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swers the same purpose to him, and restores the inferior tickets to general circulation. But there is danger that this plan will occasion a sort of trading among the children, and, in a large School the exchange of tickets would entirely occupy the time of one person. Besides that if the privilege of dispensing tickets be given indiscriminately to the teachers, it will prove too burdensome to the finances of the School, and loss may be incurred through the want of proper care in the preservation of the tickets.
But if the School be conducted upon proper principles, the children will soon feel that attachment to it which no system of rewards alone can produce. The distribution of rewards in a large School, even upon the most economical plan, will amount to a considerable sum, which might, perhaps, be more usefully employed in the education of a larger number of children; or might form a fund for the relief of those children who may be sick and in distress. To such scholars, however, as have continued in the School a stated time, and have behaved well, the presentation of a bible or testament on leaving the School appears highly desirable.
We feel no hesitation in recommending the plan of instruction by gratuitous teachers, the superior advantages of which have been fully proved by experience. But let it be observed, that those who voluntarily engage in this work and labour of love, should consider themselves as bound by that engagement to a diligent and punctual attendance; the want of which will occasion very serious inconvenience to the Schools which they profess to serve.
It will be evident to those who duly consider the subject, that frequent changes in the mode of instruction must be detrimental to the improvement of the children, and prevent their progress being properly ascertained; it is therefore of importance, that teachers should be procured, who will devote a considerable portion of their time to the work.
When a sufficient number of teachers cannot be obtained, that deficiency may be supplied in some measure from among the Scholars themselves: let a selection be made of those who are most advanced in learning, and who are equally remarkable for their orderly conduct and good behaviour; for too much attention cannot be paid to the latter qualifications. Let these be employed in instructing the lower classes under the direction of the superintendent or teachers.-These assistants in a large school may after due trial be formed into a seventh class, which
will add another step of promotion, and excite emulation in the higher classes.
The children should invariably be instructed by persons of their own sex.
It will be found beneficial that the teachers should, in the course of the week, inquire of the parents the cause of the absence of such of the scholars as were not present at the School on the preceding sunday; but when this cannot be done by the teachers, a visitor should be appointed for that purpose, who should make his report weekly to the secretary.
It must be obvious to every thinking mind, that the existence of a Sunday School depends materially upon diligent attendance and punctuality; for so long as the teachers respect their engagements, it will continue and prosper; and in proportion as they decline, it will also decay. This is plain to any one who considers the subject.-If there be no teachers to instruct, it cannot be expected there will long be scholars; if there be nobody to attend the children to public worship, they cannot go; for here it should be considered, are no hirelings to supply deficiencies. Let every one who neglects to attend in his turn, carefully consider these few things. 1. By so doing, he has betrayed the trust reposed in him. 2. He has deranged the order of the School. 3. He has deprived a portion of the children of the instruction which they would have had. 4. He has set an example to his fellow-labourers in the same work, which, if followed, must completely overturn the institution, and, with that, all its good effects. Let no one say, Surely, Í may stay away, they can do without one;-one can make no great difference. Rather let him blush if he has indulged a thought so ungenerous, as that of throwing the weight of his labour upon another, who has no more interest in the matter than himself.
The welfare of the School may be said with truth, to depend more upon the promptitude of the teacher to his appointments than upon his abilities; for by regular attendance a person will soon become qualified to fill the place allotted him, while neglect renders the more able almost useless. It may therefore be confidently affirmed, that in a teacher of such a School as this, punctuality is more than talents; for with the first, things will go on; but with the last alone, they cannot proceed.
The evil which the late attendance of teachers is productive of, might also be mentioned; and that not only as it respects the example set before the children, together with the large proportion of their precious time by this means lost; but as it
necessarily prevents teachers from calling their scholars to account for a fault of which they themselves are guilty.
It is highly desirable to procure serious persons, if possible, as teachers, and all of them should at least be amiable moral characters. The teachers of the higher classes should be decided characters. Those who have been called by Divine grace in early life will, in general, be found best qualified for addressing young people on the concerus of their souls; they feel peculiarly interested in youth, and the ardour of their own feelings leads them to engage in the service with delight and energy.
A competent knowledge of the Scriptures-a capability of teaching in a manner adapted to the capacities of childrenand an ardent affection for young immortals-are indispensible in Sunday School Teachers. They should display a combination of gentleness with firmness-condescension with dignity— and simplicity with sagacity: they should be "wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." Constantly depending on the Divine blessing, and diligent in the use of all the means in their power, they will not fail to receive the blessing of Almighty God on their labours; he will teach them how to impart instruction, and while they water others they shall be watered themselves.
In those Schools in which a large number of teachers are engaged, it will become necessary that some one person should be appointed to superintend and direct the concerns of the School for the day.
The superintendent, or a teacher at his desire, should begin and conclude the School with singing and prayer, and give such general advice or reproof to the children collectively, as circumstances may require. While the Scholars are retiring to their respective classes, the superintendent should admit such children as are waiting to be received into the School: entering their names, ages, parents or guardian's names and place of residence, in the receiving-book; at the same time speaking to the parents on the privilege of admission, the necessity of sending their children regularly, and in time; and giving them suitable advice respecting their own eternal interests, and the importance of setting their children a proper example. The superintendent should then ascertain what progress the children have already made; class them accordingly, and enter their names in the roll-book He should afterwards visit the several classes, to see whether they are properly supplied with teachers,
and in case of a deficiency, make such an arrangement of those present, as may be best under existing circumstances; calling in, if occasion require, the aid of some of the senior scholars as assistant teachers. He should at the same time mark the attendance of the teachers in a book kept for that purpose, which he should carry round with him. He will after this have time to examine such scholars as are sent to him for removal into higher classes, and if he finds them qualified, he should make the removal in the roll-book.
Before the conclusion of the School, the superintendent should again visit all the classes, taking with him the roll-book, and marking off the attendance of the children from the classpapers. He will then have an opportunity, in addition to the reproofs of the teachers, of reprimanding those scholars who have come late, and of inquiring the occasion of such as have lately absented themselves. He should also employ his leisure moments in making the proper minutes in the book kept for that purpose, which should be laid before the Committee at their meetings.
As it is very desirable that the Committee should be intimately acquainted with the internal management of the School; which cannot well be the case, unless they are actively engaged in it: no persons are more proper to fill the office of superintendent than members of the committee.
In a small School, the offices of superintendent and secretary may be united.
The appointment of a secretary, who shall have the entire charge of the books, &c. will be found expedient in large Schools. This person (whose attendance at the School should be constant) will be able to assist the superintendent, and give every necessary information to the committee respecting the School. It will be the business of the Secretary to make out every week a list of the absentees *, for the visitor or teachers to inquire after: to make fresh class-papers at the end of every quarter; carry forward in their respective classes in the rollbooks, the names of such scholars as continue in the School; and, in the course of the quarter, post the removal of others who have been advanced during the preceding quarter, into the numerical register, if this book be kept in the School. The secretary will likewise be expected to prepare the reports of
In some Schools, where a proper system of monitors has been introduced, and the children disgraced for absence without a sufficient excuse, the necessity of making such a list has been superseded.
the School for the annual or quarterly meetings of its subscribers and friends.
Visitor of the Sick.
The appointment of a visitor of the sick children and parents is desirable in a large School. This office may be united with that of visitor of the absentees, or may be executed by one of the teachers. The teachers should, however, individually make a point of visiting the children under their care when confined by sickness. In this duty it is likely they will meet with encouragement; as at such seasons the effects of their instructions may be rendered more visible.-As those who are employed in this labour of love are frequent witnesses of scenes of great distress, it appears necessary that they should be provided with some pecuniary relief, which they may administer at their discretion. This not only renders them welcome visitors, but also opens the hearts of those whom they may have occasion to address, to receive instruction.-In some Schools a small fund for this purpose, separate from the funds for the support of the School, is raised among the teachers.
(To be Continued.)
REMARKS on the COMMENCEMENT of a VILLAGE SUNDAY SCHOOL, &c.
IT must afford satisfaction to every generous mind, to observe that you have begun to devote a part of your useful pages to the service of those unbefriended country villages where the light of education has scarcely dawned, and where the streams of Sunday School benevolence have not yet flowed.
Hitherto you have chiefly marked the rise and displayed the progress and motions of those larger Sunday School systems, which move in their courses like the majestic rivers, whose mighty streams water and fertilize whole regions. You now pay a more particular attention to the smaller rills, which fertilize the meadows, trickle through the grass, or run among the hills.
You have now before you two orders of people. On the one hand are the persevering Sunday School labourers, whose works have shone as the light, and whose knowledge is enlarged by observation and increased by experience. On the other hand you have persons who have scarcely heard of these things by the hearing of the ear, and who are strangers both to