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The writer of his own life has at least the first qualification of an historian, the knowledge of the truth; and though it may be plausibly objected that his temptations to disguise it are equal to his opportunities of knowing it, yet I cannot but think that impartiality may be expected with equal confidence from him that relates the passages of his own life as from him that delivers the transactions of another. Certainty of knowledge not only excludes mistake, but fortifies veracity. What we collect by conjecture-and by conjecture only can one man judge of another's motives or sentiments is easily modified by fancy or by desire. But that which is fully known cannot be falsified but with reluctance of understanding and alarm of conscience of Understanding, the lover of Truth; of Conscience, the sentinel of Virtue. He that writes the life of another is either his friend or his enemy, and wishes either to exalt his praise or aggravate his infamy; many temptations to falsehood will occur in the disguise of passions, too specious to fear much resistance. The Zeal of Gratitude, the Ardour of Patriotism, Fondness for an Opinion or Fidelity to a Party may easily overpower the vigilance of a mind habitually well disposed and prevail over unassisted and unfriended Veracity. But he that speaks of himself has no motive to Falsehood or Partiality except Self-love, by which all have so often been betrayed that all are on the watch against its artifices. He that writes an apology for a single action, to confute an accusation, to recommend himself to favour, is indeed always to be suspected of favouring his own cause; but he that sits down calmly and voluntarily to review his life for the admonition of posterity, or to amuse himself, and leaves this account unpublished, may be commonly presumed to tell truth, since falsehood cannot appease his own mind and fame will not be heard beneath the tomb. (30)
4. (a) Point out and correct any faults of vocabulary, grammar, or style in the following passages :
(i) "By all means let us have bright, hearty, and very reverend services."
(ii)"They produced various medicaments, the lethal power of which were extolled at large."
(iii) "They had now reached the airy dwelling where Mrs. M. resided, and, having rung, the door was at length most deliberately opened."
(iv) "If one has an opinion on any subject, it is of little use to read books or papers which tell you what you know already.' (V) "I am pleased to read the correspondence in your paper, and hope that good will be the result of the same. (b) Define and illustrate any five of the following terms:―synonym, alliteration, tautology, diphthong, archaism, voiced consonant,
5. Take any three of the following subjects, and describe any poem or passage from verse or prose which treats of it, giving any quotations you can:- Sleep, Death, Patriotism, Childhood, Love of Nature. (30)
6. (a) Paraphrase the following passage:
Will makes the man; who carves not time and chance
To his own bidding, until seeming ill
Those slips of the true Adam, whose rank life,
(b) "Metaphor lies hidden in all language."— Illustrate this state
ment from the above passage.
7. (a) Give the nouns and adjectives corresponding to any five of the following verbs (example: act, action, active), and write a sentence to illustrate each of the adjectives :-controvert, prohibit, propitiate, distinguish, importune, denounce, presume, abstain.
(6) Explain fully any five of the following phrases :-"To cross the Rubicon"; "between Scylla and Charybdis "; "to climb Parnassus " ; "the heel of Achilles"; "a sop to Cerberus good wine needs no bush "; " to tilt at windmills." (30)
8. Sketch any three of the following characters :-Dr. Primrose, Mr. Micawber, Dugald Dalgetty, Bailie Nicol Jarvie, Macbeth, Portia, Rosalind. (30)
ENGLISH LITERATURE (Associateship).
Monday, June 26th, 1911.-Morning, 10 to 12.
Question 1 in each section must be taken by all candidates. questions may be attempted, two in Section I and two in Section II.
SHAKESPEARE: "HENRY V."
1. Interpret the following passages in simple modern prose, and show fully in what connexion they occur :
(a) "Consideration, like an angel, came
And whipp'd the offending Adam out of him,
To envelope and contain celestial spirits."
(b) "The kindred of him hath been flesh'd upon us;
(c) "We must bear all. O hard condition,
Twin-born with greatness, subject to the breath
(d) "Description cannot suit itself in words
(e) "Small time, but in that small most greatly lived
2. Explain any five of the following names and phrases, and show how they are used in the play :—"Swift corantos "Parca's fatal web"; "Paris Louvre " "this wooden O"; "the young Phoebus"; "Crispin Crispian"; "the Roman Brutus"; "Hyperion."
3. Quote, or give the substance of, the Archbishop's speech in praise of Henry V, and show whether Henry's words and deeds, as recorded in the play, justify the eulogy. (15)
4. Describe concisely one of the following scenes or incidents, and show what light it throws on the character of the chief actors in it :(a) The incident of the gloves.
(b) The unmasking of the conspirators.
(The Council held in the French King's palace after Henry has landed.
5. Explain the references in the following lines, and give their context :"The King hath killed his heart."
""Twould drink the cup and all."
Every one may pare his nails with a wooden dagger."
(d)" All my mother came into my eyes.'
(e) "I Richard's body have interred new."
SELECTIONS FROM TENNYSON.
1. Interpret the following passages in simple modern prose, and show from what poems they are taken and in what connexion they
(a) “Far off and where the lemon grove
In closest coverture upsprung,
The living airs of middle night
(b) "Down the river's dim expanse,
Like some bold seër in a trance,
Did she look to Camelot."
(c) "They smile, they find a music centred in a doleful song Steaming up, a lamentation and an ancient tale of wrong, Like a tale of little meaning, tho' the words are strong.'
"All about the fields you caught
His weary day-long chirping, like the dry
2. Sketch the character of Ulysses as revealed in the poem of that name, giving illustrative quotations.
3. What is the Lotos? What is Homer's story about the Lotos-eaters ? Show briefly how Tennyson treats the subject.
4. Contrast the characters of Dora and Mary in the poem illustrating your answer by quotations from the poem.
5. Give illustrations, from the poems, of Tennyson's (i) minute observation, (ii) vivid painting of the details of natural scenery, and (iii) his harmony of rhythm.
Monday, June 19th, 1911.-Morning, 9.15 to 12.15.
No candidate is allowed to answer more than EIGHT of the twelve questions. The questions are of equal value.
1. Describe the progress of the Reformation in England during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, and discuss how far it was a political, and how far a religious, movement.
2. Briefly describe the importance, in the history of (a) Europe, (b) England, of two of the following monarchs: - Philip II of Spain, Louis XIV of France, Frederick the Great of Prussia.
3. Contrast the character of the Revolution in England (1688) with that of the Revolution in France (1789).
4. Give some account of the part played by the French in the history of America.
5. State very briefly the circumstances that led to the battles of Flodden, Langside, Dunbar, Killiecrankie, and Culloden respectively.
6. Discuss the ideals and limits of religious toleration in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
7. Distinguish the theories of Government by Divine Right and by a Limited Monarchy, and give historical illustrations of each.
8. Trace the political career of two of the following-Wolsey, Oliver Cromwell, Walpole; and state the principal aims of each of the two you select.
9. Indicate in what ways our Trade was affected by the Navigation Laws, the Treaty of Utrecht, the Berlin Decrees, the Repeal of the Corn Laws.
10. "The Revolution of 1688 placed the chief power in the hands of the upper classes, that of 1832 gave it to the middle classes: since 1867 Great Britain has been a Democracy."-Explain these statements fully.
11. With what political movements do you associate the names of Bismarck, Garibaldi, and Parnell ?
12. Write a short account of the development of our Colonies and of the relations of the Home Government with them during the reign of Queen Victoria.