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the infancy of the Hebrew nation." Some of these forms are given by Lightfoot, as used in the Temple; all of which are indeed specimens of prayer as clearly social as can well be imagined.

As soon as the lamb for the morning sacrifice was slain, the presiding officer, a priest, and who was called the Chief Priest for the time, summoned the rest to prayers in the room called Gazith, in one of the courts of the Temple, which they used as an oratory, or chapel, whilst the sacrifice was preparing. They began with the following: "Thou hast loved us, O Lord our God, with an everlasting love. With great and abundant compassion hast thou had compassion upon us, O our Father, our king; for our fathers' sake, who trusted in thee, and thou gavest them statutes of life. So be gracious to us also, O our Father. O most merciful Father, O thou compassionate one, pity us; and put it into our hearts to know, understand, obey, learn, teach, observe, do, and perform all the words of the doctrine of the law in love. Enlighten our eyes by the law, cause our hearts to cleave to thy


Temp. Serv. ch. ix. sect. 4. p. 108.

For public prayers, says Lightfoot. (Temp. Serv. ch. xiii. sect. 4.) And though Vitringa speaks of this part of the prayers as private, because he considered them as the prayers of the officiating priests only, yet even in this case they were social; and if the Israelites of the station attended, then they were public also, for these officers were the representatives of the people. Vitringa de Syn. Vet. prol. cap. v. p. 50.

commandments, and unite our hearts to love and fear thy name," &c. After this they repeated the ten commandments, and their phylacteriesa, or what they called the "Schemah."

After this the high priest, or in his absence one of the other priests, prepared to offer the burnt incense; and the rest of the public prayers, says Lightfoot, commenced. But before they began, a large vessel of metal was sounded, which answered the purpose of a great bell, to give notice to the inhabitants of the city that this part of the services was about to begin, and to summon them to attend. As soon as the incense was offered, upon notice of this being given, all the people in the court began their prayers", as it is observed

Lightfoot, ch. ix. sect. 4. Upon their phylacteries, (Quhazrýgia, conservatories, intended to keep the law in the memory, from Quλάoow, to guard, or keep,) which were two pieces of parchment worn by the more zealous at least constantly, the one on the forehead, and the other on the left arm, were written the following texts; 1. Exod. xiii. 3—10. II. Exod. xiii. 11-16. 111. Deut. vi. 4-9. Iv. Deut. xi. 13-21. Whether the phylacteries were worn or not, all the Jews were considered as under an obligation to repeat the sentences written upon them, both morning and evening, wherever they might be at the time appointed, and if possible in the Temple. Vitringa, however, affirms, from Maimonides, that the texts which were repeated on this occasion were those which constituted the "Schemah," so called from the Hebrew word with which they begin; they were the following; Deut. vi. 4–9, xi. 19—21. Numb. xv. 37-41. But this is of little consequence, except as it serves to show the care which this laborious writer has taken to verify every thing which he asserts. Vitringa, lib. iii. pars ii. cap. xvi, p. 1052.


b Lightfoot's Temp. Serv. ch. ix. sect. v. p. 111.

in Luke 1 and 10, "The whole multitude of the people were praying without," (that is, in the outer court called the court of the women, because they were admitted there,) "at the time of incense."

Besides the prayers just mentioned, the decalogue, and phylacteries, or schemah, three or four other prayers are given by Lightfoot, which were used in the morning and evening services; the first of which related to their phylacteries, and the last is as follows: "Give peace, beneficence, benediction, favour, benignity, and mercy to us, and to Israel thy people. Bless all of us as one man with the light of thy countenance; for in the light of thy countenance, thou, O Lord our God, hast given us the law of life, and love, and benignity, and righteousness, and blessing, and mercy, and life, and peace. And let it please thee to bless thy people Israel with peace at all times, and every moment. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who blessest thy people Israel with peace. Amen." It is impossible to invent a prayer more evidently social than this. The gloss upon the Talmud moreover tells us, These were the people's prayers". At the conclusion a short prayer was added on the sabbath, as a blessing, by the course of priests that went out upon the course

a Prideaux and Vitringa give this prayer as one of those that were used in the Synagogue: but this is not at all extraordinary; for the same prayers were used there as in the Temple, with considerable additions. Prideaux' Conn. part i. book vi, p. 178. Vitringa de Syn. Vet. lib. iii. pars ii. p. 1038.

b Lightfoot, chap. ix. sect. 6.

that was coming in, as follows: "He that causeth his name to dwell in his house, cause to dwell among you love, and brotherhood, and peace, and friendship. At the conclusion of these prayers, the Priests, standing upon the steps leading into the Temple, pronounced a blessing upon the people in the words recorded Numb. vi. 24. The meat-offering in behalf of the people, and another for the priests, were then offered, and lastly the drink-offering. The whole was concluded with singing, accompanied by instrumental music; and as this was from the first one of the most distinguished parts of the services of the Temple, and relates immediately to our subject, it may be proper to give a general statement of the manner in which it was conducted.

a 2 Cor. xiii. 11.

b Luke i. 21, 22.

Nothing has been here said about the reading of the law by the high priest to the people, because this is not included in our subject; but the time for this purpose, says Vitringa, was when the sacred rites were finished. But what, as this writer asks, does Jesus mean when he says, Matth. xxvi. 55, I sat daily with you teaching in the Temple, &c.? In the Synagogue, when the Scriptures were read, out of respect the reader stood, but sat down when he afterwards expounded them, and taught the people. Does not this observation of Christ indicate, that a similar mode of teaching was in use in both these places? From various circumstances indeed it is evident, that the manner in which the religious services were conducted in the Temple bore a considerable resemblance to those of the Synagogue, as far as they were introduced into the latter. Vitringa also observes, that in one of the courts of the Temple itself there was a house for prayers, for reading the law, and expounding, consecrated expressly for these purposes. Vitringa de Syn. Vet. prol. cap. iv. p. 27, 36-39.

Music of the Temple Service.

David appears to have instituted this part of the services at the time when he recovered the ark from the Philistines, appointed singers and instrumental performers to conduct it, and composed psalms for their use. These officers were the Levites, with some Israelites of distinction, and their children were occasionally permitted to assist them. One individual presided over each department: Asaph was the chief appointed by David. The vocal was always considered as the principal part, and the instrumental an accompaniment only. The requisite number of singers was twelve, and as many more were allowed as could conveniently attend: they were always very nu

'merous c.

The psalms that were regularly sung in the ordinary service were the following: on the 1st day of the week, Ps. 24th, on the 2d the 48th, on the 3d the 84th, on the 4th the 94th, on the 5th the 91st, on the 6th the 93d, and on the sabbath the 92d, "It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord," &c. which bears the title of a psalm for the sabbath. These psalms were sung con

a He would scarcely have done this, however, if these services had been inconsistent with the official duties of the Levites, or if they had not been included in those duties, as appointed by Moses. That they were so, may perhaps be inferred from Deut. x. 8.

b1 Chron. xv. 16, &c. xvi. 4—7.

Lewis's Antiquities, vol. ii. book. ii. chap. 20. Lightfoot's Temp. Serv. chap. vii. sect. 2.

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