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Q. 44. Enumerate the nitrogenous substances which are found in the

urinary excretion. What is known as to their formation in the

body? Fairly well answered by most candidates, and quite well by a few. One of the most definite substances as regards its formation, hippuric acid, was omitted almost universally, although its formation in the kidney from glycocoll and benzoic acid is one of the best known instances of a synthesis occurring within a body tissue. Q. 45. By what tracts of nerve fibres do nervous impulses pass along the

spinal cord from the cerebral hemispheres to the muscles, and

from the posterior spinal roots to the cerebral hemispheres ? Those who attempted this question generally gave a fairly correct account of the principal tracts of nerve fibres in the spinal cord.

In the new syllabus for this stage it is stated that one question will always deal with the structure and functions of the central nervous system. Q. 46. Describe the situation, structure, and innervation of the

aqueductus cochleæ. What is believed to be the function of its

different parts? Fairly well answered by those who attempted it, and excellently by several candidates. The answers call for no special comment.


Results : 1st Class, — ; 2nd Class, 1; Failed, 1 ; Total, 2. There were two candidates for Honours, both of whom did sufficiently well to justify a further practical examination. The practical examination was, as in the previous year, divided into three groups, dealing with histology, physiological chemistry, and experimental work respectively; periods of from three to four hours were assigned to each group. It is desirable to make it clearly known that in order to attempt with any success this part of the examination, candidates must have worked at all these branches of the subject in a physiological laboratory which is equipped for the purpose.


The work of these candidates was very different in the two stages. In Stage 1 it was quite good and showed great improvement on previous years; the answers were for the most part intelligent and to the point, indicating that for this stage the teaching has become distinctly more efficient. Gross faults of spelling, bad writing, and grammatical errors were comparatively rare. As regards the second stage, the results were disappointing, for, although the number of inadequate answers was de. creased as compared with previous years, the number of good papers was less than in 1905. It is probable that candidates for this second stage still trust very largely to getting up by heart certain text-book descriptions, and this was notably the case in the answer to Q. 25. There were, however, some very good consecutive papers among many ones of mediocre value. Thus four consecutive papers all obtained the first class standard. On the other hand, in six consecutive papers and in eight other papers there were respectively two and four failures and only two first class.


Results : 1st Class, 77; 2nd Class, 53 ; Failed, 31 ; Total, 161. The work, like that of the similar stage in the Evening Examination, showed a great improvement on previous years. Whereas in 1905, 29 per cent. of the candidates failed to reach the pass standard, only 19 per cent. failed in the 1906 examination. Certain batches of papers were particularly


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good. Thus, one batch comprised 20 first class, 4 second class, and only 1 failure ; whilst another batch comprised 21 first class, 7 second class, and only 2 failures. Q. 1. Compare the appearances presented when a drop of blood and a

drop of milk are spread out on each of two slides and examined

under the microscope. The weak point in the answers to this question was the description of the microscopic characters of milk, which many candidates have evidently not seen for themselves. Q. 2. Describe the right side of the human heart, stating precisely what

blood vessels are connected with it. In what respects does the blood on the left side of the heart differ from that on the right

side ? Fairly well answered by most candidates. No reference was made to the circumstance that as heat is given up by the blood to the air in the lungs, the blood on the left side is cooler than that on the right side of the heart. Q. 3. What substances make milk, bread, butter, potatoes, meat, and

eggs valuable articles of food? 'This question calls for no special comment. It was generally well answered by the great majority of the candidates. Q. 4. Describe the situation of the small intestine, naming its various

parts. What changes do the food principles undergo in this

structure, and by what agents are they produced ? Fairly well answered by most candidates, and excellently by a considerable number. Q. 5. Explain by appropriate diagrams the mechanism by which we are

enabled to take a deep breath. Supposing that a hole existed between the ribs on the left side, how would this affect the

mechanism? Explain any effect which you describe. On the whole, this question was inadequately answered. The real significance of the diaphragm is not generally appreciated ; it does not alter the position of the ribs, as many candidates assert. The latter part of the question was answered correctly by only a few candidates. Q. 6. Describe the general disposition of the various groups of vertebræ,

and the mode in which the vertebral column is related (a) to

the skull, and (b) to the pelvis. Satisfactorily answered by the great majority of candidates, who evidently know the main features of this portion of the skeleton. Many of the drawings were quite good. Q. 7. Make a drawing to show the shape and relative positions of the

kidneys, ureters, and bladder. What forms of tissue are present

in these structures ? The weak point in the answers to this question is that of the forms of tissue present. Cellular secreting tissue and blood vessels in the kidney, involuntary muscle in the bladder wall, were given by only a few candidates. Q. 8. Describe the position, general structure, and chief functions of

(a) the portal vein, (6) the radius, (c) the parotid glands. The radius still seems to present a difficulty to candidates, who do not realise its great mechanical importance in connexion with the movements of the hand. Q. 9. What are the general structure and functions of the skin, and how

do these differ from those found in the lining of the mouth ? Satisfactorily answered by the majority of candidates. There is still a tendency to regard the skin as an organ for excreting in large quantity the waste products of the body.

Q. 10. Can any movements be produced in the brainless frog, and if so,

by what means? How would such movements differ from those

which occur in the normal animal ? As in previous years, this question presents difficulties which few candidates are able to face. The movements are in themselves the same whether the frog is brainless or entire ; they differ in the circumstance that in the brainless frog they only occur in response to definite stimulation of the sense organs in the skin, etc.


Results : 1st Class, 22; 2nd Class, 87; Failed, 25; Total, 134. The work of the candidates in this stage was not quite as good as that in previous years. The number of those who failed to attain the pass standard was, however, less than in 1905, amounting to 19 per cent., as compared with 20 per cent. The falling off was due to the smaller number of really good answers, only 16 per cent. attaining a first class standard, as compared with 32 per cent. in 1905. The reason for this is indicated in the detailed remarks. Q. 21. Enumerate the substances present in blood plasma. What are

the differences between blood plasma, serum, and defibrinated

blood ? In answering this question very few candidates showed an intelligent appreciation of the fluid part of the circulating blood, that is, blood plasma. Its proteids, salts, and extractives (such as urea, dextrose, and fat) should have been given in the enumeration. The greater part of the allotted marks were given for this part of the question. Q. 22. Describe the structural and functional peculiarities of a capillary

system. What instances are there of one set of blood capillaries being succeeded by a second set, and what must be the effect of

such an arrangement? Fairly well answered by the great majority of candidates, but the bearing of the last part of the question was not appreciated even by good candidates.

The effect of such an arrangement is to cause necessary changes in both the pressure and the rate of flow. Q. 23. Describe the microscopic character of starch as found in the

potato. What is its chemical constitution ? By what chemical tests can it be recognised, and to what extent can it be changed

into other compounds ? Very well answered by a few candidates, and fairly well by most.

The change of starch into sugar by (a) saliva and (6) boiling with an acid is so easily demonstrated that it should be carried out before students. Trommer's test for sugar should also be demonstrated. Q. 24. What do you know as to the situation, structure, and functions

of the lacteals and the thoracic duct ? Describe the character

of the fluid which they contain. On the whole, this question was the most satisfactorily answered of any in the paper. There was some uncertainty as to the precise situation of the thoracic duct, but this was not expected to be given in detail. Q. 25. What varieties of cartilage are found in the body? Describe the

microscopic structure of cartilage and tendon respectively. The great majority of answers to this question were distinctly inferior, for although the structure of cartilage was known in a general way, that of tendon was wrongly described by most candidates. Many regarded it as muscular, others as composed of elastic tissue, and scarcely any one referred to the well-known “tendon cells.”

Q. 26. Describe the structure and course of the uriniferous tubules,

illustrating your answer by appropriate diagrams. What is the chief physiological purpose of the various parts of such

tubules ? The first part of this question was satisfactorily answered by most candidates. The second part presents some difficulties, and was only seriously attempted by comparatively few. What was desired was the distinction in function between the glomerular and the convoluted portions. Q. 27. Describe the nervous and muscular structures which are concerned

in producing the respiratory enlargement of the thorax. Where is the respiratory centre situated, and what circumstances arouse

its activity ? Fairly well answered by most candidates as regards the first part, but the second part was only answered satisfactorily by few. The respiratory centre in the medulla is aroused by two agencies : (i) the increased venosity of the blood which circulates through it, (2) the arrival of nervous impulses up afferent nerves. Q. 28. Describe the structure of the retina. What parts of this tissue

are those which primarily respond to the action of light ? Give

reasons for any statement which you make on this subject. Well answered by a considerable number of candidates, and thus calls for no special remarks.

Report on the Examination in General Biology.

SECTION 1 OF Stage 1.

Results: Passed, 82; Failed, 109; Total, 191. The candidates continue to reproduce, often in copious detail, the information supplied in class, but the majority are practically untrained in observation or experiment. Drawing from the object needs to be practised. Q. 1. How would you illustrate the effect of dissolved food upon the growth of young seedlings? Methods which have actually

? been tried should be mentioned. Q. 2. What experiments prove that a green plant draws nourishment

from the air ? The methods were described with insufficient detail ; in bad cases all the information was supplied by the syllabus. Indications that the candidates were describing experiments which they had actually seen were the exception. Q. 3. Make an enlarged drawing of some winter bud cut lengthwise :

introduce a piece of the stem and an old leaf-base. The drawings were usually poor. Axillary buds were rarely mentioned or drawn. Q. 4. Describe the life-history of some moth or butterfly; mention the

food plant, and give the dates at which pupation and the

emergence of the winged insect may be expected. Well done on the whole. Q. 5. Draw in side-view a tadpole in which the limbs are just appearing.

The drawing should be about three inches long. The drawings were very poor. The dorsal and ventral tail-fins were generally omitted.

Q. 6. Describe a bird's wing, and point out some of the arrangements

which render it effective in propelling the body through the air. The muscles of flight were not noticed. The rotation of the quills was often omitted. Q. 7. Give a short acccount of the foot of a fowl or any other common

bird. No one mentioned the extensor tendons, and few knew of the flexor tendons. The spur was often called a digit. The tissues were often inaccurately described ; thus the foot was said to be "covered with cartilage," or “with bony scales,” or “with hard flesh tissue,” or to be provided with “muscular pads." Q. 8. Name some common animal which lives in societies, and show how

the members of the same society co-operate for one another's

advantage. The rabbit was often said to raise its tail as a danger-signal. Q. 9. Point out some of the differences between the eye of a sheep and

the eye of a cat. The form of the pupil of the sheep's eye was unknown to many candidates,

Q. 12. Illustrate by drawings and explanations the structures, peculiarities and uses of the feather supplied.

The candidates showed little power of observation ; for example, the aftershaft was generally left out. On the other hand, the barbules, which could not be seen without a microscope, were carefully described and drawn. Only a few of the drawings were successful.


Results : 1st Class, ; 2nd Class, 17; Failed, 51 ; Total, 68. Q. 21. Try to account for the fact that the frog has practically no neck

and no tail ; show that the statement is not exactly true. No one attempted to explain why the tail is lost during transformation. Q. 22. Mention some peculiarities of the stomach and lung of the frog.

The structure of the frog's lung was not described moderately well by any candidate.

Q. 23. Show that a frog's skin is adapted to aid in respiration.
The skin was believed by many candidates to admit air by pores.
Q. 25. Why should the frog's blood be kept moving? To what extent

is the circulation in a frog a double one? What is the advantage

of the double circulation? The term “double circulation” was not generally understood. Q. 27. What proofs can be given that sepals and petals are peculiar kinds

of leaves ? Is there any part of a flower which is a peculiar

kind of stem ? Many candidates said that the style or the pistil was a prolongation of the stem. Q. 32. Illustrate by drawings and explanations the structure and uses of

the feather supplied. The same faults were remarked as in Section 1., Q. 12,

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