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Results : 1st Class, 22 ; 2nd Class, 38; Failed, 35; Total, 95. Many of the candidates wrote too much, filling page after page with irrelevant matter. Q. 41. Show that the circulatory system of the frog agrees in its general

plan with the circulatory system of the dogfish, and indicate

the chief points in which it differs. Candidates do not realise that they must themselves point out the resemblances and differences. Many described the circulatory system of each animal in turn, without attempting any comparison. Q. 42. Describe the iris and pupil of a sheep's eye, and make a diagram

to show the relative position of the cornea, lens, and iris. Most of the candidates cannot have seen a sheep's eye for themselves ; its pupil was usually described as circular. Q. 45. Describe the air-spaces of a leaf. How can it be made evident

that they communicate with the stomates and with one another ? The second half of this question was answered poorly.

Report on the Examination in Zoology.


Results : 1st Class, 8; 2nd Class, 40; Failed, 10; Total, 58. Q. 1. Give an account of the habitation and mode of life (feeding, loco

motion, self-protection) of a crayfish. How is a crayfish enabled

to enlarge notwithstanding its hard skin? The candidates showed a fair knowledge of the structure and habits of the crayfish. The most frequent mistakes were :-(1) no mention was made of the vegetable food of the crayfish, (2) the swimmerets were described as of practical importance in swimming, and (3) the carapace was said to split lengthwise during the moult. Q. 4. What is the use of the cloudy masses attached to opposite sides of

the yolk of a fowl's egg ? The answers were very poor in all cases. Q. 6. Mention points in which a Hydra resembles a plant, and other

points in which it resembles an animal. The tentacles on the inhalent aperture were repeatedly described as cilia, and the position of the two apertures was often reversed. Q. 7. Show how a full-grown frog is enabled to live either in air or in

water. The ingestion of solid food as a characteristic of animals was often left out.

Q. 8. Give short definitions of birds, amphibians and fishes.

The answers dwelt too exclusively upon the respiratory adaptations of the frog. Q. 9. Mention a number of common Arthropods which live in water.

Show that they do not all belong to one class. Little was known about aquatic insects and arachnids. Q. 10. To what classes do the following animals belong :-snake, eel, slug,

bat, pigeon? Give reasons in each case,

Q. 11. Name the chief divisions of the mollusca, and give examples of


Q. 12. What peculiarities distinguish feathers which aid in flight from

feathers which merely prevent loss of heat ? These were often answered well.


Results : 1st Class, 4 ; 2nd Class, 16 ; Failed, 19 ; Total, 39.

Q. 21. Show that the lower jaw is differently connected to the skull in

a mammal and a bird. The mobility of the bird's quadrate was not mentioned.

Q. 25. To what divisions of the animal kingdom would you refer the

following animals :-
(a) A segmented animal with lateral appendages and tentacles

on the head; a true coelom surrounds the alimentary

canal. (1) The body naked and provided with one pair of gills not

in communication with the alimentary canal ; the

mouth armed with pointed jaws and a rasping tongue. (c) Compound animals breathing by perforated pharynx;

nervous system greatly reduced. No candidate got all three right; (a) was often thought to be an arthropod, and (c) a sponge.

Q. 26. Show by a zoological comparision of the equatorial forests of

Africa and America that similarity of climate does not

necessarily bring with it similarity in the animal life. There was much theorising, and too few facts were mentioned.

Q. 27. Trace the chief stages in the life history of a stalked barnacle.


Q. 30. Describe the sträcture, origin and contents of the ephippium

of Daphnia. Such knowledge of the special types as would be gained by actual dissection was rarely to be found.


Results : 1st Class, 3 ; 2nd Class, 4 ; Failed, 3 ; Total, 10.

Q. 32. What structures in the larva of Chironomus indicate that its

progenitors breathed air in the larval stage ? . No candidate got any marks on this question.

Q. 35. Describe the large intestine of the rabbit, and give illustrative

sketches. Discuss the uses of some of the peculiar structures

to be remarked in it. There was little or no indication of such knowledge as would be gained by actual dissection.

Q. 37. Identify the five animals contained in the tube and refer them

as nearly as you can to their place in the system. Some are of

microscopic size. The animals were :-Ephyra of Aurelia, recognised by 8 out of 9 candidates; Ascidian tadpole, by 1; Daphnia, by 5; Zoaea of crab, by. 7; Bugula, by 4. It is evident that several candidates did not know by sight all the animals nanaed in the syllabus.

Q. 38. A piece of skin armed with calcareous teeth is supplied. Remove

and mcunt several teeth, and draw them with aid of the

microscope. The calcareous reeth were not removed in the best way, but usually scraped off. Most of the drawings were poor.


No candidate at empted the Honours paper.

Repo:t on the Examinations in Botany.


The work on the whole shows an improvement on that of last year, but there is still a noticeable deficiency in definiteness in the answers. Many candidates appear to think that lack of knowledge can be compensated for by diffuse writing ; but it should be remembered that a short clear answer that really grapples with the points raised in the question set will always secure the highest marks. Too little attention is also paid to the desirability of illustrative sketches.


Results : 1st Class, 159 ; 2nd Class, 344 ; Failed, 150 ; Total, 653.
Q. 1. Refer the specimen placed before you to its natural order, giving

your reasons; describe it, taking its organs (when present) in the
following order :-


Intlo:escence, Corolla,


The specimen set was Scilla nutans. As might have been expected, it

nmonly correctly assigned to Liliaceæ, but the features for the correct description of which care was needed were too often overlooked.

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Q. 2. Describe carefully the arrangements of the flowers and fruits of

either the wallflower or the wild mustard. Explain as fully as you can the use to the plant of the arrangement in the example

you select.

This question was very often taken, and usually rather badly done. Much time was devoted to description of the structure of the flowers and fruit and no attention paid to their arrangement. Few appreciated the significance of the terminal grouping of the flowers, or the method by which they are kept well above the fruits.

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Q. 3. What is meant by transpiration? What is the use of the process

to the plant ? How would you ascertain the rate of transpiration

in any given instance ? This was sometimes very well done. The experiments had clearly been made by the better candidates. Others, on the contrary, have confused ideas as to what transpiration really is, and they often included a discussion of root pressure in their answers ! Experiments were often described which either could not be carried out at alf or from which no quantitative inferences could be drawn.

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Q. 4. Mention plants that possess stipules. Explain in each case the

exact use of the stipules to the plant that bears them. Comparatively few attempted this question with much success. The examples were often rather ill chosen, and the correlation between form and function was generally badly elucidated.

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Q. 5. Give an example of (1) a plant that climbs by means of leaf

structure, (2) a plant that climbs by means of stem structure. Carefully describe the process of climbing in the case of one of

them. The pea was the commonly selected example, and most candidates contented themselves with the statement that the tendril is a modified leaf. This is, of course, incorrect, as these organs are derived from leaflets. The actual process of climbing was seldom touched on in any detail. Some candidates selected the hop, but they scarcely ever mentioned the hairs on the stems of this plant.

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Q. 6. What do you understand by, phyllotaxis ? Illustrate your

answer by four examples which you have specially studied. This question was not well done. Book illustrations were given instead of names and diagrams of plants that had really been studied.

Q. 7. Tɔ what structures is the green colour of a plant due? Explain

what happens to it when you allow a green leaf to soak

for some time in alcohol. Often well done, but others had evidently never observed the action of alcohol on leaves.

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Q. 8. Describe three fruits that are adapted for dispersal by animals,

and explain the nature of the adaptation in each case. This question was commonly done well. But the examples were frequently not well chosen so as to illustrate different modes of dispersal. Q. 9. What is meant by the vernation and the venation of a leaf?

Illustrate your answer by a description of two examples. This was often badly answered. The illustrations were very imperfectly described.

Q. 10. In what way do monocotyledons differ from dicotyledons?

Give three examples of each group. This was commonly done well, but too many still adhere to the error that dicotyledons always possess exalbuminous seeds.

Q. 11. Explain the effect of pruning a shrub or tree, taking any definite

example you may select as an illustration. This was seldom attempted, and whilst a few good answers were sent in, the majority were almost worthless. The effect was imperfectly known, and the reason for the effect was usually merely guessed at.

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Results : 1st Class, 65 ; 2nd Class, 200 ; Failed, 145 ; Total, 410.

; Q. 21. Refer the specimen placed before you to its natural order, giving

your reasons, and describe it fully, taking its organs (when
present) in the following order :-


Inflorescence, Corolla,


The specimen set was Iris xiphioides. It was generally fairly well done,
although some candidates mistook the petaloid styles for petals.
Q. 22. Give an account of the gametophyte of the pine and compare it

with that of the fern. This was often attempted, and was very unevenly done. Some of the answers were extremely good, others hopelessly bad. Some confusion exists as to the limits of the generations. The latter part of the question was almost always badly done. Q. 23. Explain the nature and mode of the origin of "knots" and of

"silver grain ” in timber. Comparatively few candidates attempted this question, but it was sometimes very well done. Q. 24. How would you make a pure culture of Mucor or Eurotium?

State fully the precautions you would take. Many worthless answers were sent in. The real nature and use of the precautions were often quite ignored. Hardly anyone seemed to know what a pure culture really is. Q. 25. Describe the flowers of the willow, and explain how pollination

is effected in these plants. Most of those who attempted this question confined themselves chiefly to the inflorescence. Too many stated that pollination is effected by the wind, completely ignoring the nectaries and the other entomophilous characters of the flowers. Very few seemed to have observed the plant when actually in flower. Q. 26. What conditions are essential in order that a green leaf may form

starch ? Give an account of the experimental evidence on

which your answer is based. This question was often fairly well done, but many of the answers were imcomplete-thus some omitted to mention the need of carbon dioxide. Q. 27. Mention three carnivorous plants that occur in Britain, and

describe the structures that are adapted for catching or trapping

the animals in each case. Nepenthes was often given as an example, although it is not a British plant. Arum and Lathræa are not carnivorous plants. Q. 28. Describe in the case of any seedling you may select how the

structure characteristic of the root changes into that met with in the young stem. What do you think is the use of the change

to the plant ? Seldom attempted and almost always badly done. Q. 29. Describe and compare the fruits of the rose, fig, strawberry, and

mulberry. This was often very carelessly done, and the comparison was, as usual, a weak point in the majority of answers.

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