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426 § 336. Mount MoRIAH.
Nro and n:#a, was situated out of the city, Matt. 27:33. Mark 15:23. John 19: 17. According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was to the North of Zion. Hence the hill, which is now situated in the middle of the city of Jerusalem, and on which is shown to the pilgrim the pretended tomb of the Saviour, cannot be the place, where he was buried. What is said in opposition to this conclusion, viz. that the city as it now exists, is built in a different place from what it was formerly, can be admitted only so far as this, that the hill of Zion and Bezetha are excluded from it, but it does not prove, that the city has extended North and West, more than it did originally, and thereby taken in the hill of Calvary, which could not be well done, on account of the vallies. This statement in respect to Calvary solves some difficulties in the account of the resurrection of Christ.
Many of the gates of the city are indeed mentioned, but the situation of almost all of them is difficult to be precisely ascertained.
$ 336. Mount Moriah.
Mount MoRIAH, on which, agreeably to the last wishes of king David, the Temple was erected, about the year 592 after the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt, was an abrupt ascent, the summit of which was so small, that it did not extend base sufficient for the courts and appendages of the sacred edifice, Josephus, Jewish War, V. 5, 1. It was with the view to remedy the evil, which was thus occasioned, by giving a greater extent to this eminence, that Solomon raised a wall of square stones, along the vallies, which encircled it, and filled up the intervening space between the wall and the acclivity of the hill with earth, Josephus Antiquities, XV. 11, 2.
After the Captivity, the Hebrews continued gradually to increase the extent of this hill for many ages; they moved back the wall on the North, and on the South and West also erected walls of immense square stones from the lowest parts of the vallies, so as at last to render the top of the hill a furlong square. The smallest altitude of the walls was four hundred and fifty feet, the greatest, viz. in the southern direction, six hundred.
Josephus, who makes these statements, is not always consistent § 337. of the TEMPLE or solomon. 427
with himself; but, on this point, we do no wish at present to enter into a discussion. Compare the History of the Jewish War, W. 5, 1. with the same Work I. 21, 1. W. 5, 6, and Jewish Antiquities, VIII.3, 9. XV. 11, 3. XX. 9, 7.
§ 337. Of the Temple of Solomon.
THE suMMIT of Moriah, the extent of which had been increased, as has already been seen, by a wall built around, and which was encircled on the Eastern, and probably on all sides with a gallery or portico, was divided into the great or exteriour court, onxrïr. His"rri, and the interiour court, non-grin otherwise called the court before the temple ran op- -ps *xrri, called also the court of the priests, borori - xn, 1 K. 6: 36. 7: 12. 2 K. 23: 12. 2 Chron. 4: 9. 20: 5. Ezek. 40: 28. Whether these two courts were separated from each other by a wall, or merely by a sort of latticed fence or trellis, does not clearly appear, for the description of the temple, as it is given in 1 K. 6: 1–38. 7: 13–51. and 2 Chron. 3: 1–4, 22. is a very concise one. This, however, is evident in respect to this subject, that the new court, so called, Horri oriri, mentiond in 2 Chron. 20: 5. was not a third court, but the second or interiour one, newly repaired. There were various buildings, and apartments, ni-po, in which provisions were kept, also the vases and other utensils, which belonged to the temple; and some of which, were occupied likewise by the priests and Levites, while they were employed there, in the fulfilment of their sacred duties, 1 Chron. 9:26, 33. 23:28. 28: 12. 2 Chron. 31: 12. Jer. 35:2, 4. 36:10. The ALTAR in the interiour court or the court of the priests was built of unhewn stones, for Moses expressly forbade any others to be used; it was covered, like that in the tabernacle, with brass, although it was not built with the same dimensions, it being twenty cubits long and broad, and ten high, 2 Chron. 4: 1, 10. The vases, and other utensils, belonging to this ALTAR, were much more numerous, than in the tabernacle, 1 K. 7:40–47. The very large BRAzen LAver, called the molten sea Psan by was an hemisphere, ten cubits in diameter, five deep, and thirty in circumference. It could contain three thousand baths, and was 428 § 338. The sanctuary of solomon's temple.
adorned on its upper edge with figures, that resembled lilies in bloom. But, although it held the large number of baths, which have been mentioned, it was commonly supplied with only two thousand, 2 Chron. 4:3—5. 1 K. 7:26.
It was enriched with various ornamental figures, and rested on the back of twelve oxen, three facing to the North, and three to the East, and the others in the opposite directions.
There were, in addition to the brazen sea, ten smaller brazen lavers nipro rino, which were also set off with various ornaments, five on the North, and five on the South side of the count. They rested on bases and wheels of brass, were each four cubits in circumference, and held forty baths. The flesh of the victims, that were sacrificed, was washed in these lavers, 1 K. 7: 27–39. 2 Chron. 4: 6.
§ 338. The SANCTUARy of Solomon's TEMPLE.
The sanctuary, noz, $ori, no on, d vaos, was sixty cubits long, twenty broad, and thirty high, with the exception of the part called the sanctissimuM or Most Holy, the height of which was only twenty cubits; so that there remained a room above it of ten cubits in height. The windows, tops prepo or appear to have been latticed, 1 K. 6: 2–4. In front of the sanctuary, was the porch irgowads, toos, an hundred and twenty cubits high, twenty broad from North to South, and ten long from East to West, 1 K. 6: 3. 2 Chron. 3:4. Two columns of brass were erected near the entrance of this Porch; each twelve cubits in circumference. The one to the North was called To JAchin ; the other, which was to the South, was called to Boaz. The height of the shafts of these columns was eighteen cubits; of the capitals, ni-ro, five cubits; and of the base, thirteen cubits, making the whole altitude thirty six. If in 1 K. 25: 17, the capitals are said to be only three cubits in height, the reason of it probably was, that their altitude had been diminished, in the repairing, at some time, of the Temple. These pillars were profusely ornamented with carved representations of leaves, pomegranates, etc. were hollow within, and
§ 338. The sanctuary of solomon's temple. 429
the brass of which they were made, was a hand's breadth in thickness, 1 K. 7: 15–20. 2 Chron. 3: 15–17. A gallery extended along the sides of the sanctuary, with the exception of the Eastern, which was three stories high, was constructed of beams and planks, and to which there was an ascent on the South side, by a flight of winding stairs, book, I K. 6: 5, 6, 8. The sanctuary itself was constructed of square stones, but was covered with boards of cedar, within and without, in which a variety of ornamental figures were carved out, and which were over-laid with laminae of gold. The passage into the Porch, agovods, was very lofty and broad, but it was merely an open entrance, without any door. The entrance into the sanctuary, on the contrary, was closed by a valve or folding door, made of the oleAster or wild olive, which was ornamented with specimens of carved work in the shape of cherubim, palms, and flowers, was covered with gold, and turned on golden hinges, 1 K. 6: 33–35. The door, that opened into the sanctissimum or Holy of Holies, which was a pentagon in point of form, was adorned and enriched, in the same way, with that of the sanctuary, 1 K. 6: 31, 32. Both doors were covered with a veil of linen, wrought with embroidery, 2 Chron. 3:14. Within the sanctuary was the altar of incense, overlaid with gold, ten tables, also overlaid with gold, and ten golden candlesticks, five of each on the North, and five on the South side. On these tables were placed not only twelve loaves, but also an hundred golden cups. The other vessels of the sanctuary likewise were more numerous, than in the tabernacle, 1 K. 7: 48–50. 2 Chron. 4: 19–22. The ark of the covenant was deposited in the Holy of holies. Its position was such, that the staves, by which it was carried, and which were somewhat long, touched the veil; from which circumstance, it may be inferred, that the door of this apartment stood open, 1 K. 8:8. 2 Chron. 5: 9. Near the ark, were two cherubim, made of the wood of the wild-olive, and covered with gold. Each of which was ten cubits high, and each extended one of its wings over the ark, to the middle of it, and the other to the wall, 1 K. 6: 23–28. 2 Chron. 3. 10–13.
430 339. OF THE TEMPLE of zERUBBABEL.
Note I. The description of the Temple of Solomon, which is given in the Books of Kings and Chronicles, is silent on many points, which, in the age, in which those Books were written, could be learnt without difficulty from other sources. In various places also, the account appears to have suffered from the carelessness of transcribers. Hence the statements, in 1 K. v1—v11. and 2 Chron. III—iv. do not every where agree. It will, therefore, be readily seen, that, it is not possible to give, in every respect, a perfect idea of this edifice. When viewed, as the work of very early times, and in reference to the notions, which then prevailed, Solomon's temple may be considered magnificent, but it ought not to be compared with more recent specimens of architecture.
Note II. Cherubim, bono, were figures of a wonderful form, which sustained the chariot of thunders or throne of God. They had four faces, and as many wings and hands; and their feet, which projected down straight, had hoofs, like an ox, Ezek. 1. Cherubim of such a form could not be fully represented on embroidered work, and it would seem, from the account, which is given of them, that the golden cherubim, which spread their wings over the ark of the covenant, were different in shape from those, which have now been described. Perhaps, therefore, this class of beings existed in different forms. The meaning of these symbolic representations, I have explained in my treatise on Hermeneutics,
§ 20. p. 59, 60.
§ 339. Of The TEMPLE of ZERUBBABEL.
This TEMPLE was commenced under the direction of Zerubbabel, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity, in the year 535 before Christ. The work had no sooner been begun, than it experienced an interruption of fifteen years, but was resumed again in the year 520 before Christ, and completed in the year 515, Ezek. 3: 8, 9.4:4–24. 5: 1–6, 21.
According to the decree, which was given by Cyrus, (Ezra 6. 3, 4.) its height and breadth were sixty cubits each; and we may, therefore, suppose the length, which was either never mentioned, or has fallen out from the text, to have been, (in order to maintain the proportion,) 120 or 180 cubits. But the old men,