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and God's mercy.
The story of the people's rebellion, PSALMS. for righteousness unto all generations their counsel, and were || brought low ! Or, im
porerished, for evermore.
for their iniquity, 9 Numb. 20.
32 · They angered him also at the 44 Nevertheless he regarded their waters of strife, so that it went ill affliction, when he heard their cry: with Moses for their sakes:
45 - And he remembered for them u Lev. 26. 41, 33 Because they provoked his spi- his covenant, and repented according rit, so that he spake unadvisedly with to the multitude of his mercies.
46 He made them also to be pitied 34 They did not destroy the na- of all those that carried them captives. r Deut. 7. 2. tions, i concerning whom the LORD 47 Save us, O Lord our God, and commanded them :
gather us from among the heathen, to s Judg. 1. 21. 35 But were mingled among the give thanks unto thy holy name, and
heathen, and learned their works. to triumph in thy praise.
36 And they served their idols : 48 Blessed be the LORD God of which were a snare unto them. Israel from everlasting to everlasting:
37 Yea, they sacrificed their sons and let all the people say, Amen. and their daughters unto devils, Praise ye the Lord.
38 And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their
PSALM CVII. daughters, whom they sacrificed unto 1 The psalmist exhorteth the redeemed, in the idols of Canaan: and the land
praising God, to observe his manifold prowas polluted with blood.
vidence, 4 over travellers, 10 over captives, 39 Thus were they defiled with 17 over sick men, 23 over seamen, 33 and their own works, and went a whoring
in divers varieties of life. with their own inventions. 40 Therefore was the wrath of the O GIVE thanks unto the Lord, a Ps. 106. 1.
for he is good : for his mercy 136, 1.
say so, whom he hath redeemed from
lands, from the east, and from the
4 They wandered in the wilder43 . Many times did he deliver ness in a solitary way; they found them; but they provoked him with no city to dwell in.
& 118. 1. &
t Judg. 2. 16.
39. Thus were they defiled. &c.] Idolatry, which is used to pray to God in their anguish and affliction, and infidelity towards God, is often represented in Scripture how fervent their devotions have then been, they would as spiritual fornication or adultery. Travell. See notes confess how much better men they are in the latter, at Exod. xxxii. 6; xxxiv. 16.
than in the former condition, and how much more gra47. – gather us from among the heathen,] Restore cious God hath been to them in the one than in the such of us as are dispersed in foreign lands unto our other visitation. Lord Clarendon. own country. Bp. Patrick.
The end of the fourth Book of Psalms. If we accustomed ourselves to take a just survey of ourselves, of the frowardness and the pride of our na Psalm CVII. This Psalm may undoubtedly be enutures, we should frequently think it fit and necessary merated among the most elegant monuments of antito invert our prayers, to deprecate God's favours and quity; and it is chiefly indebted for its elegance to the mercies, and pray for his corrections and judgments, general plan and conduct of the poem. It celebrates or rather we should look upon his judgments and mor- the goodness and mercy of God towards mankind, as tifications as his greatest and most transcendent mer- demonstrated in the immediate assistance and comfort cies. If men took that view of themselves, which others He affords in the greatest calamities to those who detake of them in their highest prosperities, when God voutly implore his aid: in the first place, to those who pours down his blessings upon them; observed the wander in the desert, and who encounter the terrours haughtiness of their looks, gait, and gestures, their of famine; next, to those who are in bondage; to those proud behaviour towards all who have need of them, who are afflicted with disease; and finally, to those who and their servile behaviour towards all of whom they are tossed about upon the ocean. The prolixity of the stand in need, which every body else but themselves argument is occasionally relieved by narration; and observes; and considered how very little they used to examples are superadded of the Divine severity in think of God in those seasons; and then, if they re- punishing the wicked, as well as of his benignity to the flected upon their own modest behaviour upon some devout and virtuous; and both the narrative and predisappointment they had sustained, how often they ceptive parts are recommended to the earnest contem
all their wisdom is
The redeemed are exhorted to observe PSALMS. God's providence over captives, &c.
5 Hungry and thirsty, their soul wonderful works to the children of
24 These see the works of the LORD,
their soul is melted because of trouble.
their wit's end,
out of their distresses.
13 Then they cried unto the Lord they be quiet; so he bringeth them
31 Oh that men would praise the
33 He turneth rivers into a wilder-
34 A fruitful land into + barren- + Heb.
35 · He turneth the wilderness into c Isa. 41. 18.
36 And there he maketh the hun-
37 And sow the fields, and plant
38 He blesseth them also, so that
Lord for his goodness, and for his suffereth not their cattle to decrease. plation of considerate minds. Bp. Lowth. This Psalm 16. For he hath broken &c.] That is, made way
for is introduced into our Forms of Prayer to be used at men’s escape, when their case was desperate, by removSea, as a thanksgiving after a storm.
ing the greatest obstacles. Dr. Wells. Ver. 7. - to a city of habitation.] That is, to a place 33. He turneth rivers &c.] He turneth a well-watered inhabited, where they found relief for their necessities. country into a wilderness, and a soil abounding with Bp. Patrick,
springs into dry ground. Green, 10. — being bound in affliction and iron :] This pas 37. — yield fruits of increase.] The land of Canaan sage may be rendered, Being bound in galling chains. was fruitful beyond measure ; see Deut. viii. 7, &c. Dimock, Rosenmüller,
b Job 33. 20.
| Or, void
el Sam. 2.8. Ps. 113. 7, 8.
& 5. 16,
David encourageth himself to praise God. PSALMS.
His confidence in God's help. 39 Again, they are minished and heavens: and thy truth reacheth unto brought low through oppression, the || clouds.
Or, skies. affliction, and sorrow.
5 Be thou exalted, O God, above d Job 12. 21. 40 He poureth contempt upon the heavens: and thy glory above all
princes, and causeth them to wander the earth ;
in the || wilderness, where there is no 6 « That thy beloved may be de- a Ps. 60. 5. place. way.
livered : save with thy right hand, 41 Yet setteth he the poor on and answer me. | Or, after. high || from affliction, and maketh him 7 God hath spoken in his holiness; families like a flock.
I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, f Job 22. 19. 42 "The righteous shall see it, and and mete out the valley of Succoth.
rejoice : and all iniquity shall stop 8 Gilead is mine ; Manasseh is
mine; Ephraim also is the strength
tia will I triumph. PSALM CVIII.
10 Who will bring me into the
5 He prayeth for God's assistance accord- Edom ?
cast us off? and wilt not thou, O
God, go forth with our hosts?
sing and give praise, even with vain is the help of man.
13 Through God we shall do
down our enemies.
4 For thy mercy is great above the mies, under the person of Judas devoteth
39. Again, they are minished &c.] At another time, their troubles ; and that it is the duty of those who, by God sees fit to alter the course of his providence, to the help of God, have escaped any great sickness, danlessen their numbers, and to humble them by various ger of death, or other afflictions, to shew their gratitude afflictions and calamities, or by the hands of tyrannical to Him all their lives, and to celebrate his loving-kindoppressors. Travell, Bp. Patrick.
ness before all. Ostervald. 40.
causeth them to wander &c.] The meaning is either, He bringeth them into difficulties, so that they Psalm CVIII. This is a Psalm of thanksgiving, in know not what course to take; or, He banisheth them which David praises God for his great goodness to him, from their courts and kingdoms, and forceth them to flee in having made him king, and crowned him with vicinto desolate wildernesses. Poole.
tory; and beseeches Him to complete his conquests 42. The righteous shall see &c.] Two consequences over the remainder of his enemies. The strain of gratiwill follow from this alternate display of the mercy and tude and triumph which runs through it, makes it suitthe judgment of God. The righteous, finding themselves able to the service of the Church on the Ascension-day. still the object of the former, will have cause to rejoice The first five verses of this Psalın are the same, without and give thanks; and the wicked, when visited with the any material difference, as the last five of the fifty-seventh latter, will be forced by their silence at least to own that Psalm : and the rest are the same as the last eight verses their punishment is just. Bp. Horne.
of the sixtieth Psalm. The reader is therefore referred 43. Whoso is wise, &c.] To take notice of the pro- to the explanation already given of those Psalms. Travidences of God is the most effectual way to make men vell. wise, as it is a proof of wisdom. Bp. Wilson.
This very instructive Psalm serves to teach us, that Psalm CIX. In this Psalm David, having been unGod does wisely dispense all that happens to men; and justly accused and violently persecuted by his enemies, that when they are fugitives and captives, sick, and in foretells, with a prophetick spirit, the Divine vengeance danger of perishing, afflicted with famine, or any other upon them. St. Peter (Acts i. 20,) hath taught us to apdistress, It is He that makes them pass through all those ply the eighth verse to the traitor Judas; and indeed trials that He may engage them to call upon Him, and the severity of the judgments, and the extent of the cahave recourse to his power and goodness. It therefore lamities here denounced, are suitable to the guilt and shews us that it is the duty of persons in affliction to punishment of our Saviour's persecutors in general. apply themselves to God by humble and fervent prayer With respect to the imprecations, see the note on Psalm for deliverance out of all their misfortunes ; that when v. 10. The twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy may men cry to God in their distress, and turn to Him, be considered as a kind of commentary on this Psalın. He takes pity on them, and delivers them from all Travell. There are many passages in the Book of Psalms,
Complaining of his enemies,
he devoteth them to destruction. them. 16 He sheweth their sin. 21 Com 12 Let there be none to extend plaining of his own misery, he prayeth for mercy unto him: neither let there help. 29 He promiseth thankfulness. To the chief Musician, A Psalm of dren.
be any to favour his fatherless chilDavid.
13 Let his posterity be cut off ; COLD not thy peace, O God of and in the generation following let my praise;
their name be blotted out. 2 For the mouth of the wicked and 14 Let the iniquity of his fathers + Heb: mouth the + mouth of the deceitful + are be remembered with the Lord; and + Hleb, have opened against me: they have spoken let not the sin of his mother be blotted themselves. against me with a lying tongue. out.
3 They compassed me about also 15 Let them be before the LORD with words of hatred; and fought continually, that he may cut off the against me without a cause.
of them from the earth.
5 And they have rewarded me evil the poor and needy man, that he
17 As he loved cursing, so let it him: and let || Satan stand at his come unto him: as he delighted not right hand.
in blessing, so let it be far from him. 7 When he shall be judged, let 18 As he clothed himself with + Hcb. go out him t be condemned: and let his cursing like as with his garment, so prayer become sin.
let it come + into his bowels like + Heb. 8 Let his days be few; and a let water, and like oil into his bones. | Or, charge. another take his || office.
19 Let it be unto him as the
girdle wherewith he is girded con-
them that speak evil against my
the Lord, for thy name's sake: be
] Or, an adversary.
guilly, or, tricked.
a Acts 1. 20,
especially a considerable part of the 109th, that have Satan] An adversary. See the margin. given offence to well-meaning persons, as savouring too stand at his right hand.] This is an allusion to much of private resentment, and inconsistent with that the practice of the courts of justice among the Jews, charity, which peculiarly marks the Christian dispensa- where the accuser stood at the right hand of the action. Many attempts have been made to remove this cused. Rosenmüller. difficulty : but the most satisfactory method appears to 7.- and let his prayer become sin.] His prayer would be, to consider the verbs in the future tense, so that the be abomination in the sight of the Lord, as being offered passages may be looked upon as so many denunciations without true contrition and repentance, without faith, of the punishments, that God would inflict on the general hope, or charity. Bp. Horne. or individual adversaries of his church and people. Thus 9, 10. Let his children &c.] Thus shall his wickedat the seventh verse, “When he shall be judged, he shall ness entail misery upon his wretched widow and his orgo forth convicted, and his prayers shall be for sin, &c.” phan children : they shall lead a life of wandering from Wintle.
place to place, supporting themselves by begging alms, The person particularly pointed at in this Psalm was and seeking relief out of their miserable habitations. probably Doeg the Edomite, who slew the Lord's priests, Travell. and endeavoured to destroy him whom God had anointed 18. like water, &c.] These expressions admirably king over Israel, 1 Sam. xxii. Archdeacon Randolph. mark out an adhering rooted curse, which penetrated the
Ver. 4. For my love &c.] While I pray for them, they body, as the water which one drinks, and as the oil with in return for my love falsely accuse me. Green.
which one is rubbed : they have swallowed cursing like 6. Set thou &c.] The true reading probably is, A water; see Job xv. 6; Prov. iv. 17; they are penetrated wicked person shall be set over him, (that is
, to judge by it
, as by the oil wherewith they have been anointed. him,) and an adversary shall stand at his right hand. Calmet.
19. a girdle &c.] As the people of the East have oder him:] That is, either over all mine ene ever been accustomed to wear long and loose garments, mies ; for the singular number is sometimes used with they are obliged to tuck them up, and fasten them bý a plural sense : or rather, over one particular enemy, a girdle or sash, when they are travelling or at work. who was worse than any of the rest, more implacable See 1 Kings xviii. 46 ; John xiii
Travell. and inexcusable. Poole.
21. do thou for me,] Take my part. Bp. Patrick.
David promiseth thankfulness.
PSALMS. A prediction of Christ's kingdom.
with my mouth; yea, I will praise
23 I am gone like the shadow hand of the poor, to save him † from Heb.from when it declineth: I am tossed up those that condemn his soul.
the judges of
his soul. and down as the locust.
quest, 7 and the passion of Christ.
CA Psalm of David.
THE - Lord said unto my Lord, a Matt. 22. they shaked their heads.
Sit thou at my right hand, until Mark 12. 36. 26 Help me, O Lord my God: I make thine enemies thy footstool. O save me according to thy mercy:
2 The Lord shall send the rod of 1 Cor. 15. 25. 27 That they may know that this thy strength out of Zion : rule thou is thy hand; that thou, Lord, hast in the midst of thine enemies. done it.
3 Thy people shall be willing in 28 Let them curse, but bless thou: the day of thy power, in the beauties when they arise, let them be asham- of holiness || from the womb of the Or, more ed; but let thy servant rejoice. morning : thou hast the dew of thy womb of the
29 Let mine adversaries be clothed youth. with shame, and let them cover them 4 The Lord hath sworn, and will hare, &c. selves with their own confusion, as not repent, • Thou art a priest for b Hebr. 5. 6. with a mantle.
ever after the order of Melchizedek.
Luke 20. 42.
Hebr. 1. 13.
morning : thou shalt
23. — tossed up and down as the locust.] The swarms Divinity of our Saviour is clearly deducible from this of locusts are so large and numerous in Barbary, that verse. See Mark xii. 36, &c. Dimock. they fly in the air like a succession of clouds. When 2. — the rod of thy strength] The “ rod,” or sceptre, the wind blows briskly, so that these swarms are crowded of Christ's “strength” is his word, accompanied by by others, or thrown one upon another, we have a lively his Spirit. Bps. Horne and Nicholson. idea of this comparison of the Psalmist, of being “tossed out of Zion :] Christ's spiritual kingdom was to up and down as the locust.” Dr. Shaw.
begin at Jerusalem. Edwards. Especial care should be taken that we do not pervert 3. Thy people] They that are fit for thy kingdom. this Psalm in a criminal and impious manner, by ima- Fenton. gining we are at any time allowed to wish that the the day of thy power,-holiness] “The day of vengeance of God may fall on those who hate us and his power” is the season of their conversion, when the do us hurt. David here speaks in the quality of a king corruptions of nature can no longer hold out against chosen by God, and of a Prophet; he rather foretold the prevailing influences of grace; and they make a than desired the destruction of his enemies : he even free and voluntary offering of themselves to their Rereturned them good for evil, as he himself says, and deemer. Then it is that they appear in the beauties love for hatred. But, above all, let us remember that of holiness," adorned with humility, faith, hope, love, a Christian should hate no man; that the character we and all the graces of the Spirit. Bp. Horne, bear, as disciples of Jesus Christ, obliges us to love all from the womb of the morning : &c.] The words men, even our greatest enemies, to pray for them with should rather be translated, “ more than the dew from all our heart, and to wish and do them all the good in the womb of the morning is the dew of thy progeny;" our power. Ostervald.
that is, thy children, begotten to Thee through the
Gospel, shall exceed in number, as well as brightness Psalm CX. In this Psalm David prophesieth con- and beauty, the spangles of early dew, which the morncerning the exaltation of Christ; the sceptre of his ing discloseth to the eye of the delighted beholder. kingdom; the character of his subjects ; his everlast. Bps. Lowth and Horne. ing priesthood; his tremendous victories and judg 4. — Thou art a priest for ever &c.] Thy priesthood ments; and the means of his obtaining both kingdom is everlasting : in thy person and office is and shall be and priesthood, by his sufferings and resurrection. Bp. fulfilled that which was figured in the royal priesthood, Horne. This Psalm is with good reason appointed for person, and name of Melchizedek, king of Salem, the the service of Christmas-day,
king of righteousness and peace. Bp. Hall. The Epistle Ver. 1. The Lord said &c.] God the Father, in his to the Hebrews places the resemblance between Meleternal counsel, said unto his Son, Take Thou all power chizedek and Jesus on the name and title of the former, and authority, as the only Mediator and true King of on his having no father, or mother, or priestly descent, thy church, until I shall utterly have subdued all those or birth, or death, or successor, mentioned; which so that dare to rise up against Thee; then do Thou deliver far agreed with the latter, as He had no human father, up this royal state and kingdom of thy Mediatorship. nor mother, in the ordinary way of generation ; nor was
of a sacerdotal family, nor began to exist at his birth, thy footstool.] This expression is borrowed from nor continued in a state of death, nor could have any the Eastern custom of conquerors putting their feet successor in his office. Abp. Secker. See the note on upon the necks of their enemies. See Josh, x, 24. The Gen. xiv. 18.