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e Chap. 3.
a I Tim. 6. 9, 10.
Eph. 5. 18,
and their contrary vices. 2 And put a knife to thy throat, if 17 eLet not thine heart envy sinCHRIST
CHRIST about 1000, thou be a man given to appetite. ners: but be thou in the fear of the about 1000.
3 Be not desirous of his dainties : Lord all the day long.
18 ' For surely there is an || end; & 24. 1.
f Chap. 24. 14.
Or, reward. + Heb. Will 5 + Wilt thou set thine eyes upon
19 Hear thou, my son, and be thine eyes to that which is not ? for riches certainly wise, and guide thine heart in the fly upon. make themselves wings; they fly way.
away as an eagle toward heaven. 20 8 Be not among winebibbers ; Rom. 13.
6° Eat thou not the bread of him among riotous eaters 7 of flesh: that hath an evil eye, neither desire 21 For the drunkard and the glut- their flesh. thou his dainty meats:
ton shall come to poverty: and drow-
8 The morsel which thou hast ther when she is old.
also wisdom, and instruction, and un-
shall greatly rejoice: and he that beb Chap. 22. 10 b Remove not the old || land- getteth a wise child shall have joy of Deut. 19. 14. mark; and enter not into the fields of him. the fatherless :
25 Thy father and thy mother c Chap. 22. 11 For their redeemer is mighty; shall be glad, and she that bare thee
he shall plead their cause with thee.
12 Apply thine heart unto instruc 26 My son, give me thine heart, tion, and thine ears to the words of and let thine eyes observe my ways. knowledge.
27 For a whore is a deep ditch ; ķ Chap. 22. d Chap. 13. 13 a Withhold not correction from and a strange woman is a narrow 18. & 22. 15. the child: for if thou beatest him with pit. the rod, he shall not die.
28 She also lieth in wait || as for 1 Chap. 7. 12. 14 Thou shalt beat him with the a prey, and increaseth the transgres- robber. rod, and shalt deliver his soul from sors among men. hell.
29 m Who hath woe? who hath m Isa. 5. 11. 15 My son, if thine heart be wise, sorrow? who hath contentions ? who 1 Or, eren I my heart shall rejoice, || even mine. hath babbling? who hath wounds will rejoice.
16 Yea, my reins shall rejoice, without cause? who hath redness of when thy lips speak right things.
& 15. 20.
& 27. 17.
21. & 19.
2. — put a knife to thy throat,] Be careful by all he may shew thee will be dearly paid for, and all thy means to restrain thy wanton appetite, if thou be a man friendly language will be lost on him. given to please thy palate. Bp. Hall. This is a bold 10. — enter not into the fields &c.] Invade not the Eastern phrase, expressive of the absolute necessity of estates of the fatherless; for God (ver. 11,) is in a special restraining the appetites, and intimating that there is as manner their Redeemer and Protector, who is mighty much danger in indulging them, as there is in running above all others. Dr. Wells. against a knife applied to the throat. Dr. Durell. 13. — he shall not die.] He shall be preserved from
4. Labour not to be rich:) Do not too eagerly strive destruction. Dr. Isham. and labour to be rich; and follow not thy own carnal 18. For surely there is an end ;] For surely there wisdom, which suggests to thee wrong ways to the shall be a blessed reward of all thy holy endeavours, hasty acquirement of wealth. Bp. Hall.
and thy expectation of a joyful retribution shall not be 5. Wilt thou set thine eyes] Wilt thou be so intent disappointed. Bp. Hall. upon riches, and pursue them with such haste and earn 20. — among riotous eaters of flesh:] This is a general estness, which, perhaps, thou canst never catch; or caution against intemperate and riotous feasting. which if thou dost, may be gone as fast as they came; 23. Buy the truth, and sell it not ;] That is, Spare and by all thy care and pains never be recovered ? no cost to purchase truth, and sell it not for any gain.
“They fly away as an eagle.” He sets forth the in- Dr. Ibbot. constancy of riches by the flight of an eagle, which of 27. - is a deep ditch ;] From which it is difficult to all birds is observed to fly swiftest and highest “toward escape. Dr. Isham. See chap. xxii. 14. heaven.” Bp. Patrick.
29. — who hath babbling? who hath wounds without 6–5. Eat thou not the bread &c.]. Court not the cause ?? Who is given to idle obscene words ? who sufacquaintance of a malicious person; whatever kindness fers stripes and wounds in distempered frays ? Bp. Hall.
and their contrary vices. 30 They that tarry long at the 4 And by knowledge shall the about 1000. wine; they that go to seek mixed chambers be filled with all precious about 1000. wine.
and pleasant riches. 31 Look not thou upon the wine 5 A wise man tis strong; yea, Heb. is when it is red, when it giveth his a man of knowledge tincreaseth + Heb. colour in the cup, when it moveth it- strength. self aright.
6 ° For by wise counsel thou shalt cChap: 11:14. 32 At the last it biteth like a ser- make thy war: and in multitude of 20. 18. | Or, a pent, and stingeth like || an adder. counsellors there is safety. cockatrice.
33 Thine eyes shall behold strange 7 Wisdom is too high for a fool: women, and thine heart shall utter he openeth not his mouth in the perverse things.
34 Yea, thou shalt be as he that 8 He that deviseth to do evil shall Heb. in the lieth down t in the midst of the sea, be called a mischievous person.
or as he that lieth upon the top of a 9 The thought of foolishness is
sin: and the scorner is an abomina-
that are drawn unto death, and those
that are ready to be slain; CHAP. XXIV.
12 If thou sayest, Behold, we a Chap. 23.
B E not thou a envious against evil knew it not; doth not he that ponder
men, neither desire to be with eth the heart consider it? and he that them.
keepeth thy soul, doth not he know 2 For their heart studieth destruc- it ? and shall not he render to every tion, and their lips talk of mischief. man according to his works? 3 Through wisdom is an house 13 My son, eat thou honey, be- Jer. 32, 19
. builded ; and by understanding it is cause it is good; and the honeycomb, Rev. 22. 12. established :
which is sweet + to thy taste:
heart of the sed.
+ Heb. I knew it not.
+ Heb. narrono,
e Job 34. 11. Ps. 62. 12.
+ Heb, upon thy palate.
30.- mixed wine.] The Hebrew word means wine 7. Wisdom is too high for a fool :) Wisdom is too high mixed with the lees, which was of a highly intoxicating for a vain or inconsiderate person duly to value, and quality. Parkhurst. Or, spiced wine. Michaelis. consequently to take sufficient pains to attain ; whence
31. Look not thou upon the wine &c.] Suffer not it is, that he " openeth not his mouth in the gate,' thine eyes to be tempted by beholding with too much never becomes a judge or publick magistrate. Dr. pleasure the pure and grateful colour of wine, when it Wells. shews itself in the cup and sparkles, through the strength 9. The thought of foolishness is sin :] He that is and spirit that is in it. Bp. Hall.
wickedly foolish entertains commonly no thoughts but when it is red] Red wine is more esteemed in sinful. Bp. Hall. the East than white; and we are told in the Travels of the scorner is an abomination to men.] It is worOlearius, that it is customary with the Armenian Chris- thy of remark that Solomon frequently exhorts us not tians in Persia to put Brazil wood, or saffron, into their to be scorners or scoffers in religion. Such persons he wine, to give it an higher colour, when the wine is not considers as the worst sort of sinners, as incurable fools so red as they like ; as they set little value on white and reprobates. The scorner, if he be in a mean and wine. Harmer.
poor condition, does all the mischief he can in his nar34. — thou shalt be as he that &c.] Thy head shall row sphere of action ; if he be in an exalted station, he be as giddy, and thy brain as much turned, as if thou is a publick curse and a national calamity. Dr. Jortin. wert laid sea-sick in the midst of the ship, or placed 11, 12. If thou forbear &c.] The sum of the instrucon the top of the tottering mast. Bp. Hali.
tion conveyed in these verses is, that every man, accord35. They have stricken me, &c.] This verse describes ing to his place and power, and especially those who the drunken man's insensibility to blows.
are armed with any publick authority, are bound, both
in charity and in justice, to use the utmost of their Chap. XXIV. ver. 1. Be not thou enrious &c.] The power, and to embrace all lawful opportunities, by all proneness of good men to be dejected at the prosperity lawful means, to help those to right that suffer wrong; of the ungodly, and so to be tempted to imitate them, to stand by their poorer brethren and neighbours in is the reason that the admonition given in this verse is the day of calamity and distress, to defend them in their so often repeated. We find it before at chap. iii. 31; righteous causes, to protect them from injuries, and xxiii. 17; and it is repeated at ver. 19, of this chapter. to deliver them out of the hands of those who are too Bp. Patrick.
mighty, or too crafty, for them, who seek, either by 5. - -- a man of knowledge increaseth strength.] A man violence or cunning, to deprive them of their lives or of knowledge and understanding impartsa great increase livelihoods. Bp. Sanderson. of strength and defence to the whole city or community 13. — eat thou honey, &c.] The wise man shews with in which he is. Bp. Hall.
what pleasure the instructions of wisdom should be
& 119. 103.
h Ps. 34. 19.
i Ps. 35. 15. ch. 17. 5. Job 31. 29.
and their contrary vices. Before 14 'So shall the knowledge of Thou art righteous; him shall the
CHRIST about 1000. wisdom be unto thy soul: when thou people curse, nations shall abhor about 1000.
hast found it, 8 then there shall be a him : f Ps. 19. 10.
reward, and thy expectation shall not 25 But to them that rebuke him g Chap. 23. be cut off. shall be delight, and + a good bless- Heb. a
blessing of 15 Lay not wait, 0 wicked man, ing shall come upon them.
+ Heb. that
17 i Rejoice not when thine enemy 28 Be not a witness against thy falleth, and let not thine heart be neighbour without cause; and deceive glad when he stumbleth:
not with thy lips.
to the man according to his work.
evil men, neither be thou envious at ful, and by the vineyard of the man not company the wicked;
void of understanding; 20 For there shall be no reward 31 And, lo, it was all grown over 1 Chap. 13.9. to the evil man ; "the || candle of the with thorns, and nettles had covered wicked shall be put out.
the face thereof, and the stone wall 21 My son, fear thou the LORD thereof was broken down.
and the king: and meddle not with 32 Then I saw, and + considered Heb. set my + Heb. + them that are given to change: it well : I looked upon it, and received changers.
22 For their calamity shall rise instruction. suddenly; and who knoweth the ruin
33 P Yet a little sleep, a little p. Chap. 6. 9, of them both ?
slumber, a little folding of the hands 23 These things also belong to the to sleep:
wise. m It is not good to have re 34 So shall thy poverty come as n Chap. 17. spect of persons in judgment. one that travelleth ; and thy want as 24 n He that saith unto the wicked, t an armed man.
+ Heb. it be eril in his eyes.
k Ps. 37. 1.
toith the ticked.
Job 21. 17. 1 Or, lamp.
m Lev. 19. 15. ch. 18. 5. & 28. 21. Deut. 1. 17. & 16. 19. John 7. 24.
+ Heb. a man
received, (ver. 14,) and how profitable also and neces- discontent with the present state of things, or continual sary they are, by the example of honey, which was not love of novelty, makes them desire a change of governonly esteemed for its grateful flavour in those countries, ment, and depart from their duty both to God and man. but deemed most useful for the support of human life. Bp. Patrick. It was held in great esteem for food, for drink, for 26. Every man shall kiss his lips &c.] Every good medicine, for preserving of dead bodies, and particularly man shall applaud and bless the mouth of him who for infants. See Isa. vii. 15; Ecclus. xxxix. 26. Hence giveth an upright sentence in judgment. Bp. Hall. the ancient Christians used to give a little milk and 27. Prepare thy work without, &c.] Get thy estate honey to those who were baptized, as persons newly in good order, and then go, build thy house. regenerate and born again; because honey, as well as 28. — and deceive not with thy lips.] The word which milk, was the nutriment of little children in those we render “deceive" signifies, in the original, any countries. See 1 Sam. xiv. 27; Luke xxiv. 41, 42. All damage, any inconvenience, brought upon å man in this may be applied to heavenly wisdom, from which the way of slander, calumny, backsliding, or any other the mind derives the greatest satisfaction, and there injurious manner of representing him. We must confore it ought to be our daily diet, from the be- sider every degree of this sin as forbidden in the precept. ginning of our days to the end of them. Bp. Pa- Dr. S. Clarke. trick
29. Say not, I will do so to him &c.] That is, whether 16. For a just man falleth seven times,] Rather, revenge, or any other feeling, be the temptation to the “ Though a just man falleth seven times, yet will he rise practice, the sin itself is of the deepest die, and conagain. Dr. Durell. A righteous man, if he fall into demned amongst the most detestable crimes, both by manifold miseries and calamities, yet through the good reason and Scripture. Dr. S. Clarke. ness of God, shall be delivered out of them all. Bp. 31. -- and the stone wall] Stone walls were frequently Hall.
used for the preservation of vineyards, as well as living 18. Lest the Lord see it, &c.] Lest the Lord see thy fences. Van Egmont and Heyman, describing the inward gladness, which man cannot see, and such a sin- country round about Saphet, a celebrated city of Galiful and unreasonable feeling displease Him, and "he lee, tell us, “ the country round is finely improved, the turn away his wrath” from the wicked man, and trans- declivity being covered with vines supported by low fer it on thee. Dr. Wells.
walls." Harmer. 21. — and meddle not with them that are given to 33, 34. Yet a little sleep, &c.] See before at chap. change :] And have nothing to do with those, whose vi. 10, 11,
discover not the secret of
spoken upon his wheels.
Observations about kings,
CHAP. XXV. and avoiding causes of quarrels. CHAP. XXV.
8 Go not forth hastily to strive, CHRIST
i Observations about kings, 8 and about lest thou know not what to do in the about 700.
avoiding causes of quarrels, and sundry end thereof, when thy neighbour hath
put thee to shame.
Solomon, which the men of neighbour himself; and || discover i or,
2 It is the glory of God to con 10 Lest he that heareth it put thee another.
away. 3 The heaven for height, and the 11 A word + fitly spoken is like Heb.
earth for depth, and the heart of kings apples of gold in pictures of silver. | Heb. there tis unsearchable.
12 As an earring of gold, and an 4 Take away the dross from the ornament of fine gold, so is a wise silver, and there shall come forth a reprover upon an obedient ear. vessel for the finer.
13 d As the cold of snow in the d Chap. 13. a Chap. 20.8. 5 Take away the wicked from time of harvest, so is a
is a faithful before the king, and his throne shall messenger to them that send him: be established in righteousness. for he refresheth the soul of his mas
6 + Put not forth thyself in the ters. glory. presence of the king, and stand not 14 Whoso boasteth himself +
gift of falsein the place of great men:
false gift is like clouds and wind hood. 7 For better it is that it be said without rain. unto thee, Come up hither; than that 15 e By long forbearing is a prince e Gen. 32. 4, thou shouldest be put lower in the persuaded, and a soft tongue breaketh 1 Sam. 25. 24, presence of the prince whom thine the bone. eyes have
16 Hast thou found honey ? eat so & 16. 14.
is no searching.
+ Heb. Set not out thy
| Heb. in a
b Luke 14. 10.
Chap. XXV. Here begins the third part of the book flows smoothly, agreeably, and without harshness. Calof Proverbs; which is a collection made by some be- met. longing to Hezekiah, and acknowledged here, in the like apples of gold in pictures of silver.] As entrance of the book, as well as the former, to be Solo- oranges or citrons in curiously engraved work of silver. mon's. Bp. Patrick. See the Introduction.
Parkhurst. It may be doubtful whether by “apples of Ver. 2. It is the glory of God to conceal &c.] It is gold” be meant “ apples that look like gold,” or “ apples the peculiar glory of God, as being a prerogative justly made of gold." " Like golden balls or beautiful apples due to his transcendent majesty, wisdom, goodness, presented in a silver network basket.” Bp. Patrick. and justice, "to conceal a thing;” that is, not to make Solomon probably alludes to the pomegranates and netknown all the reasons of his providence, or of his de- work in the temple, 1 Kings vii. 20. crees or judgments. Dr. Wells.
12. - an ornament of fine gold,] The Hebrew words 3. The heaven for height, &c.] It is as impossible for seem to mean any costly ornament wrought with great vulgar minds to penetrate into the secrets of state, and labour and pains. Parkhurst. understand the counsels and designs of wise princes, 13. As the cold of snow in the time of harvest, &c.] and the various ways and means whereby they project As the mixing of snow with wine in the sultry time of to effect their ends, as it is to know how far it is from harvest is pleasing and refreshing, so a successful meshence to the highest heavens, or how far to the centre senger revives the spirit of his master who sent him, and of the earth upon which we tread. Bp. Patrick, Dr. who was ready to faint from an apprehension of his Durell.
failure. The practice of cooling wines with snow was 6. Put not forth thyself &c.]. He here admonishes usual among the Eastern nations. It was derived from subjects not to be vainly ambitious, nor bold and for the Asiaticks and Greeks to the Romans. Plutarch ward in thrusting themselves into offices that do not be describes the manner in which they preserved the snow long to them, but to be modest, and, according to our by covering it with straw, and coarse cloths unshorn. Saviour's rule, Luke xiv. 8, to be invited to honour, In some hot countries it was often difficult to obtain rather than to seek it. Bp. Patrick.
it, and they were obliged to search into the hollow cliffs 9. Debate thy cause &c.] If there be a difference to collect it. Mount Hebron, which was always covered between thy neighbour and thee, take him aside, and with snow, plentifully supplied the inhabitants of the in a friendly manner argue the matter with him alone, country near it, from whence it was often carried to and discover not a secret unkindness to a third person, Tyre. Barry. till thou seest no other way of reconciliation. Bp. 14. Whoso boasteth himself &c.] He that makes Hall.
bountiful and deluding promises of great gifts which 11. A word fitly spoken &c.] The general design of will never be performed, is like a cloud that makes a this sentence is manifestly to express the value and shew of rain which it cannot yield,
Bp. Hall. gratefulness of a word of counsel, reproof, or comfort, 15. — a soft tongue breaketh a bone.) A gentle and delivered in due time and place. Bp. Patrick. The submissive answer softens and renders supple the hardHebrew, translated in its most literal form, is, “a word est and most inflexible heart. Bp. Horne. spoken on its wheels,” as the margin gives it ; figura 16. Hast thou found honey? &c.] Moderation is here retively expressing a discourse which is grateful, which commended in our pursuits and enjoyments. Dr. Ishamn.
ch. 12. 18.
Rom. 12. 20.
21. If thine enemy be hungry, A S snow in summer and as rain in
rain : 80 doth
Of avoiding causes of quarrel.
Observations about much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou 26 A righteous man falling down CHRIST
CHRIST about 700. be filled therewith, and vomit it. before the wicked is as a troubled about 700.
17 || Withdraw thy foot from thy fountain, and a corrupt spring. foot be seldom neighbour's house ; lest he be + weary 27 It is not good to eat much so thy neigte of thee, and so hate thee.
honey: so for men to search their own + Heb. full 18 'A man that beareth false wit- glory is not glory. of thee. i Ps. 120. 4. ness against his neighbour is a maul, 28 i He that hath no rule over his i Chap. 16.
and a sword, and a sharp arrow. own spirit is like a city that is broken
19 Confidence in an unfaithful down, and without walls.
1 Observations about fools, 13 about slug-
gards, 17 and about contentious busybodies.
harvest, so honour is not seemly
22 For thou shalt heap coals of the swallow by flying, so the curse
3 a A whip for the horse, a bridle a Chap. 10. Or, The 23 || The north wind driveth away for the ass, and a rod for the fool's Ps. 32. 9. bringeth forth rain : so doth an angry countenance back. a backbiting a backbiting tongue.
4 Answer not a fool according to tongue an 24 h It is better to dwell in the his folly, lest thou also be like unto angry counte
corner of the housetop, than with a him. . 19. 13. & 21.%. brawling woman and in a wide house. 5 Answer a fool according to his
25 As cold waters to a thirsty folly, lest he be wise in + his own + Heb. his soul, so is good news from a far conceit. country.
6 He that sendeth a message by 18. — is a maul,] Or hammer-to beat down a man's tongue raiseth up anger and indignation.” Bp. Pafame, or break in pieces his estate.
trick. Solomon very fully and elegantly expresses the de 27. — is not glory.] Proves at last not honourable, structive nature of this sin ; he intimates that, among but reproachful to them. Bp. Patrick. all the instruments of ruin and mischief which have 28. — that hath no rule over his own spirit] Or over been devised by mankind, none is of more pernicious his passions, is thereby exposed to innumerable dangers, consequence to human society than perjury and breach like a city without walls. * Dr. Wells. of faith. It is a pestilence that usually walketh in darkness, a secret stab and blow, against which frequently Chap. XXVI. ver. 2. As the bird by wandering, &c.] there is no possibility of defence. Abp. Tillotson. The meaning of this verse has been variously explained.
20. As he that taketh away a garment &c.] He that Curses which fly out of men's mouths causelessly, shall offers musick to a man in deep heaviness does it as no more fall where they intend, than a swallow which unseasonably as he that takes away a covering in ex- wanders uncertainly, or a dove which flies away swiftly, treme cold weather. Bp. Hall.
will settle according to their direction. Bp. Patrick, as vinegar upon nitre,] By the natron or nitre The meaning may perhaps be, that evils, natural or of the ancients is not meant what we now call nitre, or moral, owe not their being to chance, like the accisaltpetre, but the(mineral)alkali, called soda by chemists, dental flight of birds in this or that direction, but are which occasions a strong fermentation with all acids. all directed by the will of an all-wise superintending Thus, in the passage before us, the unsuitableness of the Providence. Dr. Durell. singing of songs to a heavy heart is very finely com 3. - a bridle for the ass,] According to our English pared to the opposition which subsists between vinegar notions, we should rather say, A bridle for an horse, and nitre. For the nitre of the ancients, see further, and a whip for an ass. It should be considered, howJer. ii. 22. Dr. Shaw.
ever, that the Eastern asses, particularly those of the 22, thou shalt heap coals of fire &c.] If he have Arabian breed, are much larger, more beautiful, and the least spark of goodness in him, it will work a change better goers, than those in our cold northerly countries, in his mind, and make him throw off all his enmities; and so, no doubt, they were anciently in Palestine, or, if it have the contrary effect, he shall have so much where, as we find from many passages, they were the the sorer punishment, and thou shalt not lose thy reward, beasts on which people usually rode. See Job xxxix. 7. which the Lord Himself will give thee. Bp. Patrick. Parkhurst.
23. The north wind driveth away rain : &c.] It appears, 4, 5. Answer not a fool &c.] In the first of these from the version given in the margin, that these words verses, the meaning is, Enter not into contest with a admit of two opposite senses. Either, “as the north fool. In the second, Suffer not his folly to go unrewind scatters clouds and drives away rain, so a severe proved: both to be determined by times and circumcountenance puts a stop to a slanderous tongue;" or, stances. “as the north wind begetteth rain, so a backbiting 6. He that sendeth a message &c.] He that sends a