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24. & 23. 13. | Or, to his
Ps. 33. 10, 11.
Isa. 46. 10.
and their contrary vices. 18 P Chasten thy son while there is 27 Cease, my son, to hear the inCHRIST about 1000. hope, and let not thy soul spare || for truction that causeth to err from the about 1000
. his crying
words of knowledge. p Chap. 13. 19 A man of great wrath shall 28 † An ungodly witness scorneth Heb.
A witness of destruction: suffer punishment: for if thou deliver judgment: and the mouth of the Belial. Pimeycause him, yet thou must + do it again.
wicked devoureth iniquity.
struction, that thou mayest be wise in scorners, and stripes for the back of
fools. 9 Job 23. 13. 21 9 There are many devices in a
CHAP. XX. ch. 16. 1,9. man's heart; nevertheless the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand.
CINE is a mocker, strong drink
is raging : and whosoever is
2 a The fear of a king is as the 4 Chap. 16.
3 It is an honour for a man to r Chap. 15. 24 " A slothful man hideth his hand cease from strife: but every
4 b The sluggard will not plow by b Chap. 10. 4. s Chap. 21.11. 25 - Smite a scorner, and the sim- reason of the || cold; therefore shall he i Or, winter. + Heb. will be ple + will beware: and reprove one beg in harvest, and have nothing. cunning.
that hath understanding, and he will 5 . Counsel in the heart of man is c Chap. 18. 4.
like deep water; but a man of under-
n 6 Most men will proclaim every
ful man who can find ?
14. & 19. 12.
19. & 26. 13, 15.
more persuasive argument, “in this little sentence, than sup it out of the palms of their hands.” Parkhurst, in a whole library." Bp. Horne.
Harmer. 19. A man of great wrath &c.] A man that is subject 25. Smite a scorner, and the simple will beware :] to frequent and extreme passions of anger, cannot avoid Punish severely a derider of religion; and, even if it do many and great inconveniences, which he brings on him- him no good, those incautious persons whom he hath self and if thou do in a friendly manner free him from deluded will be awakened by it to greater circumspecsome dangerous effects of his intemperance, he will “do it tion. Bp. Patrick. again," he will repeat the same misconduct. Bp. Hall. 27. - that causeth to err from the words of knowledge.]
21. -- the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand.] That By “ the words of knowledge” we are here to underwhich God has in his everlasting counsels either deter- stand, generally, the precepts of virtue and religion ; mined to do Himself, or to suffer to be done by any of and the sum of the advice given is, that we should be his creatures, shall, whether we will or not, undoubtedly careful to guard against the arts and insinuations of so come to pass, as He hath appointed. Bp. Sanderson. such as set themselves up for teachers of infidelity and
22. The desire of a man is his kindness :] There is irreligion. Bp. Sherlock. nothing more desirable for a man than to have wherewithal to be kind to others, and to confer obligations on Chap. XX. ver. 1. Wine is a mocker, strong drink is his friends and neighbours. Bp. Patrick.
raging :] Excess of wine beguiles a man of his senses, - a poor man is better than a liar.] If a wealthy and incites him to wanton wickedness and violence. man promise much and perform nothing, a poor man, Bp. Hall. who is unable to undertake or to perform, is better than 2. — sinneth against his own soul.] Incurs the danger he. Bp. Hall.
of death. Dr. Isham. 24. A slothful man hideth &c.] The word which we 4. The sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold :] translate"
bosom” signifies more properly “a pan” or In Syria they begin to plow about the latter end of "dish.” Thus the verse is rendered by many, "The September, and sow their earliest wheat about the slothful man hideth or plungeth his hand in the pan, middle of October. The frosts are never severe enough and will not so much as (that is, it irketh or grieveth him to prevent their ploughing all the winter. Dr. Russell. to bring it to his mouth again.” In illustration 5. Counsel in the heart of man &c.] Though the deof which sense it is to be remarked, that, to this day, the signs and intentions of some men are as hard to be Arabs and Moors make use at their meals of neither sounded as deep waters; yet there are persons of such knives, forks, nor spoons, but only of their hands and penetrating understandings, and of so great a reach, fingers in eating pottage, or what we call spoon meats. I that they will find means to discover them, and to draw To this purpose Le Bruyn says, “ The Arabs in feeding them out. Bp. Patrick. on milk use no spoons. They dip their hands into the 6. — but a faithful man who can find ?] A faithful milk, which is placed before them in a wooden bowl, and man, one who will steadily perform what he has pro
with his eyes.
e Ps. 51. 5. Job 14. 4.
my sin ?
2 Chron. 6. 36.
Matt. 15, 4.
f Deut. 25.
& 16. 11.
and their contrary vices. 7 The just man walketh in his 18 Every purpose is established CHRIST about 1000. integrity: a his children are blessed by counsel: and with good advice about 1000. after him.
make war. d Ps. 112. 2.
1 Chap 15. 8 A king that sitteth in the throne 19 m He that goeth about as a tale- 22.
m Chap. 11. of judgment scattereth away all evil bearer revealeth secrets: therefore 19.
meddle not with him that || flattereth 1 Or, enticeth. 9 e Who can say, I have made my with his lips. 1 Kings 8.46. heart clean, I am pure from
20 ~ Whoso curseth his father or n Exod. 21. 10 ft Divers weights, and + divers his mother, his || lamp shall be put Lev. 20.9. Eccles. 7. 20. measures, both of them are alike out in obscure darkness. abomination to the LORD.
21 An inheritance may be gotten 13, &c. chap. 11. 1. 11 Even a child is known by his hastily at the beginning; but the end + Heb. A doings, whether his work be pure, and thereof shall not be blessed. whether it be right.
22 Say not thou, I will recompense Deut. 32. 12 6 The hearing ear, and the see-evil; but wait on the Lord, and he chap. 17. 13.
ing eye, the Lord hath made even shall save thee. g Exod. 4. 11. both of them.
23 P Divers weights are an abomi- 1Thess
. 5. h Clap. 12. 13 h Love not sleep, lest thou come nation unto the LORD; and + a false 1 Pet. 3. 9.
poverty; open thine eyes, and thou balance is not good. shalt be satisfied with bread.
24 9 Man's goings are of the LORD; of deceit. 14 It is naught, it is naught, saith how can a man then understand his a Ps. 87: 23.
25 It is a snare to the man who
26 " A wise king scattereth the parties i Chap. 27. 13. 16 Take his garment that is surety wicked, and bringeth the wheel over
for a stranger : and take a pledge of them.
27 The spirit of man is the || candle 1 Or, lamp. k Chap. 9. 17.
17 k + Bread of deceit is sweet to a of the Lord, searching all the inward
man; but afterwards his mouth shall parts of the belly. falsehood. be filled with gravel.
28 • Mercy and truth preserve the H22.193.1:
stone and a
& 24. 29. Rom. 12. 17.
Ps. 94. 9.
11. & 19. 15.
Jer. 10. 23.
Ps. 101.5, &c.
+ Heb. Bread of lying, or,
mised, and what he has boasted he would perform. of deceit” may be included all things wrongfully obSchultens.
tained, which, however they may please in the begin8. A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment &c.] ning, will bring sorrow and pain in the conclusion. Bp. A king who acts justly.
Patrick. 10. Divers weights, &c.] A fraudulent diversity of 20. — his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness. ] weights and measures is abominable unto the Lord. His comfort and help shall be taken from him when he Bp. Hall.
has most need of it, and he shall be left utterly mise11. Even a child &c.] It is not difficult, by the car- rable and disconsolate. Bp. Hall. riage and disposition of a person in childhood, to judge 22. Say not thou, I will recompense &c.] Take not what is to be hoped or feared of him in riper years; revenge for an injury received, where thou art not the either good or evil begins to shew itself betimes. Bp. proper judge, but leave thy cause to the Lord, and exHall.
pect his righteous sentence. Bp. Patrick. 12. The hearing ear, &c.] We are here reminded, 24. Man's goings are of the Lord;] No man can that we derive from God all that we have, and all that take one step towards any thing he designs, without we are, and that therefore none ought to take glory to the permission of the Lord; who sometimes overrules himself for any excellent qualities of mind or body the motions of men unto ends so far distant from their which he may possess. Calmet.
thoughts, that it is impossible for them to know what 13. — open thine eyes,] That is, arise betimes in the the event shall be of any thing they undertake. Bp. morning, and follow some honest employment. Dr. Patrick. Wells.
25. It is a snare to the man &c.] That man entan14. It is naught,—saith the buyer :] That is, the gleth his soul in the snares of death, who taketh back buyer unjustly tries to overreach the seller, by dispa- to a profane use that which is once consecrated to God, raging his goods : but when he has obtained them at and who, after he has vowed any thing to the Lord, his own price, he boasts of having tricked him. Dr. argues within himself how he may alter that holy purWells.
pose, and defraud God of his due. Bp. Hall. 16. Take his garment] Take a garment (take the 26. — and bringeth the wheel over them.] A metaphor, uttermost security thou canst) from him who is so in- to express the due punishment of the wicked, taken considerate as to become surety for an utter stranger; from the custom of threshing corn by means of a wheel and also take a present pledge of him who has the folly drawn over it by oxen, Isa. xxviii. 27, 28. Bp. Patrick. to become surety for a strange or infamous woman. 27. The spirit of man &c.] The soul is a principle Dr. Wells.
of light to guide and direct man in all his motions, 17. Bread of deceit] Under the name of the “bread enabling him to reflect, not only on his own actions,
t Chap. 16. 31.
contentions. + Heb. an house of
g Chap. 19. 25.
b 1 Sam. 15.
& 18. 16,
Isa. 1. 11.
1 Or, the light of the tricked.
& 13. 11.
CHAP. XX, XXI.
and their contrary vices. cheferist king: and his throne is upholden by ner of the housetop, than with † a chefors r about 1000. mercy:
brawling woman in ta wide house.
favour in his eyes.
'society. + Heb. is a + cleanseth away evil : so do stripes the simple is made wise: and when : James 4, 5, the inward parts of the belly.
the wise is instructed, he receiveth Jaroured. against evil.
knowledge. CHAP. XXI.
12 The righteous man wisely conTHE king's heart is in the hand of sidereth the house of the wicked: but
, he turneth it whithersoever he will. their wickedness. a Chap. 16. 2. 2 a Every way of a man is right in 13 h Whoso stoppeth his ears at the h Matt. 18.
his own eyes: but the Lord ponder- cry of the poor, he also shall cry him-
self, but shall not be heard.
workers of iniquity.
one that is hasty only to want. in the congregation of the dead. d Chap. 10.2. 6 . The getting of treasures by a 17 He that loveth || pleasure shall | Or, sport.
lying tongue is a vanity tossed to and be a poor man: he that loveth wine
and oil shall not be rich. 7 The robbery of the wicked shall 18 k The wicked shall be a ransom k Chap. 11. 8. + Heb. sau + destroy them; because they refuse for the righteous, and the transgresto do judgment.
sor for the upright. 8 The way of man is froward and 19 'It is better to dwell + in the 1 Ver. 9. strange: but as for the pure, his work wilderness, than with a contentious land of the is right.
and an angry woman. 9 e It is better to dwell in a cor 20 There is treasure to be desired but on his most secret thoughts, and to discover the stable; and will occasion utter destruction both of soul good or evil which is in them. Dr. Wells.
and body to him who unjustly acquires it. Bp. Hall. 30. The blueness of a wound &c.] The meaning Is a vanity tossed to and fro;" is not more durable seems to be, that a wicked man, who has received due than heaps of chaff or clouds of smoke, which are soon correction for his crimes, will be cured of them, or will dissipated by the wind. Bp. Patrick. not so easily fall into the like again, and that though 8. and strange :] Alienated from God and goodstripes chiefly affect the body, yet they have likewise an Dr. Isham. effect on the chambers of the belly) the inward recesses 9. - in a corner of the housetop,] During the summer of the mind; restraining the offender by the fear of season it was usual to sleep on the tops of the houses, punishment. That this is the meaning of the Hebrew, which were flat and properly guarded by a parapet wall; rendered “ the inward parts of the belly,” appears from for which purpose little arbours were formed upon them. that elegant comparison of the conscience or spirit of a This, however pleasant in fine weather, must have been man, verse 27, to a light within him, searching out and much otherwise in bad weather. Harmer. discovering his most secret thoughts. Dr. Gray. 12. — but God overthroweth &c.] The word “God”
is not in the Hebrew, and is inserted to make up the Chap. XXI. ver. 1. The king's heart is &c.] It is not sense : still the meaning is sufficiently good without in the power of kings, much less of other men, either this insertion, if by the term “righteous man, to do or to design what they please, but their very wills derstand not a private person, but a just and upright are subject to the great Lord of all, who diverts them magistrate. The sense may then be, "A just judge as easily from what they intend, or inclines them to makes a prudent but strict scrutiny into all the actions that which they resolve against, as the gardener draws of a wicked man's family, that he may so punish them the streams of water, through the trenches he cuts, into for their rapine, violence, and extortion, as to deprive what part of the ground he thinks good. Bp. Patrick. them of all power to do further mischief.” Bp. Pairick.
4. - the plowing of the wicked,] The designs and 14. a reward in the bosom] See note at Ps. lxxix. contrivances of the wicked. Bp. Patrick.
12. 5. — that is hasty] Who hopes to get rich rapidly 17. that loveth wine and oil] That loveth eating by improper means.
and drinking. 6. The getting of treasures &c.] Wealth acquired by 18. The wicked shall be a ransom &c.] It frequently falsehood" and lying is altogether uncertain and un- falls out, through the wise and just providence of God,
them, or, dwell with them.
e Chap. 19. 13. & 25. 24. & 27. 15.
CHRIST about 1000.
1 Or, victory.
'A to a Eccles. 1.1.
m Eccles. 9. 14,
is better than, &c.
13. & 18. 21.
wrath of pride.
and their contrary vices.
Before and oil in the dwelling of the wise; | the day of battle: but " || safety is of about 1000. but a foolish man spendeth it up.
the LORD. 21 He that followeth after right
u Ps. 3. 8. eousness and mercy findeth life, righteousness, and honour.
22 m A wise man scaleth the city chosen than great riches, and of the mighty, and casteth down the || loving favour rather than silver and ! or, favour
strength of the confidence thereof. gold. n Chap. 12. 23 n Whoso keepeth his mouth and 2 b The rich and poor meet toge- b Chap. 29.
his tongue keepeth his soul from ther : the Lord is the maker of them
all. 24 Proud and haughty scorner is 3. A prudent man foreseeth the Chap. 27.. to Tach. in the his name, who dealeth + in proud evil, and hideth himself: but the wrath.
simple pass on, and are punished. o Chap. 13. 4. 25 The desire of the slothful
4 . || By humility and the fear of Ps. 112. 3. killeth him ; for his hands refuse to the Lord are riches, honour, and reward of labour.
humility, &c. life. 26 He coveteth greedily all the 5 Thorns and snares are in the p Ps. 112. 9. day long : but the P righteous giveth way of the froward: he that doth keep and spareth not.
his soul shall be far from them. 27 · The sacrifice of the wicked is, 6 | Train up a child † in the way abomination : how much more, when he should go : and when he is old, he + Heb. in his he bringeth it + with a wicked mind? will not depart from it. 28 " + A false witness shall perish:
7 The rich ruleth over the poor, 7 Chap. 19. 5, but the man that heareth speaketh and the borrower is servant + to the Heb, constantly.
anger shall fail
of his anger 30 s There is no wisdom nor un 9 f+ He that hath a bountiful eye derstanding nor counsel against the shall be blessed; for he giveth of his 12 Cor. 9. 6. LORD.
+ Heb.good. bread to the poor. 31 • The horse is prepared against 10 & Cast out the scorner, and con- g Ps. 101. 5.
q Chap. 15. 8.
to the man that lendeth.
with the rod
& Jer. 9. 23.
he shall be consumed.
t Ps. 33. 17.
that those calamities which threatened to seize on the and condition, but with a manifest equality, as to their godly and righteous man, fall, in their stead, on the nature and origin ; "the Lord is maker of them all.” wicked and transgressors. Bp. Hall.
Dean Moss. 24. Proud and haughty scorner &c.] He that deals 3. — foreseeth the evil, and hideth himself:] Foresees proudly in his anger, is worthy to be branded with the a calamity before it comes, and withdraws himself from name of an insolent scorner. Bp. Hall.
the danger into a place of safety. Bp. Patrick. 25. The desire of the slothful killeth him ;] The sloth 6. Train up a child &c.] In these words are conful man is consumed by vain longings.
tained, 1st, the duty of parents and instructors, “ Train 27. — when he bringeih it with a wicked mind ?] When up a child in the way he should go ;" that is, in the at the very time he is projecting some wicked design course of life which he ought to lead ; instruct him which he thinks to sanctify by his sacrifices. Bp. Pa- carefully in the knowledge and practice of his whole trick.
duty to God and man, which he ought to perform and 28. — but the man that heareth] The man who heard, observe all the days of his life : 2nd, the fruit and benefit that is, who testifies only to what he heard, “ speaketh of good education, that, “ when he is old, he will not convincingly, so as to carry his point. Bate, Parkhurst. depart from it.”. This we must understand according
29. — hardeneth his face :] He hardens his face to the moral probability of things, not as if this happy against shame, laughs at correction, and impudently effect did always and infallibly follow upon the good defends the evil he has done. The upright, on the education of a child, but that this very frequently is, contrary, watches over his ways, and corrects them and may probably be hoped and presumed to be, the when he is made aware of his errours. Calmet.
fruit and effect of a pious and prudent education : 30. There is no wisdom &c.—against the Lord.] though exceptions may occur, yet they are not suffiWisdom, counsel, &c, avail nothing when they oppose cient to infringe the general truth of the assertion. Abp. the counsels and decrees of Heaven. Bp. Patrick. Tillotson.
7. --- and the borrower &c.] Loses his liberty, and Chap. XXI. ver. 1. and loving favour] The loving depends on the will and pleasure of the lender. Bp. favour of good men. Dr. Wells.
Patrick. 2. The rich and poor meet together : &c.] The obvious 9. He that hath a bountiful eye] He who freely gives, meaning of this proverbial speech is, that the rich and and delights to afford pleasure to others; opposed to poor are mingled, or rather associated together, as him who has an evil eye. “Is thine eye evil, &c." members of the same community; under very different Matt. xx. 15. Calmet. circumstances indeed, as to their outward appearance “Good of eye,” as in the margin, denotes kindness
I. Or, and hath grace in
1 Or, the matters.
the gate :
& 5. 3. & 7.5. & 23. 27.
and their contrary vices. tention shall go out; yea, strife and 21 That I might make thee know about 1000, reproach shall cease.
the certainty of the words of truth ; about 1000, 11 He that loveth pureness of that thou mightest answer the words
heart, II for the grace of his lips the of truth || to them that send unto or, to those his lips. king shall be his friend.
thee? 12 The eyes of the LORD pre 22 Rob not the poor because he is serve knowledge, and he overthrow- poor: 'neither oppress the afflicted in 1 Zech. 7. 10.
eth || the words of the transgressor. h Chap. 26. 13 The slothful man saith, There 23 m For the Lord will plead their m Chap. 23.
is a lion without, I shall be slain in cause, and spoil the soul of those that Job 31. 14. the streets.
spoiled them. i Chap. 2. 16. 14 i The mouth of strange women
24 Make no friendship with an
thou shalt not go:
rection shall drive it far from him. 26 n Be not thou one of them that n Chap. 6. 1. 29. 15, 17.
16 He that oppresseth the poor strike hands, or of them that are sure-
why should he take away thy bed
mark, which thy fathers have set. 18 For it is a pleasant thing if 29 Seest thou a man diligent in i Or, bound. telebin thy thou keep them + within thee; they his business ? he shall stand before belly.
shall withal be fitted in thy lips. kings; he shall not stand before + mean + Heb.
19 That thy trust may be in the men. LORD, I have made known to thee
CHAP. XXIII. 1 Or, trust
this day, || even to thee.
20 Have not I written to thee ex WHEN thou sittest to eat with cellent things in counsels and know a ruler, consider diligently ledge,
what is before thee:
k Chap. 13. 24. & 19. 18. & 23. 13. &
& 11. 15.
or benevolence in heart, which quality is usually accom- shall withal be ready upon thy lips.” Dr. Durell. So panied with a good-natured benevolent eye or look. On that thou shalt be able to produce them as there is octhe contrary, "evil in eye,” is equivalent to envious, casion, and aptly communicate them for other men's grudging, chap. xxiii. 6; xxviii. 22. Parkhurst. instruction. Bp. Patrick.
13. The sloihful man saith, &c.] The slothful man 22. — in the gate :] The gate of the city where pubfeigns idle excuses, and pretences of danger, when he lick justice was administered. See notes at Deut. xxi. ought to be employed on his business. Bp. Hall. 19; xxii. 9; xxv. 7; Ruth iv. 1, 2.
14. The mouth of strange women &c.] The plausible 24. — thou shalt not go :] Rather, “Go not,” for and smooth tongue of a harlot is no less dangerous than both parts of the sentence are expressed in the same a deep pit fairly covered, into which if a man fall, there tense. Dr. Durell. is small hope of his recovering himself; and it is a 27. If thou hast nothing to pay, &c.] If thou hast fearful sign and effect of God's anger to be given over nothing to pay, why shouldest thou be so egregiously to her enticements. Bp. Hall.
foolish as only to incense the creditor against thee, by 15. Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child ;] taking upon thee to pay what thou art not able, and so There is a foolish waywardness, which is natural to the provoke him to shew thee no pity, but even to take child, and cleaves close to its disposition. Bp. Hall. away thy bed from under thee? * Dr. Wells.
16. — and he that giveth to the rich,] He that giveth 29. -- he shall stand before kings :] He shall soon to the rich and powerful, to induce them to wink at his be preferred to the service of his prince, and shall not oppression of others. Dr. Wells.
continue long in the service of a private person. Dr. 17. Bow down thine ear, &c.] From this verse, all Wells. interpreters have observed, that another form of speech, different from the preceding, begins and continues to Chap. XXIII, ver. 1. When thou sittest to eat with a the twenty-fifth chapter. From the beginning of the ruler,] As the foregoing chapter closes with an obsertenth chapter, to this place, the instructions of wisdom, vation concerning the qualities of a person who is most are delivered in short sentences, and proverbs properly likely to come to preferment, so this begins with a causo called, which have seldom any connexion. But now tion to him, as to his behaviour when he is promoted follow exhortations and precepts in the imperative mood, to it. Solomon advises such a person to be very conand those comprehended in two, three, or more verses. siderate on such occasions who and what is before him, Bp. Patrick
and to be always on his guard lest he commit excess, 18. – they shall withal be fitted in thy lips.] “They or betray want of respect. Bp. Patrick,