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+ Heb. those that observe me.
David prayeth for salvation.
He complaineth of his distress. SA
AVE me, O God, by thy name, 2 Attend unto me, and hear me: I
and judge me by thy strength. mourn in my complaint, and make a
3 Because of the voice of the ene-
4 My heart is sore pained within
5 Fearfulness and trembling are
6 I will freely sacrifice unto thee: 6 And I said, Oh that I had wings I will praise thy name, O LORD; for like a dove! for then would I fly it is good.
and be at rest.
8 I would hasten my escape from
the windy storm and tempest.
9 Destroy, O Lord, and divide
and sorrow are in the midst of it.
thereof: deceit and guile depart not
and hide not thyself from my 12 For it was not an enemy that supplication.
reproached me; then I could have
Ver. 1.-judge me] Do me justice. Green.
Ver. 2, 3. Attend unto me, &c.] Attend unto me, and 3. For strangers are risen up against me,] The answer me, while in my complaint I weep and cry aloud, Ziphites, though David's countrymen, acted the part of because of the insults of the enemy, and the oppression “strangers," or aliens,” in seeking to deliver him up of the wicked : for they lay iniquity to my charge, and to his unjust and cruel enemy. Bp. Horne.
bear me a violent hatred. Green. they have not set God before them.] They have 4. — the terrors of death are fallen upon me.] That cast off all regard to his presence and authority, and all is, I am brought to the very brink of destruction. Bp. fear of his judgments. Poole.
Wilson. 6. I will freely sacrifice unto thee :] I will sacrifice to 8. I would hasten my escape &c.] I would hasten Thee a voluntary oblation. Dr. Hammond.
away to shelter myself from this fierce persecution, The prayers of great men in distress, and their thanks- which like a sudden storm threatens utterly to destroy givings after great deliverances, have always been mat- me. Bp. Patrick. ter of uncommon delight to curiosity, and men of serious 9. Destroy, O Lord, &c.] In these words, David beand religious spirits. Nor does the glory of any great seeches God to divide, confound, and bring to nought, man ever shine out to their eyes in half the lustre, as the counsels of an iniquitous faction; for so in the hiswhen they behold him upon his knees, lifting up his tory we find him saying, “ O Lord, I pray thee, turn eyes, or stretching out his hands to heaven, or, what is the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness," 2 Sam. yet greater, prostrating himself before it, in humiliation xy. 31. Bp. Horne. and acknowledgment. Then is the hero seen in all his 10. Day and night they go &c.] The “violence and dignity! Dr. Delaney. The royal Prophet here teaches strife," mentioned at the conclusion of the preceding us by his example that prayer should always be our verse, are here described as going their rounds, like an refuge in time of danger; that, even when men have armed watch upon the walls, to guard rebellion, which conspired our ruin, if we call upon God with a pure had taken up its residence in the heart of the city, from heart, He will protect us; and that, when He has the attacks of loyalty, right, and justice, driven with the granted our prayers, we ought to bless Him with all our king beyond Jordan. Bp. Horne. soul. Ostervald.
12–14. For it was not &c.] The many aggravating
circumstances of Ahithophel's treason against David, Psalm LV: It is generally imagined that David and that of Judas against Christ, are here strongly composed this Psalm when he was forced to flee sud- marked. The treachery of pretended friends is generally denly from Jerusalem, on the breaking out of Absalom's to the Church, as it was to her Lord, the beginning of rebellion, and the treachery of his principal counsellor sorrows. Ingratitude, malice, and falsehood, are ingreAhithophel, of whom he complains bitterly in the four- dients that must always meet in the composition of a teenth verse. Travell,
traitor. Bp. Horne.
+ Heb. a man
+ Heb. shall not half their days.
God in company:
| Or, the grave.
He prayeth against his enemies.
He complaineth of them. borne it: neither was it he that hated shall never suffer the righteous to be me that did magnify himself against moved. me; then I would have hid myself 23 But thou, O God, shalt bring from him:
them down into the pit of destruction: 13 But it was thou, ťa man mine + bloody and deceitful men + shall not the oder en according to equal, my guide, and mine acquaint- live out half their days; but I will deceit
trust in thee.
word, complaineth of his enemies. 9 He
professeth his confidence in God's word, and
promiseth to praise him.
| To the chief Musician upon Jonath-
elem-rechokim, || Michtam of Da- Or, 1
golden Psalm 17 Evening, and morning, and at
vid, when the a Philistines took of David.
him in Gath.
BE merciful unto me, O God : for
me ; peace from the battle that was against fighting daily oppresseth me. me: for there were many with me. 2 + Mine enemies would daily + Heb. Mine
19 God shall hear, and afflict them, swallow me up: for they be many that
even he that abideth of old. Selah. fight against me, O thou most High. 1 Or, with
|| Because they have no changes, 3 What time I am afraid, I will
trust in thee.
fear what flesh can do unto me. profaned.
21 The words of his mouth were 5 Every day they wrest my words:
22 a Cast thy || burden upon the they hide themselves, they mark my
a 1 Sam. 21. 11.
whom also there be no changes, yet
a Ps. 37. 5.
15. Let death seize &c.] Let a sudden and unex The distresses and dangers to which we are subject pected death overwhelm them. Rosenmüller. Or, this are hardly remediable, when they who by intimate conpassage may be considered as a prediction (see the note versation know our nature, and to whom we have comon Psalm v. 10) of the tragical fate of Ahithophel, municated our purposes, counsels, and designs, prove and of those who followed Absalom. The sudden treacherous and false to us, and concur with the envy destruction of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, who, for and malice of our enemies; and as the danger is then stirring up a rebellion against Moses and Aaron, almost inevitable, so the grief and agony that attends it “went down alive into the pit," seems here alluded to. is sharper and more troublesome than the danger; it Bp. Horne.
bereaves us of that composure, and temper, and serenity 18.— many with me.] Namely, God and his holy of mind, which usually relieves us in all other accidents. angels. Dr. Wells.
But our comfort is, though we are least able to help 19.- Because they hare no changes, &c.] They expe- ourselves in such exigencies, and against such distresses, rience no change of fortune, and therefore will not fear we have an helper, if we call faithfully upon Him, who God. Green. Or, Because there is no reformation in sees the pangs we suffer, the agony and fear we endure, them, neither do they fear God. Street, Archdeacon and hears the just voice of our "lamentations. Lord Randolph.
Clarendon. 20. He hath put forth &c.] This perfidious traitor hath basely lifted up his hands to injure those who Psalm LVI. — Jonath-elen-rechokim,] That is, the were at peace and friendship with him; he hath broken silent dove afar off. David thus styles himself, on his promise and oath of fidelity. Bp. Patrick, Travell. account of his being at that time in a far country. Dr.
21. - drawn swords.] That is, pernicious in their Wells. Or, these words may be the name of some well design and consequences. Poole.
known song, to the musick of which this is directed to 22. Cast thy burden &c.] The conclusion of the whole be sung. Mudge. matter is, that amidst all dangers and adversities, when Ver. 1.- he fighting &c.] He is daily fighting against soever they oppress us, we are to put our full trust me, that he may crush me. Green. and confidence only in his mercy, who delivered David, 4. In God I will praise his word,] By the assistance of and the Son of David, out of all their troubles. Bp. God I shall be enabled to praise Him for the performnHorne.
ance of his promises. Bp. Patrick.
tvould stalloto me up.
& 9. 15.
David professeth his confidence in God's word. PSALMS. He complaineth of his dangerous case.
7 Shall they escape by iniquity ? unto God that performeth all things
3 He shall send from heaven, and
God shall send forth his mercy and
lie even among them that are set on
11 In God have I put my trust: I a sharp sword.
the heavens; let thy glory be above
13 For thou hast delivered my soul my steps : my soul is bowed down : from death : wilt not thou deliver my they have digged a pit before me, feet from falling, that I may walk into the midst whereof they are fallen before God in the light of the living? themselves. Selah.
7 My heart is || fixed, O God, my Ps. 108. 1, PSALM LVII.
heart is fixed: I will sing and give 1 Or, i David in prayer fleeing unto God complain
praise. eth of his dangerous case. 7 He encourag
8 Awake up, my glory ; awake, eth himself to praise God.
psaltery and harp: I myself will | Or, Destroy To the chief Musician, || Al-tas
9 I will praise thee, O Lord, among
among the nations. B Emmercifuluuntomme, for Godsobe
10 For thy mercy is great unto a Ps, 36. 5. & merciful unto me: for my soul the heavens, and thy truth unto the trusteth in thee: yea, in the shadow clouds. of thy wings will I make my refuge, 11 Be thou exalted, O God, above until these calamities be overpast. the heavens: let thy glory be above
2 I will cry unto God most high; all the earth.
8. Thou tellest my wanderings :] David's whole life, God, they do not fear what man can do unto them; and from his victory over Goliath till the death of Saul, was that even before their deliverance they rejoice in the continually spent in wandering from place to place. Dr. Lord, and pay to Him their vows and thanksgivings. Chandler.
Ostervald. - put thou my tears into thy bottle :] This expression seems to intimate, that the custom of putting tears Psalm LVII. The Church, by her appointment of into the lacrymal urns, so well known among the Ro- this as one of the proper Psalms for Easter-day, hath mans, was more anciently in use among the Hebrews. instructed us to transfer the ideas to the resurrection of These urns were of different materials; some of glass, Christ from the grave. Bp. Horne. some of earth; they were also of various forms or - Al-taschith,] “Destroy not,” seems to be the beginshapes. They were placed on the sepulchres of the de- ning of a song, to the musick of which this Psalm is ceased, as a memorial of the distress and affection of directed to be sung. Mudge. their surviving relations and friends. The meaning Ver. 3. -- God shall send forth &c.] God, by his detherefore of the expression, "put thou my tears into liverance of me, shall manifest his loving-kindness, and thy bottle,” will be, “let my distress, and the tears I the truth of his promises. Travell. have shed in consequence of it, be ever before Thee; 4. My soul is among lions : &c.] I am beset by cruel excite thy kind remembrance of me, and plead with and bloody enemies, whose hearts are inflamed with Thee to grant me the relief I stand in need of.” Dr. deadly malice against me; even men given over to Chandler, Calmet.
wickedness, whose mouths are full of mischievous slan12. Thy vows are upon me, O God:] That is, I am ders and reproaches, wherewith they endeavour to wound bound by vows to Thee.
me to the death. Bp. Hall. 13. — wilt not thou deliver my feet from falling,] This 8. Awake up, my glory; &c.] Awake, O my tongue, should be rendered as it is in the Liturgy, “and my feet awake; I will also awake early the psaltery and harp. from falling.”
Green. By the example of David we are here taught, that, to 10. — thy mercy is great &c.] Thy mercy and truth whatever extremity the children of God are brought
, extend over the whole universe. Travell. and when even force and artifice are employed against Though we may not be exposed to dangers like those them, they are not moved; that, so firm is their trust in of David formerly, and therefore cannot apply to our
Or, Destroy not, A golden Psalm of David.
He reproveth wicked judges.
The righteous shall rejoice. PSALM LVIII.
8 As a snail which melteth, let i David reproveth wicked judges, 3 describeth every one of them pass away: like the the nature of the wicked, 6 devoteth them untimely birth of a woman, that they
God's judgments, 10 whereat the right- may not see the sun. eous shall rejoice.
9 Before your pots can feel the I To the chief Musician, || Al-tas- thorns, he shall take them away as chith, Michtam of David.
with a whirlwind, + both living, and 1 Heb. as
in his wrath, ye indeed speak righteousness,
o congregation ? do ye judge he seeth the vengeance: he shall wash uprightly, Oye sons of men ? his feet in the blood of the wicked.
2 Yea, in heart ye work wicked 11 So that a man shall say, Verily ness; ye weigh the violence of your there is + a reward for the righteous: Heb. fruit hands in the earth.
of the, & verily he is a God that judgeth in the 3 The wicked are estranged from earth. + Heb. from the womb: they go astray t as soon as they be born, speaking lies.
PSALM LIX. 4 Their poison is † like the poison
of a serpent: they are like the deaf 1 David prayeth to be delivered from his ene| Or, asp. || adder that stoppeth her ear;
6 He complaineth of their cruelty, 5 Which will not hearken to the
8 He trusteth in God. 11 He prayeth
against them. 16 He praiseth God. | Or, be the voice of charmers, ll charming never 80 cunning.
1 To the chief Musician, || Al-tas- 10r, Destroy so wisely. 6 Break their teeth, O God, in
chith, Michtam of David ; & when Psalm of their mouth : break out the great
Saul sent, and they watched the David. teeth of the young lions, O LORD.
house to kill him.
my : + defend me + Heb, set me
2 Deliver me from the workers of
+ Heb. according to the likeness.
a 1 Sam. 19. 11.
selves all we read in this Psalm, we may nevertheless till they are all lost or sucked up into the earth. Dr. from hence conclude, in general, that in our necessities Wells. we should draw nigh to God, being fully persuaded that 8. As a snail which &c.] As a snail, which melts or He will not fail to send us help from heaven, and deliver spends itself the further it goes, so let every one of them us. Ostervald.
that are my enemies pass away, or miscarry in their
designs. Dr. Wells. Psalm LVIII. A Psalm of David, wherein he re 9. Before your pots &c.] Perhaps these words should proves the judges, the princes of Saul's court, for rather be translated, " Before your pots can feel the passing an unrighteous sentence upon him, probably, thorns, the tempest shall bear them away.” Briars and as guilty of seeking Saul's life; and begs of God to thorns, when set on fire, are frequently applied in Scripdefeat their unjust attempts to destroy him, and openly ture to represent the rage of the wicked: violent, yet to shew Himself the protector of the innocent. Green. impotent, and of no long continuance. They are ap
Ver. 1. Do ye indeed speak &c.] O ye assembly of plied also to the wicked themselves, as useless and unprinces and rulers, have you pronounced a righteous profitable, proper objects of God's wrath, to be burned sentence against me, and judged me uprightly according up or driven away by the wind. Both these ideas seem to your consciences ? Bp. Patrick, Travell.
to be joined in the above verse. Bp. Lowth. 3. The wicked are estranged &c.] Such is their wicked 10. — the vengeance :] The just judgment of God upon ness, that they were depraved from the very womb; wicked men. Bp. Wilson. going astray as soon as they could go; and telling lies - he shall wash &c.] This is an allusion to a great as soon as they could speak. Travell.
conqueror, who dips his feet in the blood of his enemies 4,5. - like the deaf adder &c.] Allusion is here made as he passes over their carcases. Bp. Patrick. to that sort of serpents, which, according to some natu In general, we see here that all those who harden them. ralists, were able to make themselves deaf, in order to selves in their evil ways, without hearkening to the voice resist the effect of charms employed for the purpose of of God, are threatened with his vengeance,
We learn lulling them asleep and taking them. The meaning is, also from this Psalm, that though the wicked prosper, These incorrigible persons resolve never to hearken to and good men are afflicted for a while, yet they will alany thing which may induce them to quit their evil ways have reason to acknowledge, that there is a reward ways. Dr. Hammond. The notion of charming serpents for the righteous, and that there is a God who judgeth with certain sounds, or by uttering particular words, the earth.” Ostervald. was formerly extremely general, and still prevails over many parts of Barbary. Dr. Shaw.
Psalm LIX. ver. 5. - awake to visit &c.] Awake to 7. Let them melt &c.] Let them fall away one from punish all those wretches, who, though they call themthe other till they come to nothing, as waters, which selves thy people, yet are as wicked as even the heathen : not being contained within any vessel or bank, run be not merciful in sparing longer any such notoriously continually, and spread themselves further and further, wicked transgressors. Dr. Wells.
+ Heb. to meel me.
be not salis
David prayeth to be
delivered from his enemies.
be taken in their pride: and for curs-
let them know that God ruleth in
14 And at evening let them return;
, awake to and go round about the city. visit all the heathen: be not merciful 15 Let them wander up and down to any wicked transgressors. Selah. † for meat, || and grudge if they be + Heb: to cat.
| Or, if 6 They return at evening: they not satisfied. make a noise like a dog, and go round
16 But I will sing of thy power; will stay all
fied, then they about the city.
yea, I will sing aloud of thy mercy in right. 7 Behold, they belch out with their the morning : for thou hast been my
mouth: swords are in their lips : for defence and refuge in the day of my b Ps. 10. 11. who, say they, doth hear?
the God of my mercy.
i David, complaining to God of former judg-
ment, 4 now, upon better hope, prayeth for
deliverance. 6 Comforting himself in God's prevent me: God shall let me see promises, he craveth that help whereon he + Heb. my desire upon + mine enemies.
trusteth. 11 Slay them not, lest my people ? To the chief Musician upon Shuforget: scatter them by thy power; shan-eduth, || Michtam of David, holdet and bring them down, o Lord our to teach ; a when he strove with a 2 Sam. 8. 3, shield.
Aram-naharaim and with Aram- i Chron. 18. 12 For the sin of their mouth and zabah, when Joab returned, and 3.
6. They return at evening : &c.] The messengers of even to the loss of their lives, as well as their fortunes ; Saul, coming after David in the evening, besetting his or, that evil men cannot prevail against those who are house, and blocking up the approaches to it, are here less evil than they: we may not only be very innocent compared to a set of hungry dogs in quest of their in those particulars of which we are condemned and prey. Bp. Horne. See note on ver. 14,
brought into misery, but therefore condemned, because 7. Behold, they belch out &c.] Behold, their hearts are we are known to be innocent; and yet we may be guilty full of malice, which burst out at their mouths in open enough in other particulars, to deserve a greater punishthreats to kill me; for, Who, say they, shall call us to ment and misery than we undergo : and since every sin account for it? Bp. Patrick.
is in opposition to God's will and directions, it is his 9. Because of his strength &c.]. It is probable that usual method to punish sinners by others who are most the beginning of this verse should be the same with that opposite to the sins they practised. Our deliverance of verse 17. Bp. Lowth.
therefore may be for a time deferred, till the fire of 10. shall prevent me:] That is, shall make way for adversity hath well purged the dross and corruption my timely escape. Dr. Wells.
which our prosperity had contracted, and we shall then 11. Slay them not, &c.] Do not utterly destroy them, find, that our constancy and patience in suffering hath lest my countrymen lose the remembrance of it : but let made God propitious to us, and provided a crown of them remain a just monument of thine anger. Travell. glory for our reward. Lord Clarendon.
14. like a dog, &c.] Dogs are found in great numbers in the cities of the East, and crowd the streets. They Psalm LX. - Shushan-eduth,] The meaning of this do not appear to belong to any particular persons, as our word is quite uncertain. dogs do, nor to be fed distinctly by such as might claim - to teach;7 Either, that David might teach postesome interest in them, but get their food as they can. rity what things he had done; or, implying that this Harmer.
Psalm was given to the chief musician, that he might 15. and grudge if they be not satisfied.] And mur-teach the inferiour ones. Rosenmüller, mur because they are not satisfied. Dr. Chandler. See - Aram] The Syrians; so called, because they were the the margin.
descendants of Aram the son of Shem, Gen. x. 22. Poole. Nothing gives us such support, and administers such – naharaim] Those Syrians that lived between the confidence and courage to expect a deliverance from two rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Bp. Patrick. God Almighty out of any persecution or danger that in Aram-zobah,] Those Syrians that lived adjoining vades us, as the consciousness of innocence. Not that to the former, in that part of Syria called Zobah, 2 Sam. we may conclude, that guiltless men cannot be oppressed, viii. 5. Bp. Patrick.