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76 § 69. vintage AND wine PREss.

veller from plucking the grapes, which he wished to eat on his way, provided he did not carry them off in a vessel.

§ 68. Culture of WiNEYARDs.

The manner of trimming the vine, no!, and also the singular instrument of the vine-dresser, Hoon, were well known even in the time of Moses, Lev. 25: 3, 4. compare Is. 2:4. 5; 6, 18; 5. Mic. 4: 3. Joel 3: 10. A vintage from new vineyards was forbidden for the first three years, Exod. 34: 26. and Num. 18: 11. and the grapes also of the fourth year were consecrated to sacred purposes; the vines therefore, without doubt, during these first years, were so pruned, as that few sprouts remained. On the fifth year when they were first profaned, ori, i. e. put to common use, they had become sturdy and exuberant. Pruning at three several times, viz, in March, April, and May, is mentioned not only by Bochart, but by Pliny; and Homer speaks of it as a thing well known, Odyss. vii. 120. The Hebrews dug, Prz, their vineyards, and gathered out the stones, $p. 3. The young vines, unless trees were at hand, were wound around stakes ; and around those vines which ran on the ground were dug narrow trenches in a circular form, to prevent the wandering shoots from mingling with each other. These practices in the cultivation of the vine are to be duly considered in those allegories, which are drawn from vineyards, Is.

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The vintage, -"sz, in Syria, commences about the middle of September, and continues till the middle of November. But grapes in Palestine, we are informed, were ripe sometimes even in June and July ; which arose perhaps from a triple pruning, in which case there was also a third vintage. The first vintage was in August, which month in Num, 13:20, is called to:: ***z: "... ; the second in September, and the third in October. The grapes when not gathered were sometimes found on the vines, until November and December. The Hebrews were required to leave gleanings for the poor, Levit. 19:10.

The season of vintage was a most joyful one, Judg. 9: 27. § 69. vinTAGE AND wine-PREss. 77

Is. 16:10. Jer. 25:30. 48; 33. With shoutings on all sides, the grapes were plucked off and carried to the wine-press, Finne, Amvág, which was in the vineyard, Is. 5; 2. Zech. 14: 10. Hag. 2: 16. Matt. 21: 33. Rev. 14: 19, 20. The presses consisted of two receptacles, which were either built of stones and covered with plaster, or hewn out of a large rock. The upper receptacle, called na, as it is constructed at the present time in Persia, is nearly eight feet square and four feet high. Into this the grapes are thrown and trodden out by five men. The juice, ush-on, flows out into the lower receptacle, called ap, through a grated aperture, which is made in the side near the bottom of the upper one.

The treading of the wine-press was laborious and not very favourable to cleanliness; the garments of the persons thus employed were stained with the red juice, and yet the employment was a joyful one. It was performed with singing, accompanied with musical instruments; and the treaders, as they jumped, exclaimed, Tori, (ho up,) Is. 16:9, 10. Jer. 25:30, 48:32, 33. Figuratively, vintage, gleaning, and treading the wine-press, signified battles and great slaughters, Is. 17:6. 63; 1–3. Jer. 49. 9. Lam. 1: 15. The must, as is customary in the East at the present day, was preserved in large firkins, which were buried in the earth. The wine-cellars were not subterranean, but built upon the earth. When deposited in these, the firkins, as is done at the present time in Persia, were sometimes buried in the ground, and sometimes left standing upon it. Formerly also new wine or must was preserved in leathern bottles; and lest they should be broken by fermentation, the people were careful that the bottles should be new, Job 32: 19. Matt. 9; 17. Mark 2: 22. Sometimes the must was boiled and made into syrup, which is comprehended under the term u:31, although it is commonly rendered honey, Gen. 43: 11. 2 Chron. 31: 5. Sometimes the grapes were dried in the sun and preserved in masses, which were called Eva: "pops and bopods, 1 Sam. 25: 18. 2 Sam. 16: 1. 1 Chron. 12:40. Hosea 3: 1. From these dried grapes, when soaked in wine and pressed a second time, was manufactured sweet wine, which is also called new wine, Lion"r, yközog, Acts 2: 13.

78 § 70. GARDENs.

§ 70. GARDENs.

Culinary plants and fruit-trees were among the first objects of agriculture. Gardens, accordingly, were very ancient, and have always been numerous. By the Hebrews they were called D": A, 7A, n":ā, Hà afterwards, the Persian name bi-le, maggoeugos, paradise, was introduced. The later Hebrews were invited the more to the cultivation of gardens by the example of the Syrians, whorn Pliny extols for this species of agriculture, above all other nations.—Trees were multiplied by seeds and shoots; they were transplanted, dug around, manured, and pruned, Job 8: 16. Is. 17: 10. Grafting occurs figuratively, Rom. 11: 17, 24.—The gardens in Persia at the present day are disposed in good order; those in the Ottoman empire are very rude, displaying hardly any indications of art, except a fountain or receptacle of waters, which is never wanting.

In the scriptures, gardens are denominated from the prevalence of certain trees; as the garden of nuts, six nia, and the garden of Carthaginian apples or pomegranates, Boon biole; Cant. 6: 11. The forest of palms also, in the plain of Jericho, was only a large garden, in which other trees were interspersed among the palms, Strabo, p. 768. The modern orientals are no less fond of gardens than were the ancient Hebrews; not only because they yield the richest fruits, but because the shade is very refreshing, and the air is cooled by the waters, of which their gardens are never allowed to be destitute, 1 K. 21: 2. 2 K. 25: 4. Hos. 9: 13. Cant, 4: 13. 6: 11. Eccles. 2: 5. John 18: 1. 19:41. 20:15. The Hebrews had an attachmant to gardens as a place of burial; hence they frequently built sepulchres in them, 2 K. 9: 27. 21: 18. Mark 15:46. Matt. 26: 36. John 18: 1, 2. A pleasant region is called “a garden of God,” i.e. a region extremely pleasant. The trees which the gardens constantly displayed are often used figuratively for men. Those which are flourishing and fruitful denote good men; the unfruitful and barren, wicked men, and lofty cedars in particular are the emblems of kings, Job 29:19. Ps. 1: 3.92: 12–14. Hos. 14: 6, 7, Jer. 17: 8. Dan. 4: 10–16. Luke 23: 31. Matt. 3: 10. 7: 17–20. 12:33. Ezek. 17: 3, 4, 31: 3, 13. Indeed an assembly of men is com

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pared to a forest, and a multitude of wicked men to briers, Is. 9. 10. 10: 19, 33, 34. 11:1. Several trees, which are often mentioned in the scriptures, but not very well known, we shall now describe in a few words.

§ 71. Olive Trees.

Olive trees, Evrot, not, were a very ancient and profitable object of agriculture. Its branches as early as Gen. 8: 11, and since that time among all nations, have been a symbol of peace and prosperity. Oil is first mentioned, Gen. 28. 18. Job 24; 11. which proves the cultivation of this tree to have been very ancient. Olives in Palestine are of the best growth and afford the best oil; hence this region is often extolled on account of this tree, and especially in opposition to Egypt, which is destitute of good olives, Num. 18: 12. Deut. 7: 13. 11: 14. 12; 17. 18; 4. Land that is barren, sandy, dry and mountainous, is favourable to the production of the olive. The mount of Olives derives its name from this tree. The olive is pleasant to the view, having widely extended branches, and remaining green in winter. Its multiplied branches entitled it to become the symbol of a numerous progeny, a blessing which was attributed to the peculiar favour of God, Ps. 52; 8. 128; 3. Hos. 14:6. Jer. 11: 16, 17. It flourishes about two hundred years, and even while it is living, young olives spring up around it which occupy its place when dead; the young sprouts are called not one, Ps. 128; 3. It was customary, notwithstanding, to raise the tree from suckers, which were transplanted. It requires no other cultivation than digging the ground and pruning the branches. The fruit is very pleasant to the palate, but nearly all of it is thrown into the oil press, for the purpose of procuring the oil, of which there are sometimes one thousand pounds obtained from one tree. By means of this article, the Hebrews carried on an extensive commerce with the Tyrians, Ezek. 27: 17. comp. 1 K. 5: 11; they also sent presents of oil to the kings of Egypt, Hos. 12: 1. The berries of the olive tree were sometimes plucked or carefully shaken off by the hand, before they were ripe, Is. 17:6. 24; 13, Deut. 24; 20. If, while they were yet green, instead of being cast into the press, they were only beaten and squeezed, they yielded the best kind of oil ; it was call

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ed omphacinum, or the oil of unripe olives, and also beaten or fresh oil, nor: To not jog, Exod. 27. 20. There were presses of a peculiar make for pressing oil, called jog ra, (from which is derived the name Gethsemane, Matt. 26:36. John 18: 1.) in which the oil was trodden out by the feet, Micah 6:15. The first expression of the oil was better than the second, and the second than the third. Ripe olives yielded oil of a less valuable kind. The best sort of oil was mixed with spices and used for ointment; the inferior sort was used with food. In sacrifices, accordingly, which were in a certain sense the feasts of God, the

king and ruler of the people, the use of oil was commanded, Lev. 2: 1, 5, 7, 15. 6: 15.

Note.—The cotinus, xoruvos, and the oleaster, dyguélavoc, are both called wild olive trees. They are nevertheless of different kinds, though they are sometimes confounded by the Greeks themselves. The fruit of the cotinus is used for no other purpose than colouring ; but the oleaster, the Agrippa Elaeagnus of Linneus, joo Yz, is that species of wild olive, whose branches, (see Schulz, in Paulus' Collection of Travels, WI. 290.) are grafted into barren olive trees, that are in a state of cultivation, in order that fruitfulness may be produced, comp. Rom. 11: 17, 24.

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Fig-trees, Bosn, rosn, are very common in Palestine. They flourish in a dry and sandy soil. They are not shrubs, as in our gardens, but trees, not altogether erect, and yet tall and leafy. The shade of the fig-tree is very pleasant, and was well known to the Hebrews, Micah 4:4. Fig-trees begin to sprout at the time of the vernal equinox, Luke 21:29, 30. Matt. 24; 32. The fruit makes its appearance before the leaves and flowers; the foliage expands about the end of March, Matt. 21:19. Mark 11: 13. The figs are of three kinds. I. The untimely fig, which puts forth at the vernal equinox, and before it is ripe is called xe, the green fig, but when ripe, the untimely fig, Cant. 2: 13. Hos. 9; 10. Jer. 24; 2. It comes to maturity the latter part of June, comp. Mark 11: 13. Matt. 21:19; and in relish surpasses the other kinds, Jer. 24: 2. II. The summer or dry fig. It appears about the middle of June,

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