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Q. 2. Determine the amount of gluten in the sample of flour marked

B; express the result as a percentage.

The water is 16 per cent. and the ash is 094 per cent. Report

on the quality of the flour, Of those who attempted this question only one gave an approximate result. The report also was indifferent. The students were not well prepared in the technique necessary to make this analysis. Q. 3. Name the parasites shown under the microscopes 1, 2 and 3; give

a brief account of their life-histories ; and describe the symptoms

which they produce in the human body. Three candidates attempted this question. Two gave fairly satisfactory replies as to the names of the parasites, but failed to describe the life-history or the symptoms which the parasites produce in the human body. On the whole the question was not well answered.


STAGE 1. Results : 1st Class, 89 ; 2nd Class, 136 ; Failed, 6 ; Total, 231. This year, for this part of the examination, 231 papers were sent in. Of these, 38 per cent. obtained a First Class, 58 per cent. a Second Class, and 2 per cent. failed. This result is extremely satisfactory, and compares favourably with last year. The whole of the papers are distinctly above the average. There certainly is such a marked improvement in the papers that it is evident there has been much more systematic teaching, and the instruction given has been such that the students understood it and took an interest in the subject,

The following remarks have reference to this part of the examination.

ELEMENTARY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. Q. (a) Give a general account of the structure of the lungs, and of the

parts by which these communicate with the air. The majority of candidates attempted this question, giving good and accurate replies illustrated by some excellent diagrams. Q. (6) Where and how is the gastric juice formed ? What are its compo

sition and uses ? This was not a favourite question. When attempted, the answers were good as a whole. Q. (c) What bones form the shoulder-joint? Compare its structure with

that of the hip-joint. The first part of this question was well done, but many candidates broke down when they came to compare the general structure and arrangement of the shoulder with the hip-joint.

Q. (d) Give a short description of the heart and its mechanism.

A very favourite question, usually well answered and satisfactorily illustrated.



Q. 1. State how water may be contaminated after it enters a dwelling

from the street main, and how such pollution can be prevented. The general run of answers to this question was good, and in not a few cases the replies showed a comprehensive grasp of the practical points raised by the question.

Q. 2. What do you understand by temporary and permanent hardness of

water? How may temporary hardness of water be removed ? Nearly every candidate replied to this. Some of the answers were very good, the writers evidently having a competent grasp of the chemistry of the subject. Q. 3. What is meant by "natural ventilation," and upon what physical

laws does it depend? This subject had evidently been well taught, nearly all the answers to this question being clear and accurate. Q. 4. What are the essential objects of cooking processes? Explain the

changes which meat and bread undergo respectively when baked. In this question candidates found an old friend and a congenial subject on which to write. Judging by the answers generally, this topic had been well taught. Q. 5. What is the average composition of milk? Why is milk the best

food for young children? One of the most noteworthy features of this examination was the manner in which this question was handled. One was surprised to see the accuracy of the figures quoted. Q. 6. Describe the conditions which cause dampness in house-walls.

What preventive measures would you advise? This was a favourite question ; some of the illustrations being very good. Q. 7. What are the important points to bear in mind in dealing with the

storage and disposal of house refuse? Here again candidates found an easy and congenial subject on which to write. The greater number of replies were distinctly good. Q. 8. What is the value of exercise in development, and to what particular

objects should such exercise be directed in school life? What forms of exercise are best adapted to meet these particular

objects? One expected to find this question indifferently handled. On the contrary, when attempted, and that was fairly often, it was wonderfully well done. In fact, it was one of the most satisfactory features in the whole examination, as it could not be readily answered from the ordinary text books, but needed some reflection and initiative on the part of candidates. Q. 9. How would you distinguish between an epileptic fit and a fainting

fit Indicate the nature of the first aid you would give in each


This question was not such a favourite as one expected to find it; but when attempted was invariably well done.

Judging this Stage 1 (Day) Examination as a whole, the papers submitted were distinctly good, and far better than those of some previous years.


Results : 1st Class, 48; 2nd Class, 188; Failed, 37; Total, 273. For this part of the examination 273 papers were sent in. Of these, 17 per cent. obtained a First Class, 68 per cent. a Second Class, and 13 per cent. failed.

On the whole, the examination in Hygiene may be said to be satisfactory; perhaps the papers in the Elementary Human Physiology were not quite so good, though many excellent answers were given. It should be impressed on students before commencing their papers, to carefully read through the questions they propose to answer. That they had not done

in all cases is shown by the numbers who attempted Questions 21 and 30. In the

former, domestic filtration and cisterns for the storage of water were discussed, while in the latter the isolation of the patient and nursing were entered into. These answers were good, but they had no reference to the questions in the paper.

The following remarks have reference to this part of the examination.

ELEMENTARY HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. Q. (a) Describe the difference between an artery and a vein, and explain

how these differences affect the circulation of the blood. Nearly every candidate attempted this question, and many excellent answers were given; but a few were quite ignorant of the difference between an artery and a vein. Q. (6) Describe the position, form, general structure, and function of

the stomach. This question was a very favourite one, and the replies to it were, as a rule, good. The students have been carefully and well instructed on the processes of the digestion of food, etc. Q.(c) What bones go to make up the foot and ankle ? Describe briefly

the human foot, and show its special adaptation to the act of

walking. Comparatively few attempted this question, but those who did gave excellent answers. Q. (d) Where is the spleen placed in the body? What is its shape,

general structure, and appearance ? Many candidates attempted this question, and some excellent answers were given. In point of fact, some of the answers were surprisingly good, and show a well-grounded knowledge of the subject.



Q. 21. State in detail the method usually adopted for the purification of

water from rivers, springs, etc. Explain the action that takes place in such method, and how the water should be stored after

purification and before delivery. Every student attempted this question, and in the large majority of cases the answers were good. Many, however, were unfamiliar with the action that takes place in sand filtration; others entered into the question of domestic filtration by means of the Chamberland filter, although the question referred to water “before delivery” to the consumer. Comparatively few gave a good description of a service reservoir or stated how water should be stored after filtration. A few suggested that it was stored in the water mains. Q. 22. How is the amount of pollution of air in a crowded space estimated,

and why is the amount of carbon dioxide always taken into

account? This question brought very few good answers. A very large number attributed poisonous qualities to the small amount of carbon dioxide present in the air, and only a few grasped the idea that it is taken as an index of organic impurity. On the whole, the question was indifferently answered. Q. 23. What is meant by the expressions : (a) relative humidity, (6) dew

point? Describe a method of ascertaining the dew-point. This was a favourite question. Comparatively few gave a correct definition of relative humidity, although nearly all were familiar with the dew-point In many cases the last part of the question was indifferently answered.


Q. 24. What do you understand by the term “proximate alimentary

principles”? State the amount of these principles necessary in

a diet for (a) ordinary work, (6) hard work. The majority of the students attempted this question. The first part was indifferently answered, very few gave a correct definition of the term “proximate alimentary principles.” The last part of the question was, as a rule, well answered. Only about three candidates gave the more recent numbers for diets in ordinary and hard work. Q. 25. Name the parasites which may be transmitted to man by eating

meat, and describe their appearance in the flesh of animals. Very few candidates attempted this question, and only comparatively few of these gave any description or were able to name the parasites connected with meat supplies. Q. 26. What is the difference between the high and the low pressure

system of hot water heating? Describe shortly the arrangements

of each, and state their relative merits and demerits. Nearly every student attempted this question, and the answers were by far the best on this paper. Few mistakes were made, all being quite familiar with these systems of heating. Q. 27. Describe the best form of w.c. for houses, for factories, for

schools. Illustrate your answer by sketches. The first part of this question was very well answered and, as a rule, the sketches given were good. The answers given to the last part were quite the reverse ; there were few sketches and those who attempted them had never seen a trough closet, which was the one generally suggested. Very many gave an ordinary w.c., the base of which entered a common drain pipe. Under such a condition the basin would never be cleansed and the pipe would be foul. This question was not well answered. Q. 28. Mention the strengths and the way in which each of the following

disinfectants should be used :-Carbolic acid, perchloride of

mercury, chloride of lime, sulphurous acid, formalin. Those who attempted to answer this question had no idea of the strengths of the various disinfectants named, when used in a sick room or house. They were familiar with the names and knew how to apply them ; but in the large majority of cases their knowledge ceased there. Q. 29. Describe the suitability of the following sites for houses :- Rock,

sand or gravel, chalk, clay, and alluvial drift. State how these

soils influence health. A very favourite question, but answered very unequally. Some good replies were given ; buì on the whole the answers were disappointing. Q. 30. An outbreak of diphtheria having occurred in a school, what

precautions would you take with regard to the school-buildings

and appliances ? This question was a favourite one. Very many students dealt with the isolation, disinfection, and nursing of the patient, which was not asked for. Others entered into details as regards disinfection by sulphur. Only a few referred to the drainage and sanitary arrangements of the lavatories, etc., or to any possible source of danger in or around the buildings. Very few gave any method other than that of burning sulphur for disinfecting a room, and evidently the practice of spraying the walls, which is more effective, has not been referred to. On the whole, the answers were somewhat disappointing.

Report on the Examinations in Agricultural Soience and

Rural Economy.



Results : 1st Class, 11 ; 2nd Class, 15 ; Failed, 12 ; Total, 38. The improvement noted in the last report may be again seen ; there is a little more evidence from the answers that experiments have been actually carried out before the class. But a great deal of teaching by rote still goes on, and energy is wasted over an elaborately technical nomenclature of the parts of a plant, to the neglect of the study of their functions in a simple and common-sense fashion. At this stage of the subject, technical terms like cotyledon, pericarp, phloem, &c., are not only an added burden to the student, but they are positive hindrances to his understanding of the facts. The sketches are still very bad. Q. 1. Draw a sketch of a young seedling of wheat or barley, naming the

various parts visible to the naked eye. Make another drawing showing the same seedling as growing in the open ground about

a month later. The first stage of the seedling was often correctly drawn, but not the later one. Nobody appeared to have seen a young plant from the open ground, with its adventitious roots and tillering. Q. 2. Describe experiments to show that growing plants require air.

What changes do they bring about in the air. Most of the answers began "enclose a plant in an air-tight box and

pump out all the air.” Teachers should set their faces against such description of hypothetical experiments, and insist on being told how a thing is to be done in real life. Q. 3. If you have made the experiment of weighing dried seeds and

seedlings in successive stages of growth, say in which stage a loss of weight, and in which a gain in weight was observed.

Give the reasons of these changes in weight. Answers confused, because they showed no appreciation of the relative magnitude of loss by respiration and gain when assimilation begins. Q. 4. Describe experiments to show that all parts of the young root

and the young shoot of a plant do not grow at the same rate. Generally correct. Q. 5. How would you show the difference in the produotion of starch by

the white and green parts of a variegated maple or geranium

leaf? What is the cause of this difference in the parts ? Q. 6. How is charcoal made ? Name a few substances from which it

may be prepared. What effect has the gas produced by burning charcoal on lime-water ? What names do chemists give to

charcoal, and to the gas which it produces on burning ? These two questions were well answered. Q. 7. Draw a sketch showing what is seen on cutting an apple down the

middle. Explain the nature of each part. The sketches were quite unrecognisable, yet some of the answers were stiff with botanical equivalents for skin, tiesh, core and pips. Q. 8. What is the value to the plant of (1) the spines upon gorse ; (2) the

prickles upon a rose bush ? Most candidates knew that prickles kept off animals, but not that rose thorns were also useful for climbing.

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