–24. 2: 14. 3:3—21. 4: 3, 4, 13–18.7: 5. 10: 17. The tabernacle, during the reign of Saul, was removed to Nob, between Arimathaea and Joppa, six and a quarter miles north of Jerusalem, and was afterwards conveyed to Gibeon, 1 Chron. 16: 39–43, 2 Chron. 1: 2–6, 13. 1 K. 3: 5–9. The ark of the covenant was taken, in the time of Eli, from the tabernacle, and carried into the army, was captured by the Philistines, and afterwards sent back to the city of Kirjathjearim, situated on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, and nine miles west of Jerusalem, 1 Sam. 6: 20. 7: 2. It remained there, till it was carried back nearly seventy years after, to mount Zion by David, 2 Sam. 6: 1– 20. 1 Chron. 13: 1–14. 15: 1–16. It was at last removed by Solomon into the temple, 1 K. 8: 1–9. 2 Chron. 5: 2–20.

§ 335. Of Jerus ALEM, the Holy City.

After this time, viz. the erection of the temple, and the removal of the ark into it, Jerusalem was called the city of God, t"Hoss" -"s; the holiest dwelling-place of the Most High, Tozozo top; and the holy city, rip-ox, Ps. 46:3. Is 48. 2. Dan. 9: 24.; by which last title, it is mentioned on the coins of the Maccabean age ; and it is thus called throughout the East, at the present day, by the Mohamedans. It was situated on the southern boundary of the tribe of Benjamin, in latitude 31°50, Josh. 15: 8, 18:26–28. Judg. 1:21. It is thirty seven miles distant from the Mediterranean, and twenty three from the Jordan. See Reland's Palestine, P.I. B. II. p. 423. THE Holy city was situated on three hills, and was bounded on three sides, by vallies, viz. on the East, West, and South, but on the North, there was merely a steep declivity. The most lofty of these hills was Zion, otherwise called the city of DAvid. The hill of Moria was situated to the East of Zion, and was separated from it by a deep valley intervening. Upon this hill, the Temple was built. There was a third hill of less elevation, than either of those,

§ 335. of JERUsALEM THE Holy city. 425

which have been mentioned, situated to the North and separated from Moria and Zion by a valley. It has been named in modern times Acra. In the time of Christ, there was a suburb to the North of the city, called Beoba, Nnor noz, zatvánolus, which was at length enclosed with walls by king Agrippa. Both Zion and Acra had walls of their own, distinct from the great city wall, and the hill of Moria was encircled likewise by the wall of the temple. The circumference of the city, in the time of Josephus, was about four miles and an eighth, Jewish War, W. 4, 3. At the bottom of mount Moria, to the South east, flowed the fountain Siloam or Siloe, roup ls. 8: 6. Neh. 3: 15. John 9:7, 11. Luke 13: 4; the only fountain, whose waters gladdened the city. On the borders of this stream were the gardens of the Kings, and, so late as the time of Jerome, the valley through which it passed, was rendered delightful by shady groves. See his Commentary on Matt. x. This commentator observes further, in his remarks on Jeremiah xiv. and Isaiah S: 6, that Siloe does not flow regularly, but only on certain days and hours, when it bursts forth through the crevices of the earth, and from rocky caves, with much violence and with surprising noise. The hill Ophel appears to have been not far from this stream, Josephus, Jewish War, W. 4, 1. Both the valley, which separates the city on the East from the much more lofty mount of Olives, and the winter-torrent, which flows through it, were called by the common name of CEDRon, 1-p Keögoiv, Josephus, Jewish War, W. 6, 1. To the South of the city is the valley of the son of Hinnom, to 13 "a, in which was the place called Tophet, nen, rendered famous on account of the immolation of children, which was witnessed there. To the West, is the valley of Gihon, Torra, which is less deep, however, than that of Hinnom, 1 K. 1:33, 38. 2 Chron. 33: 14. 32: 30. The approach of an army to the city, from either of these three vallies, was difficult. It was, therefore, commonly attacked on the North. Golgotha or co, in Syriac Nrisiałł, in Chaldaic

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