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Q. 30. What is meant by sclerenchymna ? Give some account of its mode

of occurrence in stems, and show how it is of use to the plant. Very rudimentary knowledge was shown as to the nature of sclerenchyma. It was often confounded with water-conducting tissue. The mechanism of strengthening tissue as a whole seems not to be appreciated. Q. 31. Give an account of the modes of vegetative reproduction met with

in a fern, a snowdrop, and a bramble. Sometimes this was well answered, but most of those who attempted the question showed very little real knowledge of the main facts.

STAGE 3.

Results : 1st Class, 11 ; 2nd Class, 21 ; Failed, 12 ; Total, 44. The work was on the whole fair, but the conclusions to be drawn from experiments, c.9., on geotropic phenomena, were in most cases not well reasoned, and they often rested on too narrow a base. Many answers failed to get high marks on account of inaccuracies due to mere guessing.

Q. 41. Identify the specimen provided, and comment on its morphology.

The specimen was Viburnum Lantana, and it was often correctly known; a common error lay in referring it to Umbelliferæ, a mistake betraying gross ignorance of natural orders. Very few really good accounts were given of the morphology. Q. 42. Give an account of the principal modifications in floral structures

encountered in the Scitamineæ or in the Myrtaceæ. This question was frequently attempted. Nearly all candidates showed some knowledge of the Scitamineæ as exemplified by Canna, but few were really able to deal with the order as a whole. Q. 43. Discuss the ecological conditions that may determine the formation

of the “Heather-moor," and give some account of the cumposition

of the flora of such moor. Many candidates attempted this question, but the answers were in many cases almost worthless. Much guessing was obvious, and few had any real acquaintance with the real conditions that determine plant formations. Q. 44. What are the chief reserve-substances of food stored in the seeds

of plants? State how they may be severally identified. This was often rather well done, and candidates showed that they had really obtained first-hand knowledge of the reactions involved. Q. 45. Write a life history of either Erysiphe or of Tilletia, and include in

your answer a discussion of the parasitic habit of the form you

select. This was very seldom well done. The latter part of the question was hardly ever properly attempted. Q. 46. Write a short account of the Conjugatæ, as illustrated by British

genera. Often attempted with fair success. Q. 47. What is meant by geotropism? Write a careful account of any

three experiments you may have performed in order to investigate

the geotropic phenomena in roots. The descriptions of experiments were often fairly done, but the experiments themselves were seldom well chosen. It would appear that the subject of irritability is not well dealt with ; it is one that students commonly find

2 difficult. Thus the stimulus given by gravity was frequently confounded with the geotropic response. Again the special case cf taproots was almost exclusively referred to, and hence the evidence derived from a study of shoots

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and lateral roots was ignored. A more careful study of these phenomena is most important, since they offer so excellent an opportunity for enabling the student to obtain a real insight into the nature of irritability in general. Q. 48. Give an account of the structure of the fossil known as Lyginoden

dron, and include in your answer a discussion of its affinities

with existing groups of plants. This question was seldom attempted with any great measure of success.

HONOURS. Results : 1st Class, ; 2nd Class, 3 ; Failed, 9; Total, 12. Some of the work sent in was of considerable merit, but the answers to certain questions betrayed great ignorance on matters of general biological importance. Thus no candidates were able to discuss adequately the question of "acquired characters"; very few realised the real difficulties encountered in explaining root-pressure, and no one attempted to deal with the symbiotic associations as illustrated by Bacteria. There seems evidence to show that students have attended certain courses of advanced lectures, but have done little work independently of these.

DAY EXAMINATION.

The general average of the work in Stages 1 and 2 was fairly good, but the number of really first-class papers, especially in Stage 2, was smaller than might have been expected. In this respect there was no difference between Training College and other students.

Many candidates seem to think that they will be judged by the quantity, rather than by the quality, of what they write, and the instruction that the answers are to be strictly confined to the questions proposed is, in very many cases, completely ignored.

STAGE 1.
Results : 1st Class, 72; 2nd Class, 47 ; Failed, 24 ; Total, 143.
Q. 1. Refer the specimen placed before you to its natural order, giving

your reasons; describe it, taking its organs (when present) in the
following order :--
Stem
Flower

Gynæcium
Leaf
Calyx

Fruit
Inflorescence Corolla

Seed
Bracts

Andræcium
The specimen set was Campanula glomerata.

The description was in some cases very good, in others extremely careless.
Some candidates evidently had decided from memory what they thought
they ought to see, and thus committed the most absurd errors.
Q. 2. Mention two plants that possess bulbs. Describe and explain care-

fully the structure of the bulb of one of them. This question was nearly always attempted, but beyond text-book generalities, real knowledge was shown only by a few candidates. The examples commonly selected were the onion and hyacinth, but the real nature of the scales (i.e., persistent bases of foliage leaves) seemed to be known only to very few. This implies that the objects themselves had at best been very imperfectly studied. Q. 3. Give some account of the modes of climbing to be met with in

British climbing plants. Foreign examples were often selected, and they were not often well chosen to illustrate the various methods of clinibing.

Q. 4. What are "sleep movements”? Describe fully these movements in

any example you may have studied. This question was very seldom attempted. It is difficult to understand why so widespread a phenomenon should have been so little studied. Q. 5. Describe, and, as far as you can, explain the appearance of a seed

ling that has been grown in continuous darkness. This was often intelligently answered, and candidates vho had obviously made observations on actual plants secured high marks. Q. 6. Write a short account of seed distribution in either the Compositæ

or Rosacea. The answers were rather meagre, very few exainples being known. Fruits illustrate so well the diversity ultimately reached by structures originally similar, that they should receive more attention. Such collections are easy to make and are very instructive. Q. 7. What is meant by the terms symbiosis, saprophyte, parasite ?

Mention and briefly describe one example of each. Seldom attempted, but a few very good answers. Q. 8. Explain what is meant by the torus. Comparu the torus in the

Ranunculaceae and the Umbelliferæ. This question was seldom attempted, and was never well done. The structure of an epigynous flower seems not yet to be understood. Q. 9. Describe, and state the functions of the cotyleduns in any three of

the following plants :-pea, buckwheat, castor oil plant, mustard. This question was badly done by those who attempted it. Q. 10. Describe a twig of either hawthorn or furze (ulex), and explain the

morphological nature of the thorns in the example you select. The answers were very uneven, some good, others very poor. Q. 11. How is the plant enabled to take in the gases present in the

atmosphere? Which of these gases are useful to the plant, ard

what is the nature of the use in each case ? Some very wild answers were returned. Phosphorus and carbon were even stated to be gases by some candidates. A few, however, showed real knowledge.

STAGE 2
Results : 1st Class, le ; 2nd Class, 61 ; Failed, 9; Total, 86.
Q. 21. Refer the specimen placed before you to its natural order, giving

your reasons; describe it, taking its organs (when present) in the
following order :-
Stem
Flower

Gynæcium
Leaf
Calyx

Fruit
Inflorescence Corolla

Seed
Bracts

Andræcium
The specimen set was Lupinus polyphyllus.
It was often very well described.
Q. 22. When a leafy shoot is gathered it soon begins to wither. Explain

as fully as you can the nature of the events that lead to

“ withering." This question was very unevenly answered. The principal source of mistakes lay in confusing turgidity of the cells with cutrition, and with photosynthesis. Q. 23. Describe fully the flowers of the campanula, and show how the

seeds of this plant are dispersed. Few appreciated the mechanism for ensuring cross pollination, and no one explained correctly how the seeds are dispersed.

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Q. 24. What is bark? Briefly describe the mode of its formation in a

stem. Some good answers were sent in, but the greater number of those who attempted the question seemed to possess little knowledge beyond that conveyed in a black-board demonstration. Q. 25. Describe the structure of a root as seen in longitudinal sections

and indicate the nature of the functions of the different parts. With some few exceptions, this question was badly answered. Many even omitted all reference to the root-cap. Q. 26. Describe the reproductive organs of Pellia, and compare them

with those of a moss. This question was often rather well done. Q. 27. Describe the flowers of either the oak or of the beech, and explain

the structure of the "fruit" in the example you select. Seldom attempted, but well done by a few. Q. 28. Explain fully why it is that plants commonly thrive better in a

soil that has been deeply dug or trenched than in a soil that has

remained undisturbed for several years. This question was well answered by most of those who attempted it. The significance of aeration and drainage was well appreciated. Q. 29. What are the points of essential similarity and difference between

the mode of nutrition of a green plant and of a fungus? Many candidates returned good answers, but others were extraordinarily bad. Some seemed to think that starch is the most important food of fungi, others went so far as to assert that the fungus has to make starch out of the materials it obtains from its host ! Q. 30. What is meant by sclerenchyma ? Give some account of its

occurrence in stems and show how it is useful to the plant. This question was very badly answered by nearly all who attempted it. It is clear that the candidates had never really observed the structures that can easily be seen, even by the aid of a low power of the microscope, in the stem of an ordinary herbaceous plant. Q. 31. Describe fully the gametophyte of Pinus, and show in what points

it (a) resembles, (b) differs from, that of a fern. Very seldom well done. The comparison was nearly always very badly drawn.

Report on the Examinations in Hygiene.

EVENING EXAMINATION.

STAGE 1.

Results : 1st Class, 475; 2nd Class, 722 ; Failed, 98 ; Total, 1,295. For the first part of the examination 1295 papers were sent in ; this is a

2 decrease on the number who presented themselves for examination last year. Of these students the numbers who were placed in the First Class were 36 per cent. ; of those entitled to a Second Class, 55 per cent.; and those who failed to secure a minimum of marks were 7 per cent.

The general results of this examination may be said to be very good. Some of the papers were excellent, and the whole standard of the examination is distinctly improved. There appears to be a better organized system of instruction, and the answers to the several questions show intelligence on the part of the students, who appear to take an interest in the subject. The answers, too, are not given so constantly in a set form, but appear more frequently in the words of the students themselves ; there is a marked improvement in this respect. There is also an absence of teaching by rôte, which was very prevalent in the earlier examinations in this subject. The failures were largely due to non-compliance with the rules, which, perhaps foreign students had some difficulty with. The worked papers in Stage 1 showed a distinct advance this year.

ELEMENTARY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY.

Q. (a) Write a short account of the structure and functions of the skin.

This question was a very popular one, and, as a rule, was well answered, some of the replies being excellently illustrated. Q. (6) Where are the salivary glands situated ? What action has the

juice secreted by these glands upon food taken into the mouth? A considerable number tried this question and usually answered it well Q. (c) Explain the following terms :-Serum, cartilage, peptone, chyme.

This was not a very favourite question, but those who attempted it had a competent grasp of the requisite knowledge. Q. (d) What are the changes which take place during respiration (1) in

the air breathed, (2) in the blood ? The replies to this question were fairly good, some excellent answers being received.

HYGIENE.

Q. 1. Name three common sources of drinking water, and, in respect of

each, point out the probable risks of pollution, and how they

can be best prevented. This question seemed to appeal to many, and the majority of the answers given were distinctly good. Q. 2. What rules and precautions should be observed in the storage of

water in a house? Explain the chief risks attaching to this

practice. Few questions were better answered than this; it was attempted by the greater number of candidates, many of whom submitted sensible answers. Q. 3. What is carbon dioxide? What are its sources, and what part

does it play as a sign of good or bad ventilation ? This again was a favourite question, and usually well done. Q. 4. What is the use of food ? Explain the chief changes which a piece

of bread undergoes during the act of digestion. On the whole this was not so well done. Many students gave a good explanation of the uses of food, but it was curious to note how many failed to give an intelligible account of the digestion of such a common article of diet as bread. Q. 5. What diseases are occasionally caused by milk, and how should

milk be collected, stored, and distributed ? But a small number attempted this question, but those who did gave satisfactory replies. The importance of the sanitary problems connected with the milk trade is so great that the attention of teachers should be directed to the emphasizing of the essential facts and principles to all students.

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