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d Lam. 3. 22. Rom. 9. 29.
g Prov. I. 28.
Mic. 3. 4, + Heb.
& 21. 27.
he goals. + Heb, to be &con.
He upbraideth their service.
He exhorteth to repentance. in a garden of cucumbers, as a be 15 And 6 when ye spread forth about 760. sieged city.
your hands, I will hide mine eyes about 760. 9 Except the LORD of hosts had from you : yea, when ye + make
left unto us a very small remnant, we many prayers, I will not hear : your Jer. 14. 12. e Gen. 19. 24. should have been as Sodom, and hands are full of h + blood. we should have been like unto Go 16 Wash
you, you clean; morrah.
put away the evil of your doings from Chap: 0 :: 10 9 Hear the word of the Lord, before mine eyes; cease to do evil; i1 Pet. 3. 11. ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto 17 Learn to do well; seek judgthe law of our God, ye people of ment, || relieve the oppressed, judge a Or, righten. Gomorrah.
the fatherless, plead for the widow. 11 To what purpose is the multi 18 Come now, and let us reason Prov, 15. 8. tude of your sacrifices unto me? together, saith the LORD: though
saith the Lord: I am full of the your sins be as scarlet, they shall be
blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of wool. + Heb. great the goats.
19 If ye be willing and obedient, 12 When ye come † to appear be- ye shall eat the good of the land: fore me, who hath required this at 20 But if ye refuse and rebel,
13 Bring no more vain oblations; the mouth of the Lord hath spoken
calling of assemblies, I cannot away come an harlot ! it was full of judgOr, grief. with ; it is || iniquity, even the solemn ment; righteousness lodged in it; but meeting.
companions of thieves : every one Cant. ii. 15. Fruits of the gourd kind are in great re- away with” any thing but the performance of his own quest in the Levant for their cooling quality. Bp. Lowth. will! Bp. Beveridge. See note from Hasselquist on Numb. xi. 5.
16. Wash you, make you clean;] This refers to the 10.- ye rulers of Sodom ;-ye people of Gomorrah.] preceding verse, your hands are full of blood,” and The incidental mention of these places in the preced- alludes to the legal washings commanded on several ing verse suggested to the Prophet this spirited address occasions. Bp. Lowth. The pardon of sin upon reto the rulers and inhabitants of Jerusalem, under the pentance is expressed in Scripture by cleansing and character of princes of Sodom, and people of Gomorrah. purifying, to denote that the outward cleansing of the Bp. Lowth.
flesh was designed to put men in mind of the inward 11. To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices purification from sin and unrighteousness. Dr. Jenkin. &c.] Those hypocritical services which had no godli 16, 17. cease to do evil; Learn to do well ;] The ness, no sincerity, no true love of God in them, were order in which these words are placed was evidently not the services which God required, (ver. 12,) or took designed to teach us that the foundation of acting right delight in. God would not accept of vain compliments, is the avoiding of every thing wrong : several parts of norbe bribed with pretended gifts, offered only to Scripture lay down the same rule in almost the same excuse from duty, to compound for sin, and to palliate terms, (see Amos v. 15, and places there quoted in the unjust dealing. Dr. Waterland.
margin,) and many express or imply the same doctrine. 15. -I will hide mine eyes from you :- I will not Scarce any words are strong enough to express how hear :] What is the reason of all this? Because they much good bare cessation from doing evil would prowere defective in the moral duties of religion; as it duce, and how great is the importance of the plain follows, “ your hands are full of blood,” &c. No in- humble duty of an inoffensive life; in proportion as stituted service, no positive part of religion whatsoever, we root out hurtful inclinations, right ones will not fail was ever acceptable, when moral duties were neglected: to shoot up, and bring forth fruit, if in less quantity, nay, so far from this are they, that God rejects them yet such as will be accepted, but probably in plenty. with abhorrence and disdain. We see from this what Abp. Secker. was acceptable to God for itself and its own sake in the 21. How is the faithful city become an harlot !] See Jewish religion: and under the Gospel our Saviour pre- the note on Exod. xxxiv. 16. fers a moral duty before any gift, Matt. v. 23, 24. Abp. 22. Thy silver is become dross,] Those good graces, Tillotson.
which thou didst once profess to have, are now utterly What God says here to the Jews for their over-corrupted and depraved; thine obedience, which was multiplied fasts, and uncommanded sacrifices, He will once sincere and pure, is now adulterated with abomisay to all, who do any thing that agrees not with his nable wickedness. Bp. Hall. laws, however specious and plausible, however good thy wine mixed will water :] An image used for and acceptable it may seem to them. God “cannot the adulteration of wine, with more propriety than may
k Jer. 5. 28. Zech,
God promiseth grace, and
ISAIAH. threateneth destruction to the wicked. Before loveth gifts, and followeth after re- be together, and they that forsake the
CHRIST about 760. wards: they judge not the father- LORD shall be consumed.
less, neither doth the cause of the 29 For they shall be ashamed of
the oaks which ye have desired, and
upon thee, and + purely purge away || and the maker of it as a spark, and Or, and his thy dross, and take away all thy tin: they shall both burn together, and
26 And I will restore thy judges none shall quench them.
kingdom. 6 Wickedness is the cause of || Or, they ness, the faithful city.
God's forsaking. 10 He exhorteth to fear, 27 Zion shall be redeemed with because of the powerful effects of God's P5.1.2.&3. judgment, and || her converts with majesty. righteousness.
THE word that Isaiah the son of 28 And the destruction of the Amoz saw concerning Judah and transgressors and of the sinners shall Jerusalem.
according to pureness.
that return of her.
6. & 73. 27.
at first appear, if what Thevenot says of the people of mense works made by the ancient kings of Egypt for the Levant of late times was true of them formerly: he receiving the waters of the Nile, when it overflowed, says, “they never mingle water with their wine to for such uses, are well known : Solomon mentions his drink, but drink by itself what water they think proper own works of the kind, Eccles. ii. 5, 6. All the gardens
. to , Greeks and Latins by mixed wine understood wine of the river that runs by that city, or on the sides of diluted and lowered with water: the Hebrews generally the rill that supplies their aqueduct; and Maundrell mean by it, wine made stronger by the addition of informs us, that at Damascus there is not a garden that higher and more powerful ingredients. Drunkards are has not a fine quick stream running through it. Haraccordingly described, Prov. xxiii. 30, as“ seeking mer, Bp. Lowth. mixed wine;" and Isa. v. 22, as mighty to mingle 31. and the maker of it] The marginal reading, strong drink.” Such was the "spiced wine,” men and his work,” expresses the sense better, namely, tioned Cant. viii. 2. And hence the Psalmist took that that the idolaters and their devices shall perish together, highly poetical and sublime idea of the cup of God's however supported by secular power, or recommended wrath, (see Ps. lxxv. 8,) called by Isaiah, “the cup of by worldly grandeur. W. Lowth. trembling," chap. li. 17. Bp. Lowth.
The same sense is conveyed by understanding the 24. —Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries,] See text in the following manner: And that mighty idol, the notes on Gen. vi. 6.
whereto ye trust, shall be as tow; and the maker and 25. — take away all thy tin :) A very small quantity worshipper of that idol shall be as a spark; and both of tin makes silver extremely brittle, and it is difficult of them shall burn together with unquenchable fire. to separate these two metals ; this gives peculiar force to Bp. Hall. the expression of the Prophet in this passage, as he had employed an allusion to silver at ver. 22. Parkhurst. Chap. II. The prophecy, contained in the second,
26. – I will restore thy judges as at the first, &c.] third, and fourth chapters, makes one continued disThis relates, at least in its primary sense, to the resto- course. The first five verses of this chapter foretel the ration of the Jews after the seventy years of captivity. kingdom of Messiah, the conversion of the Gentiles, The promise contained in the latter part of this verse, and their admission into the Church. From the sixth taken in its full extent, relates to more flourishing times verse to the end is foretold the punishment of the unof the Church than the world has yet seen. W. Lowth. believing Jews for their idolatrous practices, their con
29. For they shall be ashamed of the oaks &c.] The fidence in their own strength, and distrust of God's sacrificing in groves and shady places was an ancient protection; and moreover the destruction of idolatry in rite of idolatry. This kind of worship is expressly for- consequence of the establishment of Messiah's kingbidden in the law, Deut. xii. 2, 3; xvi. 21: and yet dom. The whole of the third chapter, with the first prevailed so much in the times of idolatrous kings, that verse of the fourth, is a prophecy of the calamities of the practice was not quite laid aside under religious the Babylonian invasion and captivity; with a partiprinces. See 1 Kings xv. 14; xxii. 43. W. Lowth. cular amplification of the distress of the proud and
30. as a garden that hath no water.] To enter into luxurious daughters of Zion. Chap. IV. 2–6, prothe energy of this comparison, we must consider, that mises to the remnant, which shall have escaped this in the hotter parts of the Eastern countries, a constant severe purgation, a future restoration to the favour and supply of water is necessary for the cultivation and even protection of God. This prophecy was probably delito the existence of a garden. There are none therefore vered in the time of Jotham, or perhaps in that of without such a certain supply, either from some neigh- Uzziah. Bp. Lowth. bouring river, or reservoirs collected from springs, or Ver. 1. The word that Isaiah-saw] That is, the filled with rain-water in the proper season.
The im- vision. W. Lowth.
Before CHRIST about 760.
Before CHRIST about 760.
a Mic. 4. 1,
The coming of Christ's kingdom. CHAP. II. Sin the cause of God's forsaking. 2 And a it shall come to pass in the 5 O house of Jacob, come ye,
and last days, that the mountain of the let us walk in the light of the LORD. Lord's house shall be | established in 6 1 Therefore thou hast forsaken the top of the mountains, and shall be thy people the house of Jacob, beexalted above the hills; and all na- cause they be replenished || from the Or, more tions shall flow unto it.
east, and are soothsayers like the Phi- than the east. 3 And many people shall go and listines, and they || please themselves or, abound say, Come ye, and let us go up to in the children of strangers. the mountain of the LORD, to the 7 Their land also is full of silver house of the God of Jacob; and he and gold, neither is there any end of will teach us of his ways, and we will their treasures; their land is also full walk in his paths : for out of Zion of horses, neither is there any end of shall go forth the law, and the word their chariots : of the Lord from Jerusalem.
8 Their land also is full of idols: 4 And he shall judge among the they worship the work of their own nations, and shall rebuke many peo- hands, that which their own fingers ple: and they shall beat their swords have made:
into plowshares, and their spears into 9 And the mean man boweth down, | Or, scythes. || pruninghooks: nation shall not lift and the great man humbleth himself:
up sword against nation, neither shall therefore forgive them not.
10 4 Enter into the rock, and hide
2. And it shall come to pass in the last days,] “ The when, after having subdued all his enemies, He shall last days” signify in the Prophets, the times of the give rest unto his faithful servants, 2 Thess. i. 7. Dr. Messiah. This phrase by no means necessarily imports T. Burnett, W. Lowth. See notes on chap. ix. 6. the speedy end of this material world; but only that, 6. Therefore thou hast forsaken thy people-because how long soever God shall suffer it to endure, He hath &c.] This might more clearly be translated, “For this no subsequent dispensation in reserve; but hath fixed reason Thou hast forsaken thy people, because” &c. the Christian for that doctrine, and service, and trial, W. Lowth. by which mankind are to express their obedience to they be replenished from the east, and are soothHim, so long as there shall continue to be any state of sayers &c.j Chaldea and Syria, situated to the east of discipline or obedience at all. W. Lowth, Dean Stan- Judea, were famous for pretenders to divination, &c. hope.
(see chap. xlvii. 13; Numb. xxiii. 7;) as were the Phithe mountain of the Lord's house &c.] From the listines, who lay to the west, 1 Sam. vi. 2. The Jews situation of the Jewish temple on mount Moriah, a invited and encouraged these. W. Lowth. Now the mountain is made to stand for the Christian Church : consulting of wizards and diviners, as was practised by of the exaltation of which, and its wonderful prosperity the nations of Canaan, paying any regard to those preand enlargement, this passage is a prophetical pro- tenders to Divine knowledge, or suffering such to live mise. Bp. Hurd, Jos. Mede. As we see the glorious among them, is prohibited, Deut. xviii. 10–14; as also characters here set forth in part brought to pass filling the land with horses, gold, and silver, (ver. 7,) is long ago, by the enlarging of the Messiah's dominion in direct contradiction to God's command in the law, over the many and distant countries where his doctrine Deut. xvii. 16, 17. Dr. Berriman, Bp. Lowth. God hath been received; so have we reason to embrace those there forbids his people the use of horses and chariots, gradual advances of his kingdom in men's hearts, as so Deut. xx. 1.4; He promises that He will be to them many earnest and undoubted pledges of that absolute instead. This law, therefore, was to be a standing trial and unbounded conquest, which He shall make over of prince and people, whether they had confidence in ignorance and errour, when the season of exerting his God their Deliverer. He had taken the defence of grace more plentifully shall come, and effectually pre- Israel upon Himself, and, whenever the people took it pare, as well as proclaim, the nearer approaches of his out of his hands, they were sure to be undone. There kingdom of glory. Dean Stanhope.
was no moral evil in having a country full of horses, 3. — Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the but the kings of Israel were exalted to the throne on Lord] That is, Let us join ourselves to the Christian condition that they should renounce such assistance, Church. The phrase alludes to the Jews going up in and depend on God for success in the day of battle. companies to Jerusalem at the three solemn feasts of Joshua, the Judges, and David, observed this law; and the year. W. Lowth.
Solomon, for a time; but in his reign things quickly 4. - nation shall not lift up sword against nation, &c.] changed; and his successors followed his example. Throughout the Prophets, the time of the Messiah is Bp. Sherlock. See the notes on Deut. xvii. 16; Josh. represented as a time of universal peace and godliness, xi. 6; 1 Kings x. 28; 2 Kings xxiii. 29. in which the natures of men should be changed, and 9. - forgive them not.] That is, Thou wilt not forall malice and ill-nature rooted out. He Himself is give them. The imperative is here taken for the called the Prince of Peace,” chap. ix. 6. The spiritual future. See the like instances, chap. vi. 10; xxiii. 16; sense implies Christ's being the Great Peace-maker; Zech. xiii. 7. God's judgments are sometimes foretold who should reconcile both Jews and Gentiles to God, as imprecations : many of those in the Psalms may be and to each other. But if we look upon this and the understood as so many predictions. W. Lowth. See like prophecies, as foretelling the outward peacefulness notes at Ps. v. 10; Ps. cix. of the kingdom or Church of Christ, they seem to 10. Enter into the rock, &c.] The remainder of the relate to some future flourishing state of the Church, chapter is a prediction of some general judgment, end
b Chap. 5. 15.
& 9. 6.
The prophet forewarneth of
the terrible day of the Lord. Before thee in the dust, for fear of the Lord, be bowed down, and the haughtiness about 760. and for the glory of his majesty.
of men shall be made low: and the about 760. 11 The blofty looks of man shall | Lord alone shall be exalted in that be humbled, and the haughtiness of day. men shall be bowed down, and the 18 And || the idols he shall utterly 90r, the idols
shall utterly LORD alone shall be exalted in that abolish. day.
19 And they shall go into the 12 For the day of the Lord of holes of the rocks, and into the caves Hos. 10.8. hosts shall be upon every one that is of + the earth, for fear of the Lord, Rev. 6. 16. proud and lofty, and upon every one and for the glory of his majesty, when that is lifted up; and he shall be he ariseth to shake terribly the earth. dust. brought low :
20 In that day a man shall cast
14 And upon all the high moun- to the bats;
rocks, and into the tops of the ragged
, the glory of his majesty, when he 16 And upon all the ships of ariseth to shake terribly the earth.
Tarshish, and upon all + pleasant 22 Cease ye from man, whose pictures of pictures.
breath is in his nostrils: for wherein 17 And the loftiness of man shall is he to be accounted of?
ing in the utter destruction of the Jewish land and all sincere converts, concludes all (that so he might government. Such was that of the captivity: many of acquit the worship of Christ from all charges of idothe expressions, however, are such as relate to the last latry) with this positive assertion, that it would prove judgment; for, all God's particular judgments being the most effectual means of putting an end to all false earnests of the last and general, the same expressions and idolatrous worship: “The idols he shall utterly are common to both. Compare chap. xiii. 10; xxiv. 1; abolish.” The like conclusion we meet with in the Joel iii. 15; Matt. xxiv. 29; 2 Pet. iii. 10. W. Lowth. first Epistle of St. John, where having affirmed that
13. — upon all the cedars of Lebanon,] In many Jesus Christ is “ the true God and eternal life," he other places cedars of Libanus, and oaks of Bashan, immediately subjoins, and closes all with this advice, are used, in the way of metaphor and allegory, for “ Little children, keep yourselves from idols," i John kings, princes, potentates; mountains and lofty hills, v. 21. Wogan. for kingdoms, states, cities; towers and fortresses, for 19. And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, &c.] defenders and protectors, whether by strength or coun- The country of Judea being mountainous and rocky, is sel; ships of Tarshish, and works of art and invention full of caverns; some natural, and some artificial and employed in adorning them, for merchants, men en- made for the sake of security. See Judges vi. 2; 1 Sam. riched by commerce and abounding in all the luxuries xiii. 6; xxiv. 3; Jer. xli. 9. Strabo, Josephus, and and elegances of life, such as those of Tyre and Sidon. modern travellers, give accounts of the caverns which Bp. Lowth. For ships of Tarshish, see notes at 1 Kings are to be found in the neighbouring countries. Therex. 22; xxii. 48.
fore, “ to enter into the rock,” &c. is to the Jews a very 18. — the idols he shall utterly abolish.] The captivity proper and familiar image to express terrour and conof the Jews had that good effect, that they scarce ever sternation. Bp. Lowth. afterwards relapsed into idolatry; this prophecy was 20. — to the moles and to the bats ;] They shall carry fulfilled in the Gentiles also upon their conversion to their idols with them into the dark caverns, old ruins, Christianity. Christianity is the reverse and direct op or desolate places, to which they shall flee for refuge; posite to idolatry; and we may observe, that whenever and so shall give them up and relinquish them to the the Prophets speak of an entire reformation in the state filthy animals that frequent such places, and have taken of the Church, they mention the utter extirpation of possession of them as their proper habitation. Many idolatry out of it, as if that were one of the last enemies travellers speak of bats of an enormous size as inhabitof God and his truth, that was to be destroyed, (see ing the Great Pyramid. Bp. Lowth, Harmer. “Casting chap. xxvii. 9; xxx. 22; xxxi. 7 ; xlv. 16;) and the ac- the idols to the moles and bats" denotes the utmost complishment of the prophecy accordingly will univer- detestation and abhorrence. Wogan. sally take place in that day, that terrible day of Christ's 22. Cease ye from man,] That is, from valuing man. second advent, when He shall come to judge the world. Compare Prov. xxiii. 4. W. Lowth. This verse is a W. Lowth, Wogan.
very apt and most proper conclusion to what is said Idolatry is the reverse and direct opposite of Chris- before of the effect of Christ's coming, namely, that tianity. To destroy this was the great end of Christ's the lofty looks of man shall be humbled.” Happy coming into the world. But, except He were God, the indeed will be this effect of his first coming, if our very and eternal God, of one substance with the Father, pride be thereby humbled, and our lofty looks be his religion would be so far from destroying idolatry, brought down : happy, I mean, if it precede; but fruitthat it would be only a more refined and dangerous less, miserable, and vain, if it follow, his second coming, species of it. The Prophet, therefore, after describing when the day of grace shall be past, and judgment the humbling effects it would have upon the hearts of be begun. Let us conclude, therefore, as the Prophet
+ Heb. a man eminent in
+ Heb. done to him.
The confusion which comeih by sin. CHAP. III.
The oppression of the rulers. CHAP. III.
8 For Jerusalem is ruined, and about 760.
1 The great confusion which cometh by sin. Judah is fallen : because their tongue about 780.
9 The impudency of the people. 12 The and their doings are against the Lord,
doth witness against them; and they
Woe unto their soul ! 19. 5.
10 Say ye to the righteous, that it
11 Woe unto the wicked ! it shall 3 The captain of fifty, and + the be ill with him: for the reward of his countenance. honourable man, and the counsellor, hands shall be + given him.
and the cunning artificer, and the 12 | As for my people, children 1 Or, skilful || eloquent orator.
oppressors, and women rule 4 And I will give a children to be over them. O my people, || they 1 Or, they, their princes, and babes shall rule which lead thee cause thee to err, and thee blessed. over them.
+ destroy the way of thy paths. 5 And the people shall be oppress
13 The Lord standeth
and the princes thereof: for ye have
my our ruler, and let this ruin be under people to pieces, and grind the faces thy hand:
of the poor? saith the Lord God of + Heb. lift up 7 In that day shall he tswear, hosts.
saying, I will not be an thealer; for 16 | Moreover the LORD saith,
house is neither bread nor Because the daughters of Zion are clothing: make me not a ruler of the haughty, and walk with stretched deceiving people.
forth necks and + wanton eyes,
+ Heb. swallow up.
the hand. + Heb.
with their eyes.
warns us, to " cease from man, whose breath is in his to apply to repairing what is destroyed in a kingdom nostrils,” that is, from trusting in mere man; “ for or state. Parkhurst. wherein is he to be accounted of?” But let us hold in my house is neither bread nor clothing : &c.] fast the profession of our faith in Christ, who is not a He alleges that he has not wherewithal to support the mere man, having breath in his nostrils only; but hath dignity of the station, by such liberality and hospitality life in Himself, yea, is Life itself, and therefore God as as the custom required of persons of superiour rank. well as Man. Wogan.
See 1 Kings iv. 22, 23; Neh. v. 17, 18. The Eastern
treasures anciently consisted very much in large quanChap. III. ver. 1. - the whole stay of bread, &c.] tities of clothing; and princes and great men now are Bread is commonly called the “staff of life.” Levit. obliged to have a large stock in readiness, for presents xxvi. 26; Ezek. xiv. 13. This judgment seems to re on all occasions. Bp. Louth, Sir J. Chardin. late to the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. See 10, 11. Say ye to the righteous, &c.] Thus do the Jer. xxxvii. 21; Ezek. iv. 16. The following verses, Scriptures represent to us the different condition of 2, 3, are very clearly explained by the sacred historian's good and bad men, which is often true in this world ; account of the captivity of Jehoiachin by Nebuchad- and, however that happen, will most certainly and renezzar, 2 Kings xxiv. 14. W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. markably be made good in the next. Abp. Tillotson.
4. - I will give children to be their princes,] This 12. — they which lead thee) Thy weak governours, also was fully accomplished in the succession of weak called metaphorically, (as before, ver. 4,) " children, and wicked princes, from the death of Josiah to the and women." The margin reads, "they which call destruction of the city and temple, and the taking of thee blessed ;" which may mean, the false prophets, who Zedekiah, the last of them. Bp. Lowth.
soothe thee in thy sins, and foretel nothing but peace 5. – the people shall be oppressed, &c.] The cha- and prosperity. Compare chap. ix. 15, 16. W. Lowth. racter of a weak government, where faction gets the 15. — grind the faces] The expression and the image better of authority, and every one does what is right in is strong, to denote grievous oppression; but is exhis own eyes. Bp. Wilson.
ceeded by the prophet Micah, ii. 1–3. Bp. Lowth. 7.- I will not be an healer ;] The expression seems 16. — wanton eyes,] The original gives, as the mar