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36 § 48. of Asses.

abundance of milk was the natural consequence, and swarms of bees, more numerous than usual, enjoyed a more free and undisturbed opportunity to gather their honey, comp. Isa. 7: 15.

Note. Wild animals of the ox-kind are not mentioned in the Bible. The animals, which are called -oorn, and Ex-, E-, are a species of the Gazelle or wild goat, which, because they bear some resemblance to them, are called by the Arabs, wild oxen.

$48. Of Asses.

Asses, Eonor, nor. She Asses, no-ons, jinx. The latter are considered the most valuable on account of the colts, noz, bono, and in the enumerations of animals, they are mentioned separately. The Nomades possess great numbers of these animals, and, in the East, if rightly trained up, they are not only patient and diligent, but active, beautiful in appearance, and ignoble in no respect. They are esteemed very highly, and their name is used tropically in the Scriptures, for active and industrious men, Gen. 49: 14. Their colour is red, inclining to a brown, to which the name, horri, is an allusion. Some are party-coloured, Judg. 5: 10. ni-ins, unless perchance, such are painted; for the Orientals to this day are in the habit of painting their horses and oxen. They are employed in ploughing, in drawing carts, and in turning mills, to which Matt. 18; 6, is an allusion. Moses, Deut. 22: 10, passed a law, that the ass and ox should not be used together in ploughing. Commonly the asses bear their burden, whether men or packages, on their backs; a mode of service to which they are peculiarly fitted.

Anciently princes and great men rode on asses, Gen. 22:3, 5. Num. 22:21, 30. Jos. 15: 18. Judg. 1: 14. 5: 10. 10:4. 12: 14. 1 Sam. 25: 20, 23. 2 Sam. 17:23. 19:26. 1 Kgs. 2:40. 13: 13. 2 Kgs. 4:22, 24. Zech. 9:9, Matt. 21:1–7. Luke 19:29–36. John 12:12–16. Horses were destined almost exclusively for war; and all classes, in time of peace, made use of asses for the purposes of conveyance, the great as well as those in obscure life. They were guided by a rein placed in the mouth, in Hebrew - or war, translated to saddle the ass, Gen. 22:3. Num. 22: 21. Judg. 19:10. 2 Sam. 16: 1. 17: 23. The saddle was merely a piece of cloth, thrown over the back of the animal, § 49. cAMELs. 57

on which the rider sat. The servant followed after with a staff, when the ass had no rider, and applied it, when there was necessity, to quicken the celerity of his movements, Judg. 19. 3. 2 K. 4: 24. Prov. 26: 3.

Note I. Mules, bone, or, are spoken of in the age of David, 1 Chron. 12:40. Ps. 32: 9. 2 Sam. 18; 9, 10. 13:25. 1 K. 1: 33. Probably they were known much earlier, even in the time of Moses. The word pool, Gen. 36:24, is not to be translated mules, as is commonly done, but “warm baths.” Mules appear to have been brought to the Hebrews from other nations, and in the recent periods of their history, we find, that the more valuable ones came from Togarmah or Armenia, Ezek. 27: 14. The bororis, or great mules of Persia, celebrated for their swiftness, the mothers of which were mares, are mentioned, Esth. 8: 10.

Note II. There are great numbers of wild asses in the East. Two species are worthy of observation, the one called Dsigetai; the other, Kulan. The latter are supposed to have sprung from domestic asses, who, as occasions had presented, acquired their freedom. They are a fearful animal, and swift in flight, but can be tamed, if taken when young, Job 11: 12. 24: 5. 39: 5–8. Dan. 5:21. That the Hebrew word Not means the Dsigetai, and the word *-x, the Kulan species, can neither be reconciled with the use of the Arabic, nor with Job 39: 5. They must be considered merely as separate names for the same species. These animals are of a fine figure and rapid in motion; they frequent desert places and flee far from the abodes of men. The females herd together, and are headed by a male. When the latter is slain, the former are scattered and wander about separately, Hos. 8:9. They feed on the mountains and in salt vallies, Job 39: 8. Their organs of smelling, which are very acute, enable them to scent waters at a great distance. Hence travellers, who are destitute of water, are accustomed to follow them, Ps. 104: 11. Is. 32: 14. Jer, 14:6.

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They are of two kinds. The one is the Turkish or Bactrian,

distinguished by two protuberances on the back. This kind is

large and strong, carrying from eight to fifteen hundred pounds, 58 § 49. CAMELs.

but is impatient of the heat. The other kind, called the dromedary or Arabian camel, has but one bunch on the back, is more rapid in its movement, and endures the heat better, than the large camel. It is denominated in Heb. -zz, H-Ez, and ni-3-2, Is. 60: 6. 66: 20. Jer. 2: 23. Camels require but little food, and endure thirst from sixteen to forty days. They are particularly fitted for those vast deserts, which are destitute of water ; are kept in great numbers by the Nomades, and the Arab is esteemed of a secondary rank, who is not the possessor of them, Gen. 24: 10, 64. 31: 17. 1 Chron. 5: 19—21. Jer. 49: 29, comp. 1 Sam. 30: 17. 1 K. 10: 2. Is. 30: 6. Ezek. 25. 4. They are used for the transportation of every description of packages, and burdens of every sort, Gen. 37: 25. Judg. 6: 5. 1 Chron. 12:40. 2 Chron. 14: 15. 2 K. S. 9. Is. 30:6. Men rode upon them very often, 1 Sam. 30; 17. When they are loaded, and set out upon a journey, they follow one after another, seven together. The second is fastened to the first by a woollen string, the fourth to the third, and so on. The servant leads the first one, and is informed by the tinkling of a bell, attached to the neck of the last one, whether they all continue their march. The seven camels thus connected together, are called box roep, which is badly rendered by the Vulgate, “inundatio camelorum,” Is. 60: 6. The riders either ride as on a horse, with the feet suspended, the one on one side and the other on the other; or, when two go together, sit upon baskets, which are thrown across the animal, so as to balance each other. Some

9 times they travel in a covered vehicle, -2, le= which is secured on the back of the camel, and answers the purpose of a small house. It is often divided into two apartments, and the traveller, who can sit in either of them, is enabled also to carry some little furniture with him. These conveyances are protected by veils, which are not rolled up, except in front; so that the person within has the privilege of looking out, while he is himself concealed. They are used chiefly by the women, rarely by the men, Gen. 31: 17. If the rider wishes to descend, the camel does not kneel as on other occasions, but the rider takes hold of the servant's staff and by the aid of it alights, Gen. 24: 64. The camels, on which the rich are carried, are adorned with splendid chains and crescents, poor, Judg. 8:21, 26.


§ 50. HoRses. 59

The Nomades understand how to turn to profitable purpose all the parts of animals of this kind. They drink the milk, though it is thick. When it has become acid, it inebriates, Judg. 4: 19, 5:25. They feed upon the flesh, a privilege, which was interdicted to the Hebrews, Lev. 11:4. The hair, which is shed every year, was manufactured into coarse cloth, and constituted the clothing of the poorer class of people, Matt. 3:4. In the Arabic language, there are many allusions made to camels, and tropes drawn from this source possess as much dignity, as those drawn from oxen do in the Hebrew. Proverbs, founded in the qualities of the camel, occur in Matt. 19: 24. 23:24.

§ 50. HoRses.

bab, Eon, Ton, wine or one, sometimes, son, 1 Sam. S. 11. 2 Sam. 1: 6. 8: 4. 10: 18. 1 Chron. 18; 4. Is. 21: 7. 28:28. The word on"ns, when applied to horses, is merely an epithet of strength. It is applied in the same way to oxen also. The Nomades of recent ages place much more value on these animals, than those did of an earlier period. We find horses first in Egypt, Gen. 47: 17. 49: 17. Exod. 9: 3. 14:6–28. Job 39:19. That country was always celebrated for them, 1 K. 10: 28. Is. 31: 1. 36: 9. Ezek. 17: 15. Joshua encountered chariots and horsemen in the north of Palestine, chap. 11:4—9. He rendered the horses useless, which he took, by cutting the hamstrings; since they would have been but of little profit in the mountains of Palestine, comp. Judg. 4: 15.5: 22, 28. Not long after, the Philistines conducted chariots into battle, Judg. 1: 19. 1 Sam. 13:5.

Anciently horses were used exclusively for the purposes of war, Prov. 21:31. Hence they are opposed to asses, which were used in times of peace, Zech. 9:9. The Hebrews first attended to the raising of horses, in the reign of Solomon. The hundred, which were reserved, 2 Sam. 8: 4. 1 Chron. 18:4, were destined for the use of David himself, whose example was imitated by Absalom, 2 Sam. 15: 1. The Psalmist frequently alludes to the mode of governing horses and to equestrian armies, Ps. 32: 9. 66: 12. 33: 17, 76:6. 147: 10. Solomon carried on a great trade in Egyptian horses. They were brought from Egypt and from Ryp, Hyp, perhaps Kua situated in Africa, 1 K. 10: 28.

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2 Chron. 1: 16, 17. A horse was estimated at about 150, and a chariot at 600 shekels. In the time of Ezekiel, the Tyrians purchased horses in Togarmah or Armenia. The Hebrews, after the time of Solomon, were never destitute of chariots and cavalry. The rider used neither stirrup nor saddle, but sat upon a piece of cloth, thrown over the back of the horse. The women rarely rode horses, but whenever they had occasion to, they rode in the same manner with the men. Horses were not shod with iron before the ninth century; hence solid hoofs were esteemed of great consequence, Amos 6: 12. Is. 5:28.

The bridle, aro, and the cavesson, joy, were used both for horses and mules, Ps. 32: 9.

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The Nomades found use for them in guarding and in driving their flocks. Frequent as these animals are in oriental cities, they are universally abhorred with the exception of the hunting dogs. Hence to be called a dog is a cutting reproach, full of bitter contempt, Job 30: 1. 1 Sam. 17:43. 2 Sam. 3: 8. 2 K. 8: 13. Prov. 26: 11. comp. Luke 16: 21. 2 Peter 2: 22. The appellation of dead dog indicates imbecility, 1 Sam. 24: 14. 2 Sam.9:8. 16:9. The reward of prostitution is called by way of contempt, dog's hire, 5.2 mono, Deut. 23: 18. The Jews in the time of Christ were accustomed to call the Gentiles dogs. The Saviour in order to abate the severity of the appellation used the diminutive ovvágua, Matt. 15:22–28. Impudent and contentious men are sometimes called dogs, Matt. 7: 6. Philip. 3: 2. Gal. 5: 15. In the East, dogs, with the exception of those employed in hunting, have no masters, wander free in the streets, and live upon the offals, which are cast into the gutters. Being often at the point of starvation, they devour corpses, and in the night attack even living men, Ps. 22: 16, 20. 59: 6, 14, 15. 1 K, 14: 11. 16:4. 21:23, 22; 38.2 K. 9:36. Jer. 15:3. They herd together in vast numbers; whenever any tumult arises in the night, they commence a terrific barking, and when the people mourn through the streets for the dead, they respond to them with their howls. Hence may be explained Exod. 11:7. 5:5; so yon-sh; comp. also Josh. 10: 21,

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