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Before CHRIST

CHRIST

naked.

networks.

emptied.

The judgments which shall be

ISAIAH.

for the pride of the women. ing and || mincing as they go, and instead of sweet smell there shall be Before about 760. making a tinkling with their feet: stink; and instead of a girdle a rent; about 760.

17 Therefore the Lord will smite and instead of well set lair baldness; || Or, tripping nicely. with a scab the crown of the head of and instead of a stomacher a girding

the daughters of Zion, and the Lord of sackcloth ; and burning instead of + Heb. make will + discover their secret parts. beauty.

18 In that day the LORD will take 25 Thy men shall fall by the sword, away the bravery of their tinkling and thy † mighty in the war. 1 Heb. might.

ornaments about their feet, and their 26 Ånd her gates shall lament and || Or, || cauls, and their round tires like the mourn; and she being || + desolate Or, moon, shall sit upon the ground.

+ Heb.
19 The || chains, and the bracelets,
and the || mufflers,

CHAP. IV.
20 The bonnets, and the ornaments
of the legs, and the headbands, and In the extremity of evils, Christ's kingdom

shall be a sanctuary.
+ Heb. houses the + tablets, and the earrings,
of the soul.
21 The rings, and nose jewels,
suits

shall take hold of one man, sayand the mantles, and the wimples, and ing, We will eat our own bread, and the crisping pins,

wear our own apparel: only + let us + Heb. let thy 23 The glasses, and the fine linen, be called by thy name, || to take away called upon and the hoods, and the vails.

our reproach. 24 And it shall come to pass, that 2 In that day shall the branch of thou away.

cleansed.

1. Or, sueet
balls.
11 Or,
spangled
ornaments.

us.

Or, take

it so.

gin reads,“

deceiving with their eyes,” or falsifying “houses of the soul,” mean perfume boxes. Bp. Lowth. their eyes. Though the colouring of the eyes with which refresh the spirits, and restore life to the languid. stibium, or al-cahol, the mineral commonly used for | Vitringa. “Houses of smell;" smelling or perfume that purpose, be not particularly here expressed, yet I boxes, appended by the ladies either to the necklace or suppose it to be implied. See 2 Kings ix. 30; Jer. iv. girdle. Bp. Stock. 30; Ezek. xxiii. 40. The Chaldee paraphrase explains 21. nose jewels,] See Sir J. Chardin's note on Gen.

This fashion seems to have prevailed very gene- xxiv. 22. His account is confirmed by other Oriental rally among the Eastern people in ancient times, and travellers. they retain it still. Bp. Lowth. See the note on Jer. 24. — instead of sweet smell] Or "perfume.” A iv. 30.

principal part of the delicacy of the Asiatick ladies con- making a tinkling] Dr. Hunt well explains the sists in the use of baths, and of the richest oils and word thus translated to mean, “skipping, bounding, perfumes: an attention to which is in some degree dancing along ;” and the same word used as a noun, necessary in those hot countries. See Cant. iv. 10, 11 ; (which occurs at ver. 18,) to signify those ornaments of Esther ii. 12. Bp. Lowth. the feet, chains or rings, which the Eastern ladies wore, - instead of a girdle a rent;] « Instead of welland which make a tinkling sound as they moved nimbly girt raiment, rags.Bp. Lowth. in walking. Eugene Roger, and other travellers, speak and burning] The old English translation reads, ing of Arabian women, mention them. Bp. Lowth. “ sunburning,” by way of explication, namely, They Rauwolf tells us, that the Arab women, whom he saw shall be exposed to the heat of the sun, in slavery or in going down the Euphrates, wore rings about their transportation into foreign parts. W. Lowth. A sunlegs and hands, and sometimes a good many together, burnt skin." Bp. Lowth. which in their stepping slipped up and down, and so 26. shall sit upon the ground. This was a posture made a great noise. Sir J. Chardin says, that in Persia that denoted the deepest mourning and lamentation, and Arabia they wear rings about their ancles, which chap. xlvii. 1; Job ii. 13; Lam. ii. 10. are full of little bells. Children and young girls take seems to relate in its more immediate view, to the depleasure in giving them motion, and with this view walk struction of the city by Nebuchadnezzar: however, Juquick, Harmer.

dea is thus represented on a medal coined by Vespasian, 17.- the Lord will discover] It was the barbarous after the destruction by the Romans. They might have custom of the conquerors of those times, to strip their an eye to the customs of the Jewish nation. The Psalmcaptives naked, and to make them travel in that condi- ist describes the Jews lamenting their fortune in the same tion, exposed to the inclemency of the weather, and to pensive posture, Ps. cxxxvii. 1. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth, the intolerable heat of the sun. This to the women was Addison. the height of cruelty and indignity, especially to such as are here described, who had indulged themselves in all Chap. IV. The division of the chapters has broken manner of delicacies of living, and all the superfluities off the Prophet's discourse almost in the middle of the of ornamental dress. This is always mentioned as the sentence. The meaning is, “ The numbers slain in hardest part of the lot of the captives... Compare chap. battle shall be so great, that seven women shall be left xx. 4; xlvii. 3; Jer. xiii. 22; Nahum iii. 5. The words, to one man.” The Prophet has described the greatness which describe the ornaments in the following inventory, of this distress, by images and adjuncts the most exas one may call it, of the wardrobe of a Hebrew lady, pressive and forcible. Bp. Lowth. must, from its antiquity, and from the nature of the Ver. 2. In that day] This phrase often denotes, not subject, be very obscure. W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. the same time which was last mentioned, but an extra

20. —- tablets,] In the original, as the margin gives it, ordinary season, remarkable for some signal events of

The passage

Before CHRIST about 760.

Before CHRIST

+ Heb.
beauty and
glory.
+ Heb. for the

Israel.

The blessings of
CHAP. IV, V.

Christ's kingdom.
the Lord be + beautiful and glorious, | heat, and for a place of refuge, and
and the fruit of the earth shall be ex- for a covert from storm and from about 760.
cellent and comely + for them that rain.
are escaped of Israel.
3 And it shall come to pass, that

CHAP. V. escaping of he that is left in Zion, and he that 1 Under the parable of a vineyard God ex

remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called cuselh his severe judgment. 8 His judg

holy, even every one that is written ments upon covetousness, 11 upon lascivious. Or, to life. || among the living in Jerusalem : ness, 13 upon impiety, 20 and upon injustice. 4 When the LORD shall have wash

26 The executioners of God's judgments.
ed
away

of

OW

a song of my beloved touching of Jerusalem from the midst thereof his vineyard. My wellbeloved hath a by the spirit of judgment, and by the a vineyard in + a very fruitful hill: spirit of burning

2 And he || fenced it, and gathered Mark 12. 1. 5 And the Lord will create upon out the stones thereof, and planted it + Heb. The every dwelling place of mount Zion, with the choicest vine, and built a horn of the and

upon her assemblies, a a cloud and tower in the midst of it, and also 1 Or, made a

smoke by day, and the shining of a + made a winepress therein: and he Heb. newed. | Or, abore. flaming fire by night: for || upon all looked that it should bring forth the glory shall be + a defence.

grapes, and it brought forth wild
6 And there shall be a tabernacle grapes.
for a shadow in the day time from the 3 And now, O inhabitants of Jeru-

Zion, and shall have purged the bloof NOW will I sing to my wellbeloved

a Jer. 2.' 21. Matt. 21. 33.

a Exod. 13. 21.

+ Heb.
a covering.

Providence, called elsewhere by way of excellence, “ the directs this hymn, or parable poetically expressed, to his day of the Lord.” Compare chap. ii. 11, 12; x. 20; xvii. “ wellbeloved,” that is, Christ. See Matt. iii. 17; xvii. 7; xix. 18; and see 2 Thess. i. 10; 2 Tim. i. 12. 18; 5; Col. i. 13. W. Lowth, Dr. Wells. Our Lord Christ iv. 8. W. Lowth."

In that day,” the day of the blessed in the evangelical style is called “the beloved Son of restoration of the Church. Bp. Hall.

God, in whom He is well pleased.” The Church of the branch of the Lord] “ The Messiah of Jeho- those times is called here the vineyard of the Son, bevah," says the Chaldee paraphrase. The branch” is cause, as the Father created all things by Him, so by an appropriated title of the Messiah ; and “the fruit of Him He has always governed all things, and more espethe earth” means the same great personage to spring cially his Church. To this agrees that saying of St. Paul, from the land of Judah; or perhaps the blessings con- that “ Christ accompanied the Israelites in the wildersequent upon the redemption procured by Him. Bp. ness;" and that of St. Peter, that “the Spirit of Christ Lowth.

spake by the prophets.” Indeed, as the eternal Son of 3. that is written among the living] The phrase the Father, He presides over all things, “God blessed alludes to the registers which were kept of the Jewish for ever," as St. Paul speaks, Rom. ix. 5; and has always tribes and families. See Ezra ii. 59. 62, W. Lowth. had the peculiar care and conduct of the patriarchs and See the note on Exod. xxxii. 32.

chosen people of God. Reading. 4. by the spirit of judgment, &c.] The phrase de 2. built a tower in the midst of it, &c.] To contain all notes the severe discrimination which God will make the implements necessary to the culture of the vineyard, between the good and the bad, the pure silver and the and making of the wine. To this image in the allegory, dross, (see chap. i. 22. 25;) the better being purified, the situation, the manner of building, the use, and the the worse consumed, in the furnace. See Ezek. xxii. whole service of the temple, exactly answered. Our 21; Mal. iii. 2, 3, W. Lowth.

Saviour in his parable, Matt. xxi. 33; Mark xii. 1, 5. - a cloud and smoke by day, &c.] This is a mani- has inserted the “ tower,” and the "winepress," or fest allusion to the pillar of a cloud, and of fire, which vat, as the word should perhaps be translated here, and attended the Jews in their passage out of Egypt; and as St. Mark has it. It means the large open place, to the glory that rested on the tabernacle, Exod. xl. 38. or vessel, which by a conduit or spout, received the See Zech. ii. 5. Both passages mean, the visible pre- must from the winepress, In very hot countries it sence of God shall protect the Church. Bp. Lowth. was very convenient to have this place under ground,

6. And there shall be a tabernacle &c.] And whereas or in a cave “hewed” out of the side of the rock for the Church shall be still subject to the scorching heats coolness, (see the margin,) that the heat might not and tempestuous storms of persecution, God shall erect cause too great a fermentation, and sour the must. a safe tabernacle for her, to shade her from the heat, and Bp. Lowth. shelter her from those violent tempests. Bp. Hall. -wild grapes.] Not merely unprofitable grapes,

but noxious; as, in the explication, (ver. 7.) to judgChap. V. This chapter stands single and alone, un- ment is opposed tyranny, and to righteousness oppresconnected with the preceding or following. The subject sion. Some of these were of a poisonous quality, as of it is nearly the same with that of the first chapter. It appears from 2 Kings iv. 39–41.

Bp. Lowth. The is a general reproof of the Jews for their wickedness : Prophet may here mean the hoary nightshade, which is but it exceeds that chapter in force, in severity, in variety, common in Egypt, Palestine, and the East; the Arabs in elegance; and it adds a more express declaration of call it “wolf's grapes;” it grows much in the vineyards, vengeance, by the Babylonian invasion. Bp. Lowth. and is very pernicious to them; it likewise resembles a

Ver. 1. Now will I sing to my wellbeloved) The Pro- vine by its shrubby stalk. Hasselquist, phet here speaking in the person of God the Father, 3. Here the style of the parable is altered from the

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 760.

them.

treading.

God's judgments upon covetousness, ISAIAH.

lasciviousness, impiety, salem, and men of Judah, judge, I 10 Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall about 760. pray you, betwixt me and my vine- yield one bath, and the seed of an yard.

homer shall yield an ephah. 4 What could have been done more 11 q Woe unto them that rise up Prov. 23.

29, 30. to my vineyard, that I have not done early in the morning, that they may in it? wherefore, when I looked that follow strong drink; that continue it should bring forth grapes, brought until night, till wine || inflame them! , Or, pursue it forth wild grapes?

12 And the harp, and the viol, the 5 And now go to; I will tell you tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in what I will do to my vineyard : I will their feasts : but they regard not the take away the hedge thereof, and it work of the Lord, neither consider shall be eaten up; and break down the operation of his hands.

the wall thereof, and it shall be 13 I Therefore my people are gone + Heb. for a + trodden down :

into captivity, because they have no 6 And I will lay it waste: it shall knowledge : and † their honourable + Heb. their not be pruned, nor digged; but there men are famished, and their multi- of famine. shall come up briers and thorns: I tude dried up with thirst. will also command the clouds that 14 Therefore hell hath enlarged they rain no rain upon it.

herself, and opened her mouth with7 For the vineyard of the Lord of out measure : and their glory, and

hosts is the house of Israel, and the their multitude, and their pomp, and + Heb. plant men of Judah + his pleasant plant: he that rejoiceth, shall descend into pleasures.

and he looked for judgment, but be- it.
hold + oppression; for righteousness, 15 And a the mean man shall be d Chap. 2. 9,
but behold a cry.

brought down, and the mighty man
8 Woe unto them that join "house shall be humbled, and the eyes of the
to house, that lay field to field, till lofty shall be humbled :
there be no place, that they may be 16 But the Lord of hosts shall be
placed alone in the midst of the exalted in judgment, and I + God or, the hely
earth!

that is holy shall be sanctified in Heb. the 9 || In mine ears said the Lord of righteousness.

hosts, + Of a truth many houses shall 17 Then shall the lambs feed after Torebc. be desolate, even great and fair, with their manner, and the waste places of out inhabitant.

the fat ones shall strangers eat.

of his

+ Heb. a scal.

11, 17.

b Mic. 2. 2.

God the holy

| Or, This is

in mine ears,

saith the

not, &c.

third person (ver. 2,) to the first: a variation very com 11. - strong drink ;] See the note on chap. xxiv. mon in Scripture; and the sense is the same, whether 9. the words are spoken by God, or by Christ, who is “one 12. -- the harp, and the viol, &c.] Musick universally with the Father.” W. Lowth.

attends Eastern feasts. Harmer. Wine, and musick, and 3, 4. – judge, I pray you, &c.] The case was so plain, delicate fare, are such things as God in his goodness that God might refer it to themselves, although they hath given to the children of men for their comfort; and were parties concerned. W. Lowth.

they may use them lawfully, and take comfort in them Let every sinner thoroughly examine his own state as their portion : but he that uses any of them intemand condition, what his natural powers and faculties are, perately, unseasonably, vainly, or wastefully, abuses both what they are originally capable of, what additional means them and himself; therefore we often find in Scripture, and opportunities he has had put into his hands to em- both the things themselves condemned, and those that ploy and improve them; and then let him shew where use them blamed. Bp. Sanderson. the fault lay, and who is to be charged with the evil of 13, 14. their honourable men are famished, &c.] As sin, and with the consequences of it. Dr. John Clarke. verses 9, 10, have evidently reference to ver. 8, so have

8. Woe unto them &c.] From hence to the twenty- these verses to the two preceding. As the houses of the fifth verse, sundry vices are enumerated, which, as they covetous are to be left uninhabited, and the fields to brought temporal judgments upon the Jews, so at the become desolate, so they that indulged in feasting and bar of Christ shall exclude from happiness, and consign drinking are to perish with hunger and thirst. Bp. all that are found guilty of them to the woes and punish- Lowth. ments here denounced : namely, the covetous and un 14. Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, &c.] Habakjust; the drunkard and voluptuary; all that wilfully kuk uses the same image with great force, in a companeglect, or impiously despise, the knowledge of God, as rison of the ambitious and avaricious conqueror, Hab. i. well the slothful ignorant, as the proudly wise; all that 5. But hell, or the grave, is here introduced to much perversely confound the distinctions of moral good and greater advantage in person; and placed before our eyes evil. Wogan.

in the form of a ravenous monster, opening wide his 10. one bath,---an homeran ephah.] A“bath” and immeasurable jaws, and swallowing his prey altogether. “an ephah” are the same measure, about seven gallons Bp. Lowth. and a half; they contain but a tenth of an “homer," 17. Then shall the lambs &c.] Their luxurious habiEzek. xlv. 11. W. Lowth.

tations shall become a pasture for flocks. Bp. Lowth.

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

say concern

and injustice.

CHAP. V. The executioners of God's judgments. 18 Woe unto them that draw ini- | as rottenness, and their blossom shall about 760. quity with cords of vanity, and sin as go up as dust: because they have cast about 760. it were with a cart rope :

away the law of the LORD of hosts,
19 That say, Let him make speed, and despised the word of the Holy
and hasten his work, that we may see One of Israel.
it : and let the counsel of the Holy 25 Therefore is the anger of the
One of Israel draw nigh and come, Lord kindled against his people, and
that we may know it!

he hath stretched forth his hand against + Heb. that 20 ( Woe unto them + that call them, and hath smitten them: and the ing evil. It is evil good, and good evil; that put hills did tremble, and their carcases good, &c.

darkness for light, and light for dark- were || torn in the midst of the streets. 11 Or, as dung. ness; that put bitter for sweet, and For all this his anger is not turned - Chap: 9:12 sweet for bitter !

away, but his hand is stretched out 4, 21 Woe unto them that are wise in still. + Heb. before their own eyes, and prudent + in their 26 9 And he will lift up an ensign their face. own sight!

to the nations from far, and will hiss
22 Woe unto them that are mighty unto them from the end of the earth:
to drink wine, and men of strength to and, behold, they shall come with
mingle strong drink :

speed swiftly:
23 Which "justify the wicked for 27 None shall be weary nor stum-
reward, and take away the righteous- ble among them; none shall slumber
ness of the righteous from him ! nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of

24 Therefore as † the fire devour- their loins be loosed, nor the latchet
eth the stubble, and the flame con- of their shoes be broken:
sumeth the chaff, so their root shall be 28 Whose arrows are sharp, and all

e Prov. 3. 7. Rom. 12. 16.

f Prov. 17. 15.

# Heb. the longue of fire.

18. that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, &c.] may allude to the thunder which accompanies them; That are not only drawn to sin by the allurements of to the trembling of mount Sinai when God came down the world, but are active and industrious in drawing sin upon it, Exod. xix. 18; or, to the last general judgto themselves, or themselves to sin : “with cords of ment. See note on chap. ii. 10. He

says,

“i did tremvanity,” that is, with vain and deceitful arguments and ble;" but the representing of a thing future, as if pretences, whereby sinners generally draw themselves to already accomplished, is very common with the Prosin : “with a cart rope,” that is, with all their might, as phets. W. Lowth. beasts commonly do, that draw carts with ropes. Poole, 26. And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from Bp. Hall. The cause is here put for the effect : “ini- far, &c.] The Prophets call distant countries in the quity” and “sin” for the punishment which they pro-popular language, as here, “the end of the earth ;”, the voke. The meaning then is, “Woe unto them who Babylonians may be primarily meant here, as chap, foolishly draw upon themselves the reward of iniquity; xxxix. 3; Jer. v. 15: and as the Medes, with respect nay, set their shoulders to pull it forward, as a beast of to Babylon, are said (chap. xiii. 5,)“ to come from a far burden does a cart rope !" Rosenmüller, Bp. Stock. country, from the end of heaven;" but the Prophet may

20. Woe unto them that call evil good, &c.] The Pro- also look farther, and the threat is probably to be exphet compares the difference of moral “good and evil” tended to the desolation of Judea by the Romans; to presented to the human understanding with that of whom the phrases used here will apply better than to “light and darkness" discerned by the eye, of “bitter the Chaldees. Vitringa. and sweet” tasted by the palate; that is, as a plain and Though the Babylonians lived at no great distance undeniable truth which forceth its evidence upon a ra- from Judea, yet many that composed their army did : tional mind: to transgress God's commandments, his indeed all foreigners were looked upon as living a great laws and statutes, delivered by his prophets, and con- way off by the Jews, because they maintained but little firmed by a series of miracles, was a heinous crime; but commerce with their neighbours. W. Lowth. to “call evil good, and good evil,” was to advance a and will hiss unto them] “The metaphor is taken step farther in impiety, to lay the profane axe to the from the practice of those who keep bees; who draw root of righteousness, to destroy all religion, natural as them out of their hives into the fields, and lead them well as revealed, and to sink into mere atheism. Dr. back again, by a hiss or whistle ;” say Cyril and TheoJortin.

doret. At chap. vii. 18, the metaphor is more apparent 22.-- to mingle strong drink :] See notes on chap. i. by being carried farther; there the hostile armies are 22; xxiv. 9.

expressed by “the fly,” and “the bee.” Bp. Lowth. - so their root shall be as rottenness, &c.] So they 27.- neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed,] shall be utterly destroyed; and shall be as a tree, whose The Eastern people, wearing long and loose garments, root is rotten, and whose blossom flies away like dust. were unfit for action, or business of any kind, without Bp. Hall.

girding their clothes about them: when their business 25.- the hills did tremble,] The Prophet refers per- was finished, they took off their girdles. A girdle therehaps to the great earthquake in the days of Uzziah, fore denotes strength and activity : to unloose the girAmos i. 1; Zech. xiv. 5. Bp. Louth. But the mountains dle, to deprive of strength, to render unfit for action: it and the earth itself are often said to tremble at God's was of course an essential part of a soldier's accoutrejudgments; (see Jer. iv. 24; Mic. i. 4; Nah. i. 5; ment. See 1 Kings xx. 11; Isa. xlv. 1. 5. Bp. Lowth. Hab. ii. 10; Ps. lxxvii. 18 ; cxiv. 7 ;) which expressions See the note on Job xii. 21. Vol. II.

Q

24.

about 758.

skirts thereof.

The executioners of God's judgments. ISAIAH.

Isaiah's vision of God's glory. Before their bows bent, their horses' hoofs sage. 9 He sheweth the obstinacy of the

Before CHRIST

CHRIST about 760. shall be counted like flint, and their people unto their desolation. 13 A remnant wheels like a whirlwind :

shall be saved. 29. Their roaring shall be like a IN the year that king Uzziah died lion, they shall roar like young lions : I å saw also the Lord sitting upon a John 12. 41. yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of a throne, high and lifted up, and is his Or, the the prey, and shall carry it away safe, train filled the temple. and none shall deliver it.

2 Above it stood the seraphims: 30 And in that day they shall roar each one had six wings; with twain against them like the roaring of the he covered his face, and with twain

sea: and if one look unto the land, he covered his feet, and with twain he ! Or, distress. behold darkness and || sorrow, || and did fly. it is light, it the light is darkened in the heavens 3 And + one cried unto another, cried to this

. thereof.

and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the Rev. Ms. CH AP. VI.

Lord of hosts : + the whole earth is glory is the 1 Isaiah, in a vision of the Lord in his glory, full of his glory.

5 being terrified, is confirmed for his mes 4 And the posts of the + door

+ Heb. this

shall be dark in the destructions thereof.

fulness of the
whole earth.
+ Heb.
thresholds.

28. their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint,] now still depending, and will not be fully accomplished The shoeing of horses with iron plates nailed to the hoof till the final restoration of Israel. Bp. Lowth. is quite a modern practice, unknown to the ancients, as I saw the Lord] The Lord, whom Isaiah saw, appears from the silence of Greek and Roman writers, was the Jehovah, and Lord of hosts, ver. 3. 5; and St. especially those who treat of horse medicine : for this John testifies, in the passage given in the margin, that reason, the strength, firmness, and solidity of a horse's it was Christ, and Christ's glory, that Isaiah saw; it hoof was of much greater importance with them than follows, that, in St. John's account, Christ is Jehovah. with us, and was esteemed one of the first praises of a | Dr. Waterland. fine horse. Xenophon, in his treatise on horsemanship, - sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his gives particular directions for hardening a horse's hoofs. train filled the temple.] The ideas are taken from EastFor want of the artificial defence, which we use, Amos ern royalty; the Prophet could not represent the in(chap. vi. 12,) speaks of it as a thing as impracticable effable presence of God by any other than sensible and to make horses run upon a hard rock, as to plough up earthly images. The particular scenery of it is taken the same rock with oxen, Bp. Lowth.

from the temple. God is represented as seated on his 30.- they shall roar against them like the roaring of the throne above the ark in the most holy place, where the sea : &c.] What speak I of the roaring of a lion ? yea, glory appeared above the cherubim, surrounded by his these Chaldeans, which I will bring upon them, shall come attendant ministers. See Jer. xvii. 12; Ezek. xliii. 7. roaring in like a mighty sea in a tempest, with such Bp. Lowth. terrour, that all shall be filled with confusion; the earth 2. he covered his feet,] By the "feet” the Hebrews shall be darkened with sorrow; and the heavens shall mean all the lower parts of the body. Bp. Lowth. yield no glimpse of comfort to the distressed. Bp. Hall. 3.- one cried unto another,] The one singing responSee notes on chap. xiii. Jo. 13.

sively to the other. Bp. Lowth. After some such manner From this chapter we perceive in what a special was the Divine anthem of Moses sung, Exod. xv. 1. 20, manner God blessed his people Israel; how they abused | 21. So we read, Ezra iii. 11, at the building of the his gifts, and turned his grace into wantonness; and second temple did the priests and Levites sing together how He threatened to visit their sins with his judg- by course, in praising and giving thanks to the Lord : ments : the issue and execution of his threatenings we and this hath been the practice of the Christian church well know. The proper application of all this to our- all along, and is still continued among us, as being the selves is briefly hinted by St. Paul, “ If God spared not most easy and proper way for all sorts of people to the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not join together in setting forth the praises of God, and thee,” Rom. xi. 21. We, who succeed them in the the best means of keeping our minds intent upon the spiritual vineyard, the Church of the true God, have no great work we are about, and to excite one another in reason to flatter ourselves that our bad fruits shall be the performance of it. Bp. Beveridge. more indulged than theirs. But rather the judgments, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts :) The which have befallen them, will make our disobedience Christian church hath always thought that the doctrine the more inexcusable, if we commit the same sins, and of the Blessed Trinity is implied in this repetition; it is are not afraid of the same punishments. Reading. intimated in several other parts of the Old Testament,

particularly in the form of blessing, which God comChap. VI. ver. 1. In the year that king Uzziah died I manded the priests to use, Numb. vi. 24–26. W. Lowth. saw &c.] As this vision seems to contain a solemn de- See the notes on that passage. signation of Isaiah to the prophetical office, it is by most “They are not content," says Origen,“ to say it once interpreters thought to be the first in order of his pro- or twice, but take the perfect number of the Trinity, phecies. But Isaiah is said (chap. i. 1,) to have pro- thereby to declare the manifold holiness of God; which phesied in the time of Uzziah, and the phrase, in the is a repeated intercommunion of a threefold holiness ; year when Uzziah died, probably means after the death the holiness of the Father, the holiness of the only beof Uzziah; as the same phrase (chap. xiv. 28,) means gotten Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”. And that the after the death of Ahaz. This might be a new designa- Seraphim did really celebrate all the three Persons of tion, to introduce more solemnly à general declaration the Godhead upon this occasion, is no conjecture; but of the whole course of God's dispensations, in regard to a point capable of the clearest demonstration. The his people, and the fates of the nation; which are even Prophet tells us, ver. 1, he “saw the Lord sitting upon

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