« AnteriorContinuar »
Before CHRIST about 741.
+ Heb. in
Comfort shall be to them that fear God. ISAIAH.
Great afflictions to idolaters. Before and it shall not stand: for God is from the LORD of hosts, which dwellabout 741. with us.
eth in mount Zion.
me + with a strong hand, and instruct- unto you, Seek unto them that have strength of
ed me that I should not walk in the familiar spirits, and unto wizards that
and that mutter: should not a 12 Say ye not, A confederacy, to people seek unto their God ? for the all them to whom this people shall say, living to the dead ? A confederacy; neither fear ye their 20 To the law and to the testi- d Luke 16. fear, nor be afraid.
mony: if they speak not according to 13 Sanctify the Lord of hosts this word, it is because there is † no + Heb. no himself; and let him be your fear, and light in them. let him be your dread.
21 And they shall pass through it, 14 And he shall be for a sanctuary; hardly bestead and hungry: and it
but for å a stone of stumbling and for shall come to pass, that when they 1.uke 2. 31. a rock of offence to both the houses shall be hungry, they shall fret them
of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to selves, and curse their king and their
God, and look upward.
, and be broken, earth; and behold trouble and darkLuke 20. 18. and be snared, and be taken.
ness, dimness of anguish; and they
by the kingdom and birth of Christ. 8 The
judgments upon Israel for their pride, 13
for their hypocrisy, 18 and for their imfor signs and for wonders in Israel
a Chap. 28.
b Matt. 21. 44.
c Heb. 2. 13.
11. For the Lord spake thus to me with a strong hand,] | It would be part of the great Prophet's office to explain The spirit of prophecy is expressed by the hand of the sense of the Scriptures, and to remove the obthe Lord being upon the Prophet ; 2 Kings ii. 15; scurity that was to remain on many prophecies till his Ezek. ii. 14; viii. 1. W. Lowth.
coming. Bp. Chandler. God's faithful servants however, that I should not walk in the way of this people, who depended on his word, would lay them up care&c.] The Prophet is commanded to arm those that fully in their memories : of this number Isaiah proheard him against the prevalent fears of the confederacy fesses himself to be, ver. 17. W. Lowth, Dr. Wells. of Syria and Israel, and exhorts them not to join in the 18. Behold, I and the children &c.] See the Intropopular cry in that matter, which was full of despon- duction. dency and distrust of God. The twelfth verse should Isaiah speaks here in the person of Christ as well as rather be rendered, “Say ye not, A confederacy, of or his own, as appears from the passage referred to in the concerning all them of whom this people,” &c. Vi- margin. Dr. Wells. tringa.
19. - that peep, and that mutter : &c.] To “peep" 14. And he shall be for a sanctuary ; but for a stone signifies to cry as young birds ; (Dr. Johnson ;) see of stumbling &c.] God and his promises, which should chap. x. 14; to chirp, or whisper. Those who pretended be men's refuge and security, become the occasion of to familiar spirits spoke inwardly and imperfectly, as if mischief and hurt to unbelievers. W. Lowth.
their voice proceeded out of the caverns of the earth. It is the Lord of hosts who is meant here: but the W. Lowth. See note on chap. xlv. 19. prophecy is interpreted of Christ by the concurrent tes - for the living to the dead ?] That is, Should timony of St. Peter and St. Paul : (see the margin.) they seek for the living to the dead? By this may be Christ therefore is one with the Lord of hosts. Dean meant idols; (see Ps. cxv. 5—8;) opposed (1 Thess. i. Stanhope, Bp. Wilson.
9,) to the living God; or allusion may be made to the to both the houses of Israel,] This expression is heathen practice of deifying their heroes, enquiring after sufficient to shew, that the Prophet enlarges his views oracles, &c.; see chap. Ixv. 4. W. Lowth. beyond Rezin and Pekah's association, the immediate 20. To the law and to the testimony :) If we would object of this prophecy; for then Judah and Israel really do good, such as God Himself will accept of, we were in different interests, but this verse speaks of must not look to our roving fancies, nor to our carnal them as involved in the same sin and punishment. W. reason, but to the precepts of God Himself. This is the Lowth.
rule to square our actions by; this the test, whatever 16. Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my dis- is suggested to us, from without or from within, to ciples.] The Prophets sometimes declare concerning try the spirits whether they be of God or not; if any their prophetical discourses and actions, that they were thing exalt itself against the obedience of this rule, it dark and as yet unintelligible, and should be more clearly is no sweet impulse of the Holy Spirit of God, but a understood about the latter times, in which they were strong delusion of the lying spirit of Satan. Bps, to find their completion; chap. xxix, 11; Dan. xii. 4. Beveridge and Sanderson.
Before CHRIST about 940.
Before CHRIST about 740.
|| Or, When
b Judg. 7. 22. ch. 10. 26.
he lightly afflicted the land of Ze- of his burden, and the staff of his thou brakest. about 771. bulun and the land of Naphtali, and shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, as about 740. afterward did more grievously af- in the day of TM Midian.
flict her by the way of the sea, 5 || For every battle of the warrior | Or, When | Or, beyond Jordan, in Galilee || of the is with confused noise, and garments batile of the nations.
rolled in blood; ll but this shall be warrior was, 2 The people that walked in with burning and † fuel of fire. Eph. 5. 14. darkness have seen a great light: they
6 For unto us a child is born, unto 1 Heb. meat. that dwell in the land of the shadow us a son is given : and the govern- c John 3:16. of death, upon them hath the light ment shall be upon his shoulder: and shined.
his name shall be called Wonderful, 3 Thou hast multiplied the nation, Counsellor, The mighty God, The | Or, to kim. and || not increased the joy: they joy everlasting Father, The Prince of
before thee according to the joy in Peace.
a Matt. 4. 16.
|| Or, and it wae, &c.
Chap. IX. ver. 1. Nevertheless the dimness shall not 6. For unto us a child is born, &c.] The verse may be such as was in her vexation, &c.] Yet, though this be thus paraphrased : It is not for God's people to rest calamity shall be exceeding great, it shall not be utterly in the temporal deliverance from their captivity, but to so extreme and disconsolate, as that former which the erect their thoughts unto higher hopes, even the happy land of Israel shall endure, when Tiglath-pileser shall assurances of salvation by the true Messiah, who is to have miserably afficted it, 2 Kings xy. 29; and when come into the world : For unto us that Child is born, it shall have been conquered and wasted by Shalmane- and unto us that Son of God is given, who shall take ser. Bp. Hall.
upon his shoulder the perpetual government of his 2. The people that walked in darkness have seen a great Church. Bp. Hall. light:] There is a comfortable assurance of delivery the government shall be upon his shoulder :] That in this miserable captivity: for behold, the Messiah shall is, the ensign of government; the sceptre, the sword, certainly come, and by his doctrine and Spirit shall en the key, or the like, borne upon, or hung from, the lighten those that sit in darkness and the shadow of shoulder. See chap. xxii. 22. Bp. Lowth. death, beginning his blessed Gospel in those utmost his name shall be called] That is, He shall be; skirts of Galilee. Bp. Hall. The event is true and for all this could not be the proper name of any one; evident: as these lands had the first share in the ca- the Messiah will be all this : it does not infer that He lamity, from Assyrian invasion, 2 Kings xv. 29; so had shall be commonly known by such title. Bp. Kidder. they à prerogative in enjoying the presence of the Mes- 'Tis the prophetick method, by the imposition as it were siah. Jos. Mede. The prophet is particular in naming of a name, to declare the quality. Jos. Mede. Thus Zebulun, to which tribe Nazareth belonged; and Naph- (chap. i. 26,) it was prophesied that Jerusalem should tali, in which was Capernaum, situate on the sea of Ti- be “called the city of righteousness.". Why? because, berias; both which places were beyond Jordan. Bp. as was promised in the words foregoing, “God would Kidder.
restore her judges as at the first,” &c.; her manners 3. Thou hast multiplied the nation,] Namely, the should answer that title. See too, Luke i. 32. 35; it true Israel, which God shall enlarge by adding daily might be proyed by a multitude of instances. W. Lowth, to the Church such as believe the Gospel. Dr. Wells. Dean Stanhope.
and not increased the joy :). The marginal read Wonderful,] In his birth; in his preservation ing, “Thou hast increased the joy to him, or to it,” from Herod and his other enemies; in the favour of seems most agreeable to the context: if we keep the God; in his mighty works; in his resurrection, his reading of the text, it may be translated by way of in- ascension, and the sending down of his Spirit upon terrogation, “ Wilt thou not increase the joy :” Then his Apostles, enabling them also to work miracles, as follows the answer, " the joy before thee," &c. This He had done. Reading. various reading originates in the Hebrew, where the Counsellor,] As knowing the mind of the Lord. particle signifying not is very like, and often mistaken Bp. Chandler. Not unlikely called so, saith Dr. Knight, for the word signifying to him. W. Louth.
from his being one of that great council when God said, joy in harvest, --when they divide the spoil.] “Let us make man in our image.” Bp. Wilson. See These expressions signify great rejoicing ; see chap. St. Chrysostom's observations at Gen. i. 26. xvi. 10; 1 Sam. xxx. 16. It is said to be before T'he mighty God,] The same title which is given God, which denotes a religious joy, Deut. xii. 12. W. to the One Supreme God of Israel, chap. x. 21. Dr. Louth.
Waterland. This is the doctrine which the Evan4. — the staff of his shoulder,] A staff laid across gelists, Apostles, and ininisters of Christ constantly the shoulder, upon the ends of which slaves carried taught of Him, that He was God from all eternity. burdens. Parkhurst.
Reading. 5.— but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.] The everlasting Father,] Or, "Father of eterThe word “ this" is not in the original. The sense nity,” or “of that which is everlasting,” a title very seems to be, that all instruments of warfare should be applicable to the Messiah, whether we consider Him as destroyed and become fuel for fire, as in Ps. xlvi. 9; "the Author of eternal salvation unto all them that where the image is employed to express complete victory obey him," Heb. v. 9, or as the Founder of the new and a perfect establishment of peace. See also Ezek. age, or world to come, the Head and Introducer of a xxxix. 8—10, Bp. Lowth.
dispensation which is to last for ever: agreeably to this
+ Heb. with
The judgments upon Israel
for their pride, hypocrisy, Before 7 Of the increase of his govern 12 The Syrians before, and the CHRIST about 741. ment and peace d there shall be no end, Philistines behind; and they shall about 738. à Luke T. 82, upon the throne of David, and upon devour Israel + with open mouth.
his kingdom, to order it, and to esta- * For all this his anger is not turned whole mouth, blish it with judgment and with jus- away, but his hand is stretched out & 10.9.
tice from henceforth even for ever. still. e 2 Kings 19. The e zeal of the Lord of hosts will 13 | For the people turneth not perform this.
unto him that smiteth them, neither
from Israel head and tail, branch and
teacheth lies, he is the tail.
17 Therefore the Lord shall have called blessed 11 Therefore the Lord shall set no joy in their young men, neither * Heb.
up the adversaries of Rezin against shall have mercy on their fatherless swallowed up. + Heb. him, and tjoin his enemies toge- and widows: for every one is an
hypocrite and an evildoer, and every
I. Or, they that are
last notion, the Septuagint, Vulgate, and others render, concerning the perpetuity of his family and kingdom “Father of the age to come." Vitringa. The phrase did chiefly relate to Christ, and were fulfilled in Him. might also be rendered, “the Father of eternity,” that W. Lowth. David was the shepherd of the natural is, the Owner of it, the Everlasting ; according to the Israel : Christ is the shepherd of the true Israel, enlarged Eastern custom of calling the possessor of any quality by the reception of the Gentiles into the fold. the father of it. Bp. Stock.
8. The Lord sent a word into Jacob,] Here begins, The Prince of Peace.) This name does in an and ends with chap. x. 4, a distinct prophecy, addressed eminent manner belong to Christ, inasmuch as He is exclusively to the kingdom of Israel; divided into four the sole Mediator between God and man: the end of parts, each the particular punishment of some grievous his coming was not to procure for his followers a offence : after each is repeated a general denunciation visible earthly peace; but peace with Heaven, the peace of a further reserve of Divine wrath, used before by of God. Wogan. The peace and tranquillity of Christ's the Prophet, on a like occasion, (see the margin,) and government is however set forth by the Prophets in making, as we call it, the burden of the song. Bp. very pompous and magnificent descriptions, as here Lowth. follows, "of the increase of his government and peace 10. The bricks are fallen down, but we will build with there shall be no end ;” and as this is partly fulfilled in hewn stones : &c.] The Eastern bricks are only clay well the inward joy and consolation, which is dispensed at moistened with water, mixed with straw, and dried in present by the secret influences of the Holy Ghost, and the sun. Sir J. Chardin. These bricks are properly in the conversion of many nations, that had persecuted opposed to hewn stone, so greatly superior in beauty and opposed it, this may be sufficient to confirm our and durableness: the sycomores, timber of little worth, hopes that it shall hereafter be more perfectly accom- are with equal propriety opposed to the cedars ; "with plished, and nothing left to disturb the peace and quiet- which,” as Dr. Shaw remarks on this passage, “ they ness of his reign. Dr. Berriman. Although Christ be can stand in no competition at all for beauty and ornaindeed "exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour,” though ment.” We meet with the same opposition of cedars to He have “all power in heaven and in earth,” already sycomores, 1 Kings x. 27. By this figurative speech, vested in the human nature united to his own Divine the people of Israel boast that they easily shall be able person, and be at present “ Lord of all," and of his to repair their present losses, (sustained perhaps by the Church in a more peculiar manner; yet is not that first Assyrian invasion by Tiglath-pileser,) and to bring power so visibly and fully exerted as it shall one day be; their affairs to a more flourishing state than ever. Bp. nor all those glorious effects as yet accomplished, which Lowth. the Prophets foretel, when describing the victorious 11. – adversaries of Rezin against him,] When the and peaceful, the unlimited and everlasting, dominion king of Assyria had subdued the Syrians, he made them of the Messiah. He actually reigns in the hearts of men join him in invading Israel. W. Lowth. even now, and by his grace subdues the enemies of our 13. For the people turneth not unto him that smiteth souls; but this empire is not so absolute as it shall be, them,] See note on chap. i. 5. when every enemy shall have been utterly destroyed. 14. -- head and tail, branch and rush,] Both the What period is fixed for the perfect and ultimate accom- noblest and basest of the people; the strongest, and plishment of these things, as it does not seem possible the weakest, and most contemptible, of that nation. Bp. for us to determine, so neither is it material too curiously Hall. to enquire. Dean Stanhope.
15.-- and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail.] 7. – upon the throne of David] The Messiah is said He is the most vile and despicable of all the people. to sit upon the throne of David, because all the promises Bp. Hall.
+ Heb. cul.
& 9. 12.
The woe of tyrants. Before
mouth speaketh || folly. For all this 2 To turn aside the needy from CHRIST about 738. his anger is not turned away, but his judgment, and to take away the right about 713. hand is stretched out still.
from the poor of my people, that I Or, villany.
18 For wickedness burneth as widows may be their prey, and that
which shall come from far ? to whom
of hosts is the land darkened, and the ye leave your glory ? + Heb. meat. people shall be as the + fuel of the 4 Without me they shall bow down
fire: no man shall spare his brother. under the prisoners, and they shall
20 And he shall + snatch on the fall under the slain. a For all this his a Chap. 5. 25. right hand, and be hungry; and he anger is not turned away, but his shall eat on the left hand, and they hand is stretched out still. shall not be satisfied : they shall eat 5 ||| 0 + Assyrian, the rod of mine . Or, Woe to
The Assyrian. every man the flesh of his own arm: anger, || and the staff in their hand is + Heb. 21 Manasseh, Ephraim; and Eph- mine indignation.
|| Or, though. raim, Manasseh : and they together 6 I will send him against an hyposhall be against Judah. For all this critical nation, and
For all this critical nation, and against the people his anger is not turned away, but his of my wrath will I give him a charge, hand is stretched out still.
to take the spoil, and to take the
prey, and † to tread them down like + Heb. to lay CHAP. X.
the mire of the streets.
7 Howbeit he meaneth not so,
86 For he saith, Are not my princes 52 Kings 18. COE unto them that decree un- altogether kings ?
righteous decrees, and || that 9 Is not Calno as Carchemish ? is write grievousness which they have not Hamath as Arpad ? is not Samaprescribed;
ria as Dan us ?
them a treading.
24, 19 10, &c.
about 713. 1 Or, to the writers that write grievQusness.
18. — it shall devour the briers and thorns, &c.] Briers Here begins a denunciation of the judgments of God and thorns are often put generally for the wicked, as against the Assyrians in general, and against Sennacheuseless and unprofitable, proper objects of God's wrath, rib in particular. See ver. 12. Bp. Newton. to be burnt up. See chap. xxxiji. 12; and the note on 7. Howbeit he meaneth not so,] The Assyrian's design chap. xxvii. 4. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth.
was purely to extend his conquests, and gratify his own 20. — they shall eat every man the flesh of his own ambition; but God, who bringeth good out of evil, makes arm:] This, and what goes before, signify that they the wickedness of some nations the means of correcting should plunder and devour those of their own country that of others; and the worst of men, in the worst of and blood: compare chap. xlix. 26; Deut. xxviii. 53; their crimes, the undesigning instruments of his right2 Kings vi. 28. Jeremiah in a similar passage, chap. eous purposes. W. Lowth, Abp. Secker. xix. 9, has, “ Every one shall eat the flesh of his friend.” What a fine instance does the Assyrian afford us of W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth.
the manner in which Providence, using the instru
mentality of man's free choice foreseen, causes all the Chap. X. ver. 3. - in the desolation which shall come schemes of worldly politicians to work together for the from far ?] From Assyria. The Assyrians were a dis- accomplishment of his designs, while they are only tant people compared with the Philistines, Syrians, &c. attending to their own interests ! Bp. Horne. with whom Israel was principally concerned. Vitringa. Who can sufficiently admire the wisdom of Almighty But see W. Lowth's note on chap. v. 26.
God, who so ordered events, that the various instru4. Without me they shall bow down under &c.] That ments of Satan, who combined to bring about the death is, Without my aid they shall be taken captive even by of our Blessed Saviour, did in fact each contribute the captives, and subdued by the vanquished. Bp. Lowth. to finish the great work of man’s redemption, which See the note on chap. ix. 11; others render simply, some of them knew not of, others opposed, and none in "among the prisoners, &c.”
the least intended! Dean Stanhope. 5. O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger,] Come hither 9. Is not Calno as Carchemish ? &c.] Have not I been then, O) thou Assyrian, come and execute my just equally successful against all these places? “Calno ” lay judgment upon my people; for thou art the rod of upon the Euphrates; as did “Carchemish,” 2 Chron. mine anger, and the weapons, which are in thy hand, xxxv. 20. Hamath" upon the confines of the Jewish whereby thou fightest against Judah, are wielded by territory towards Syria, Amos vi. 14; where it is spelt mine indignation. Bp. Hall. Concerning the change in Hemnath. W. Lowth. That Hamath and Arpad were this verse from the second to the third person, see Bp. cities of Syria, should appear from Jer. xlix. 23. Vitringa. Lowth's note on Deut. xxxii. 5.
Hamath was the capital of a part of Syria, bearing the
the soul and erer to the
The Assyrian for his pride
shall be broken. 10 As my hand hath found the 16 Therefore shall the Lord, the
CHRIST about 713. kingdoms of the idols, and whose Lord of hosts, send among his fat about 713.
graven images did excel them of ones leanness; and under his glory
he shall kindle a burning like the
for a fire, and his Holy One for a
that when the Lord hath performed his thorns and his briers in one day; c 2 Kings 19. his whole work upon mount Zion 18 And shall consume the glory + Heb. visit and on Jerusalem, I will + punish the of his forest, and of his fruitful field, "Heb. of the fruit + of the stout heart of the king + both soul and body: and they shall Heb from greatness of of Assyria, and the glory of his high be as when a standardbearer fainteth. looks.
19 And the rest of the trees of his
flesh. 13 For he saith, By the strength forest shall be + few, that a child may + Heb. of my hand I have done it, and by write them. my wisdom; for I am prudent: and 20 ( And it shall come to pass in I have removed the bounds of the that day, that the remnant of Israel, people, and have robbed their trea- and such as are escaped of the house sures, and I have put down the in- of Jacob, shall no more again stay habitants || like a valiant man: upon him that smote them ; but shall
14 And my hand hath found as a stay upon the LORD, the Holy One nest the riches of the people: and of Israel, in truth. as one gathereth eggs that are left, 21 The remnant shall return, even have I gathered all the earth; and the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty there was none that moved the wing, God. or opened the mouth, or peeped. 22 For though thy people Israel a Nom. 9. 27.
15 Shall the ax boast itself against be as the sand of the sea, yet a remhim that heweth therewith ? or shall nant +of them shall return: ° the + Heb, in, or,
the saw magnify itself against him consumption decreed shall overflow e Chap. 28. hodinuica that shaketh it ? il as if the rod should ll with righteousness.
shake itself against them that lift it 23 f For the Lord God of hosts 1 Chap. 28.
|| Or, like many people.
shake them that lift it up. | Or, that which is not wood.
same name; it was situate on the northern frontier of way of thus joining the negative particle to a noun, to the land of Israel; whence we find frequent mention signify in a strong manner a total negation of the thing of “the entrance of Hamath,” Numb. xxxiv. 8, &c. expressed by the noun. So here it means him who is Arpad is with good reason held to be the island of far from being an inert piece of wood; is an animated Aradus, in the Mediterranean sea, which is not far from and active being; not an instrument, but an agent. the shore, and nearly opposite to Hamath. Dr. Wells, Other instances of this form occur at chap. xxxi. 8; Dr. Blayney. See the note on 2 Sam. viii. 9.
lv. 2. See also Job xxvi. 2, 3; Amos vi. 13. Bp. Lowth. 12. — when the Lord hath performed his whole work] 16. — under his glory he shall kindle a burning] This When the wicked, whom God makes instrumental in expression denotes the stroke by which Sennacherib's carrying on his designs, have served the purposes of army was to be destroyed. W. Lowth. See note at Divine Providence, they are justly punished, for their 2 Kings xix. 35. pride and ambition, their cruelty and tyranny to their 20. And it shall come to pass in that day, that &c.] neighbours : the wickedness of those acts being alto- | That is, A day shall come when, &c. Bp. IVilson. See gether their own; and the good ends served being be- note on chap. iv. 2. side the intention of the agents, ver. 7, and ascribable shall no more again stay upon him that smote only to God. W. Lowth, Bp. Newton. See notes on them ;] As Ahaz did upon the king of Assyria, (2 Kings ver. 7, of this chapter, and on chap. xlvii. 6.
xvi. 7, compared with 2 Chron. xxviii. 20,) who after14. - opened the mouth, or peeped.] See note on chap. ward proved the worst enemy the Jews had. W. Lowth. viii. 19.
To purchase his powerful ally's forbearance, as he had 15. Shall the ax boast itself &c.] Is not the Assyrian before bought his assistance, Ahaz was forced to strip as my axe, to hew down Judah, my saw to divide it, my himself and his people of all the wealth he could posrod to scourge it, my staff to beat it ? and shall this sibly raise. Bp. Lowth. axe, this saw, this rod, this staff magnify itself against 23. — the Lord God of hosts shall make a consumption, the hand that useth and wieldeth it? as if the instrument even determined, &c.] Such a consumption, determined could do ought without or against the arm that moves in the counsels of God, with the preservation of a small it. Bp. Hall.
remnant, will apply to several periods of the history of as if it were no wood.] Rather render, (as the the people of God: to the subversion of the kingdom of margin does in part,)“ against that which is not wood;” | Israel, with the destruction of a great number of Judah; or, to keep still closer to the expression of the original, (see note on chap. viii. 6;) to the Babylonish captivity; to “against the no-wood.” The Hebrews have a peculiar the oppression of Antiochus Epiphanes: but the prophecy