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d Job 21. 30.
& 8. 13.
f Ps. 37. 16. chap. 15. 16.
and their contrary vices. for himself: dyea, even the wicked for of kings; and they love him that
Before about 1000, the day of evil.
about 1000. 5. Every one that is proud in heart 14 The wrath of a king is as mese Chap. 6. 17. is an abomination to the Lord: though sengers of death : but a wise man will
hand join in hand, he shall not be pacify it. + Heb. held + unpunished.
15' In the light of the king's coun6 By mercy and truth iniquity is tenance is life; and his favour is as iChap. 19.12. purged: and by the fear of the Lord a cloud of the latter rain. men depart from evil.
16 * How much better is it to get k Chap. 8. 11.
his way preserveth his soul.
10 + A divine sentence is in the 19 Better it is to be of an humble lips of the king: his mouth transgres- spirit with the lowly, than to divide seth not in judgment.
the spoil with the proud. 11 "A just weight and balance are 20 || He that handleth a matter ! Or, He that heb. all'ine the Lord's: + all the weights of the wisely shall find good : and whoso eth a matter. bag are his work.
m trusteth in the Lord, happy is he. m Ps. 2. 12. 12 It is an abomination to kings to 21 The wise in heart shall be called 125. 1. commit wickedness: for the throne is prudent: and the sweetness of the lips Jer. 17. 7. established by righteousness.
g Ver. 1.
& 18. 12.
+ Heb. Divination.
h Lev. 19. 86.
n Chap 13.
dered, with much better sense, and much nearer to the exactly, that no man may be wronged in the judgment Hebrew, “God hath ordained every thing to that which which he passes. Bp. Patrick. is fit to it, and the wicked hath He ordained for the day 11. — all the weights of the bag are his work.] That is, of evil;” that is, The wisdom of God hath fitted one God requires exact justice in all our dealings, and therething to another, punishment to sin, the evil day to fore it is our duty to take care that the weights and the evil doer. Abp. Tillotson.
balance be just. Dr. Wells. In the margin, “all the “Even the wicked for the day of evil ;” that is, even stones."-Stones were anciently used for weights. Dr. the most wicked and the worst of men are under his Isham. direction and control : however they may be set on 14. The wrath of a king &c.] The wrath of a king mischief, they can proceed no further than God permits, strikes terrour into him with whom he is offended, no being instruments only in his hands to afflict others, less than if the sentence of death were pronounced upon and bring evil upon them. Dr. Waterland.
him; but a virtuous and prudent man appeases his The meaning is, as Scripture elsewhere expresses, anger and makes a reconciliation. Bp. Patrick. “The wicked are reserved to the day of destruction, as messengers of death :) It is usual in Turkey, they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath,” Job when a warrant for a person's death is procured, for xxi. 30. Dr. S. Clarke.
an executioner to carry it to him, and execute it immeThe wicked are indeed the work of God's hands, as diately. The same seems to have been the case in Pabeing a part of the creation; and He gave them the lestine, 1 Kings ii. 25; Matt. xiv. 10. This may perfaculties which they have abused and perverted to a haps be considered as giving peculiar energy to the sinful purpose : but this power to abuse and pervert is term “ messengers of death” here used. Harmer. inseparable from the character of a free agent. The true 15. - as a cloud of the latter rain.] As a cloud promeaning of this passage is, that God made all things to ducing the grateful rain of spring. See note at Deut. display his own glorious attributes; and that even xi. 14. Job uses a similar comparison to express how wicked men, whose existence and frequent prosperity he was esteemed and desired by his people, Job xxix. may seem scarcely reconcilable with the Divine perfec-23. Calmet. tions, will, in the end, be found to furnish the strongest 17. The highway of the upright] The habitual and proof of his long-suffering in bearing with their iniqui- accustomed course of the upright. Wogan. ties, and of his power and justice in punishing their 18. Pride goeth before destruction,] That is, pride and incorrigible depravity; upon such men “the day of haughtiness commonly bring men to shame and deevil" will certainly come. Bp. Tomline.
struction; they lead to it, and generally end in it. Dr. 6. By mercy and truth iniquity is purged:] By a sin Waterland. Pride makes men rash and peevish, obcere observance of God's law, iniquity is most effectually stinate and insolent; and this seldom fails to bring down purged away : sorrow for sin may begin repentance, ruin upon them. Dr. S. Clarke. but obedience only completes it. Wogan.
19. -- to divide the spoil with the proud.) To partake 10. A divine sentence is &c.] God is present in an with the proud in the rapine and spoil obtained from especial manner with a pious king, inspiring his mind the meek and lowly. Bp. Patrick. with sagacity to penetrate doubtful and obscure things, 21. — the sweetness of the lips increaseth learning.] that all causes may be decided by him so justly and He who has the powerful charms of eloquence to con
Before CHRIST about 1000.
a Chap. 15.
maketà wise. his mouth, and addeth Yearning
to this BETTER is a dry morsel, and
Mal. 3. 3.
+ Heb. The
+ Heb. A man of Belial.
and their contrary vices. Before
of life unto him that hath it: but the CHRIST
CH A P. XVII. about 1000. instruction of fools is folly. + Heb. 23 The heart of the wise + teacheth
quietness therewith, than an 17. lips.
house full of sacrifices with strife. || Or, good 24 Pleasant words are as an honey 2 A wise servant shall have rule comb, sweet to the soul, and health to over a son that causeth shame, and the bones.
shall have part of the inheritance o Chap. 14.
25 • There is a way that seemeth among the brethren. right unto a man, but the end thereof
3 The fining pot is for silver, and b Ps. 26. 2. are the ways of death.
the furnace for gold: but the LORD Jer. 17. 10. 26 + He that laboureth laboureth trieth the hearts. that labour- for himself; for his mouth + craveth 4 A wicked doer giveth heed to it of him.
false lips; and a liar giveth ear to a 27 + An ungodly man diggeth up naughty tongue. evil : and in his lips there is as a 5 + Whoso mocketh the poor re- Chap. 14. burning fire.
proacheth his Maker: and he that is p Chap. 6. 14, 28 P A froward man + soweth strife: glad at calamities shall not be tun- Heb, held
and a whisperer separateth chief punished.
6 dChildren's children are the d Ps. 127. 3. sendeth forth. 29 A violent man enticeth his crown of old men; and the glory of
neighbour, and leadeth him into the children are their fathers.
7 + Excellent speech becometh not 1 Heb. A lip 30 He shutteth his eyes to devise a fool: much less do + lying lips a † Heb. a lip froward things: moving his lips he prince.
of lying. bringeth evil to pass.
8 °A gift is as a + precious stone Chap. 18. 31 The hoary head is a crown of in the eyes of him that hath it : Heb. stone glory, if it be found in the way of whithersoever it turneth, it prosrighteousness.
pereth. 32 He that is slow to anger is
9 He that covereth a transgres- 12.
f Chap. 10. better than the mighty; and he that sion || seeketh love; but he that lor, ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a repeateth a matter separateth very
procureth. city. friends.
reproof aweth 33 The lot is cast into the lap; 10 || A reproof entereth more into more a wise but the whole disposing thereof is of a wise man than an hundred stripes strike a fool the LORD.
into a fool.
19. & 15. 18.
& 128. 3.
|| Or, A
an hundred times.
vey his mind pleasantly to others, adds a greater value of Infinite wisdom, which maketh “all things work to his wisdom, and makes it more diffusive, as well as together for good to them that love God.” Wogan. more instructive to the world. Bp. Patrick.
26. He that laboureth &c.] A man needs no other Chap. XVII. ver. 1. dry morsel,] A morsel of inducement to labour than his own profit and necessity; bread, without butter or oil, which the Hebrews were for it is by his labour that he must sustain himself and wont to use. Bp. Patrick. uphold nature, which craveth it of him. Bp. Hall.
an house full of sacrifices] When sacrifices were 27.- diggeth up evil:] This expression signifies la- offered in the temple, it was usual for the person to bouring after evil with toil and application, searching have a feast at home with his friends on the remains for it as a person searcheth for a hidden treasure. “In of the animals slain. Thus a house full of sacrifices his lips there is as a burning fire;" he carries on his means a house full of good provision. See Prov. vii. 14. tongue a burning fire, which spreads on every side Caimet. destruction and devastation. Calmet.
2. A wise servant shall have rule &c.], Probity and 30. He shutteth his eyes] Expressing the profound prudence are so much better than mere riches and noble study with which he contrives the ruin of others. Bp. birth, that a wise and faithful servant sometimes arrives Patrick.
at the honour of being appointed the governor of a son, 32. -- than he that taketh a city.] It is a greater thing, whose folly and wickedness make him a discredit to his in case of great provocation, to calm a man's own family. Bp. Patrick. spirit, than to storm and take a strong city.
8. A gift is as a precious stone &c.] Secret gifts are lotson.
wont to win favour to those who bring them; and, if 33. The lot is cast &c.] The lots are thrown at ran- they fall into the hands of corrupt judges, they have dom, but the overruling hand of God disposeth of them, power to draw them on either side, and to sway any how they shall light. Bp. Hall.
cause whatever. Bp. Hall. Hence every good man may draw this comfortable 9. He that covereth a transgression seeketh love ;] He reflection, that he is not left to the caprice or hazard of that concealeth within himself an offence done to him a blind chance; but that his least, as well as greatest, by his friend, takes a course to maintain friendship and concerns, are under the constant and infallible direction love. Bp. Hall.
m Chap. 15.
| Or, to a medicine.
14. & 8. 1.
g Rom. 12.
h Exod. 23.
and their contrary vices. 11 An evil man seeketh only re 22 mA merry heart doeth good about 1000. bellion: therefore a cruel messenger || like a medicine : but a broken spirit about 1000. shall be sent against him.
drieth the bones. 12 Let a bear robbed of her whelps 23 A wicked man taketh a gift out 13. & 12. 25. meet a man, rather than a fool in his of the bosom to pervert the ways
judgment. 13 Whoso brewardeth evil for good, 24 n Wisdom is before him that n Eccles. 2. evil shall not depart from his house. hath understanding; but the eyes of
14 The beginning of strife is as a fool are in the ends of the earth. when one letteth out water: therefore 25 ° A foolish son is a grief to his · Chap. 1o. leave off contention, before it be father, and bitterness to her that bare & 19.13. meddled with.
him. 15 h He that justifieth the wicked, 26 Also to punish the just is not and he that condemneth the just, even good, nor to strike princes for equity. they both are abomination to the 27 P He that hath knowledge spar- p Jam. 1. 19. LORD.
eth his words: and a man
of 16 Wherefore is there a price in the derstanding is of || an excellent i Or, a cool hand of a fool to get wisdom, seeing spirit.
spirit. he hath no heart to it?
28 9 Even a fool, when he holdeth q Job 13. 5. 17 i A friend loveth at all times, his peace, is counted wise: and he and a brother is born for adversity that shutteth his lips is esteemed a
18k A man void of + understanding man of understanding. * Heb. heart. striketh hands, and becometh surety
CHAP. XVIII. in the
of his friend. presence 19 He loveth transgression that THROUGH desirea man, hay- | Or, He that loveth strife : and he that exalteth his gate seeketh destruction. and intermeddleth with all wisdom.
according to 20 + He that hath a froward heart 2 A fool hath no delight in under- his desire and findeth no good: and he that hath a standing, but that his heart may dis- in every perverse tongue falleth into mischief. cover itself.
21 'He that begetteth a fool doeth 3 When the wicked cometh, then it to his sorrow: and the father of a cometh also contempt, and with ignofool hath no joy.
i Chap. 18. 24.
k Chap. 6. 1. & 11. 15.
+ Heb. The froward of heart.
Chap. 10. 1.
11. An evil man seeketh only &c.] An evil man is so valuables. Thus perhaps the expression here may not refractory, that he has shaken off all reverence to God be intended to convey any idea of secrecy, but merely or to his governours, and is so wholly bent on mischief, to mark out something precious and valuable, as being that he cannot be reclaimed; therefore a severe execu- carried in the bosom. Calmet. tion shall be done upon him, to cut him off in his folly 24. — the eyes of a fool &c.] The eyes of a fool are without mercy. Bp. Patrick.
constantly wandering every where, and his thoughts fix 12. - a bear robbed of her whelps] The female bear is on nothing that may avail to his good. Bp. Hall. eminent for intense affection to her young, and dread 26. — princes] Or, “honourable men. Schultens. fully furious when deprived of them, as many writers 27. - is of an excellent spirit.] In the margin, "of a have observed. Parkhurst.
cool spirit.” A man of understanding is of a well tem14. The beginning of strife &c.] This observation is pered spirit, not too forward in putting himself forth. no less true than the image is lively : while passion is Bp. Hall. kept within its proper channel, all is safe and well; but if once we suffer the banks, that should dam it, to be Chap. XVIII. ver. 1. Through desire a man, &c.] He broken down, it roars and rages like a mighty torrent, that in a fervent desire of knowledge has set himself and overspreads and carries all before it. Dean Stanhope. apart to its continual study, labours to inform himself
16. Wherefore is there a price &c.]. A wealthy fool in all parts of wisdom, so that he may not be a stranger doth in vain hope by means of his riches to purchase to any kind of learning. Bp. Hall. wisdom, since he has not a heart that is capable of it. “Having separated himself.”—A total separation from Bp. Hall.
society and its pleasures, for the pursuit of wisdom, 17. :- a brother is born for adversity.] To give help cannot be the meaning of the text, because that is conin the season of adversity. Dr. Wells.
trary to the main tenour of the book of Proverbs; and 18. -striketh hands, &c.] See notes at chap. vi. 1. besides, it is obvious that every one man's sense, how
19.-- he that exalteth his gate] This seems to be a ever excellent, unless it mixes in society with that of figurative expression for a haughty carriage in general. others, always degenerates into singularity and caprice. Dr. Durell.
- a óroken spirit drieth the bones.] Preys upon 2. A fool hath no delight &c.] A fool will never take the strength, and eats out the vigour of the constitution. pleasure in true understanding, but all the design of his Bp. Horne.
studies is to make a vain ostentation of wisdom unto 23. — taketh a gift out of the bosom] The Hebrews others. Bp. Patrick. used to carry in their bosom their purse, money, and all 3. When the wicked cometh] Wheresoever the wicked
a Chap. 20. 5.
& 16. 19.
14. & 12.
18. & 26. 22. I Or,
and their contrary vices. 4 : The words of a man's mouth 14 The spirit of a man will sustain about 1000. are as deep waters, and the wellspring his infirmity; but a wounded spirit about 1000,
of wisdom as a flowing brook. who can bear ? b Chap. 24. 5 b It is not good to accept the
15 The heart of the prudent getLev. 19.15. person of the wicked, to overthrow teth knowledge; and the ear of the Deut. 1. 17. the righteous in judgment.
wise seeketh knowledge. 6 A fool's lips enter into conten 16 h A man's gift maketh room for h Chap. 17. 8.
tion, and his mouth calleth for strokes. him, and bringeth him before great e Chap. 10. 7 CA fool's mouth is his destruc- men. 13. & 13.3. tion, and his lips are the snare of his 17 He that is first in his own cause soul.
seemeth just; but his neighbour comd Chap. 12. 8 . The words of a || talebearer are eth and searcheth him.
|| as wounds, and they go down into 18 The lot causeth contentions
to cease, and parteth between the
be won than a strong city: and their
strong tower: the righteous runneth castle. + Heb. is set into it, and + is safe.
20 i A man's belly shall be satisfied i Chap. 12, f Chap. 10.
11 f The rich man's wealth is his with the fruit of his mouth; and with strong city, and as an high wall in his the increase of his lips shall he be own conceit.
of man is haughty, and before honour of the tongue: and they that love it
shall eat the fruit thereof.
tohen men are wounded. + Heb. chambers.
e Ps. 18. 2. &
14. & 13. 2.
& 15. 33. & 16. 18.
+ Heb. returneth word.
cometh, he is apt to cast contempt and reproach on bounded spirit is able to bear up against infirmities of others. Bp. Hall.
mind and body: but if the heart of a man be wounded, 4. The words of a man's mouth &c.] This sentence and dejected with any crosses which befall him, what expresses the depth, the abundance, the clearness, and means has he of any longer sustaining himself there the force of the counsels of the wise man. Calmet. remains no remedy, but he must needs droop and yield.
5. - to accept the person of the wicked,] To shew Bp. Hall. favour or partiality to the wicked. Calmet. See Job xiii. but a wounded spirit who can bear?] The words 8. 10.
admit also of being rendered, "a wounded (or dejected) 6.- his mouth calleth for strokes.] He increases a spirit who can raise it up?" As both senses are true difference which may arise between others, till from and pertinent, we may well take the passage in both; words they come to blows. Bp. Patrick.
for the misery of a broken spirit is, that it is very hard 8. - are as wounds,] The Hebrew word here ren- to be borne, and that it is without remedy or support. dered “wounds," occurs no where else in the Bible, The words may be understood, not of a wounded conand translators have differed much in rendering the science merely, but of a wounded spirit in general, verse. “The words of the talebearer inflict a deadly wounded by grief, and sinking under its load of troubles, wound on those who are the objects of his calumny, and no particular cause of trouble being expressed. They sink deep into the minds of all who hear them." Bp. contain a caution against yielding too far to any troubles Patrick. The Hebrew word is allied to one in Arabick, or misfortunes, against letting our spirits sink, or our which signifies “to swallow quickly or greedily.” Thus courage fail us in our day of calamity. Dr. Waterland. perhaps the meaning may be, “are like dainties which 16. - maketh room for him, &c.] Opens a way for are eagerly swallowed up by those who hear them.” him, and procures him admittance before great men. Schultens. Otherwise, “are like subtile poisons, which Calmet. See note on Gen. xxi. 27. insinuate themselves, and produce their effects insensi- 17. He that is first &c.] He that is first in telling his bly, for they penetrate into the inward parts of the own cause, seems to have justice on his side; but his belly, where they lie rankling and gnawing the vitals.” neighbour cometh and examines what was said by him, Dr. Durell.
and then shews the falsity of it. Dr. Wells. 9. — is brother to him] Is little better than he that is 18. The lot causeth contentions &c.] In some cases of a great spender; he equally consumes the estate with difficult adjustment, the casting of lots is an equal way which he is entrusted. Bp. Hall. See the note on Job of determining the controversy, and of putting each xxx. 29.
party in quiet possession of that which falls to his share. 11. The rich man's wealth is his strong city,] This Bp. Patrick. verse seems opposed to the preceding. The righteous 22. Whoso findeth a wife] The Greek and almost all rests all his strength on God, the name of God is his the old versions read, "whoso findeth a good wife.” strong tower; but the rich man regards his riches as an Dr. Durell. The meaning is, "one who truly answers impregnable fortress. Calmet.
to the character of a wife.” Dr. Wells. “ Obtaineth 14. The spirit of a man &c.] A resolute and un- favour of the Lord;" hath met with an excellent bless
e Ver. 5.
a Chap. 28.6.
and their contrary vices. 23 The poor useth intreaties; but 8 He that getteth + wisdom loveth
CHRIST about 1000, the rich answereth 'roughly. his own soul : he that keepeth under- about 1000. 24 A man that hath friends must standing shall find good.
+ Heb. an m Chap. 17. shew himself friendly: mand there is 9 e A false witness shall not be un- heart.
a friend that sticketh closer than a punished, and he that speaketh lies
10 Delight is not seemly for a CHAP. XIX.
fool; much less 'for a servant to have f Eccles. 10. BETTER is the poor that walk- rule over princes.
11 8 The || discretion of a man de- Chap. 14. is perverse in his lips, and is a fool. ferreth his anger; and it is his glory 1 Or, 2 Also, that the soul be without to pass over a transgression.
prudence. knowledge, it is not good; and he 12 h The king's wrath is as the h Chap. 16. that hasteth with his feet sinneth. roaring of a lion; but his favour is as & 28. 15.
3 The foolishness of man perverteth dew upon the grass. his way: and his heart fretteth against 13 i A foolish son is the calamity of Chap: 10. 1. the LORD.
his father: k and the contentions of a 17. 21, 25. 4 • Wealth maketh many friends; wife are a continual dropping.
k Chap. 21. but the poor is separated from his 14 House and riches are the inneighbour.
heritance of fathers : and la prudent Chap. 18. 5 A false witness shall not be wife is from the Lord. ch. 6. 19. &" + unpunished, and he that speaketh 15 Slothfulness casteth into a deep lies shall not escape.
sleep; and an idle soul m shall suffer m Chap. 10. 6 Many will intreat the favour of hunger.
the prince: and every man is a friend 16 » He that keepeth the command- n Luke 11. + Heb. a man to + him that giveth gifts.
ment keepeth his own soul; but he 7 d All the brethren of the poor do that despiseth his ways shall die. hate him: how much more do his 17 .He that hath pity upon the . Matt. 10 friends go far from him ? he pursueth poor lendeth unto the Lord; and 2 Cor. 9.6,7. them with words, yet they are wanting || that which he hath given will he | Or, his deed. to him.
pay him again.
b Chap. 14. 20.
9. & 27. 15.
c Exod. 23. 1. Deut. 19. 16.
4. & 20. 13.
ing, and ought thankfully to acknowledge the favour ment of vegetables in general. The dew, says Hasselof God in guiding his mind to so happy a choice. quist, speaking of the excessively hot weather in Egypt, Bp. Patrick.
is particularly serviceable to the trees, which would other
wise never be able to resist the heat; but with this asChap. XIX. ver. 1. --- than he that is perverse &c.] sistance they thrive well and blossom. Parkhurst. Than he that gathers great riches by fraud and circum 13. — are a continual dropping.] Like a roof which vention, which he takes to be cunning, but which will continually drops with rain. Implying, that it is not prove folly in the end. Bp. Patrick.
more difficult to live in a house with such a roof, than 2. — he that hasteth-sinneth.] “He that hasteth— with a quarrelsome woman. Calmet. The old English stumbleth or falleth.” He that comes rashly to his de- version explains "continual dropping” by,“ rain that terminations, without weighing all the circumstances, droppeth and rotteth a house;" perhaps the meaning cannot but stumble and err. Bp. Hall.
may be, like the continued dropping of the eaves of a 3. The foolishness of man &c.] Men commit number- house, or any continued gentle falling of water, than less errours through ignorance or inconsideration, and which nothing is apt to be more tiresome or distracting. so miss their ends; and then their heart frets not against Dr. Durell. themselves for their misfortunes, but against the Lord, 14. - a prudent wife is from the Lord.] A prudent as if providence were unkind to them. Dr. Wells. and virtuous wife is an especial blessing from God. Bp.
10. Delight is not seemly for a fool;] A foolish man Hall, is unable to make a good use of pleasures; he will use 15. --- casteth into a deep sleep:] Insensibly sinks them without rule and without measure, and will often the mind into a dull stupidity and unconcernedness about destroy himself by them. Calmet.
necessary things. Bp. Patrick. much less for a servant &c.] Power is still less 16. — he that despiseth his ways] Cares not in how suited to a vile slave, who is intolerably insolent when disorderly a manner he lives. Dr. Wells. he can wantonly domineer over the greatest persons. 17. He that hath pity &c.] He that hath compassion Bp. Patrick.
on the poor, and relieves their necessities, does not im12. - - as the roaring of a lion ; &c.] The roaring of poverish but enrich himself. For the Lord considers a lion, it is said, is so terrible, that in a wild state all that which is given to the poor as lent to Himself, and other animals fly away in consternation at the very sound. will not fail to make a full compensation, returning the In the same manner, cruel and headstrong kings spread benefit he hath done to others with large interest and on every side alarm and consternation. Calmet. increase of blessings on himself and his posterity. Bp.
as dew upon the grass.] In hot Eastern climates, Patrick. where it rarely rains in summer, the copious dews which Sir Thomas More, a famous Lord Chancellor of Engfall during the night, contribute greatly to the nourish- land, used always to say, “There was more rhetorick,"