Imágenes de páginas

velope ; and in the third he has done ral subjects of Mr. Fulton's investigawhat should make his country proud, tion. The great objection is that the and the world grateful.

book is too long. In such matters comThe work which is the subject of pression is every thing. Considering our remarks, was read as.a memoir be- the avocations of the writer, part of the fore the. Literary and Philosophical prolixity to which we object, is perSociety of New-York. It was undoubt- haps to be excused upon the ground edly designed for the press, and we suggested by Dean Swift--that he had have treated it as such. We under- no time to write shorter,--but surely stand that the profits of the publication there is a great deal wbich might have are liberally given to that society by been beneficially retrenched. The the author.

merits of Mr. West and his pictures, Mr. Colden evidently does not hold whatever they may be, might more the pen

of a ready or practised writer. properly have been left to form a part of His style is sometimes deficient in ele. the biography of that gentleman, whengance, and often in ease and grace. In ever it shall come to be again written. a composition so formal, and so gene- We have thought proper to notice rally stately, we do not like such ex- these imperfections, though of minor pressions as the little farm on which importance. Upon the whole, we think he settled his mother," page

9. • Ca- the writer has done justice to his subnalling," page 19,-and we particularly ject and honour to himself. disrelish the mock solemnity which re- The Appendix contains

some insults from prefixing the indefinite article formation on the subjects , to which to the name of an individual" they Mr. Fulton had devoted his attention, mark the genius of a Fulton," page 13. though it is more diffuse than important. But these are trifles, The work wants It would be unjust to the publishers arrangement. The writer seems to have not to acknowledge that they have prebeen confused between his attention to sented us, in this work, an elegant spechronological order, and his desire to cimen of American typography. keep separate his accounts of the seve- D.

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Art. 3. Le Printemps, premier chant du Poëme Chinois, Des Saisons, traduit

en vers Français, et mêlé d'allusions au Regne de Louis XVIII., Par Charles Léopold Mathieu, Membre de plusieurs Sociétés Savantes, nationales et étrangéres. A Nancy. CHEZ HÆNER. 8vo. pp. 28.


CONSIDERING the frequent inter bitherto

, are trifling both in quantity and

, for centuries, it is somewhat ex- Mr. Morrison, &c. which have so much traordinary that so little should be facilitated the attainment of a language known of their literature. It is the that has heretofore presented difficulties more remarkable, as their pretensions in apprehension almost insurmountable, to learning are so great, and their may, perhaps,pave the way for more imbooks so numerous,--for they have portant accumulations of Oriental lore. possessed the art of printing, after a But it is in their popular works of fanfashion of their own, from time imme- cy, in their plays, poetry, and novels, morial. Some of the writings of Con- that we must look for indications of the fucius have, indeed, been translated in- prevailing character and temperament to English, and versions have been of a people. Of these very few have made of a few other works of various fallen into the course of our reading. descriptions, But the acquisitions, This is the first specimen, sach as it is,

pose on.

that we remember to have seen of Chi

This poem,' continues Mr. Mathieu, nese poetry.

verses of which are inscribed as well Mr. Mathieu tells us that he chanced on fans as on paper.hangings, is entireupon this poem of the Seasons, or ly composed of simple expressions, rather of the Months,' on a suit of ta- and written in key or radical characters pestry, and takes occasion, very justly, of what we term the Chinese alphabet ; as well as opportunely, to compliment which is an evidence that it was prothe Chinese on their taste in displaying duced at à remote period, when Chiin the hangings of their rooms something nese writing was restricted to its prifor the mind as well as the eye to re- mitive signs, the roots of its present

We hope the hint will not characters, and consequently before the be lost. If the Chinese are too proud invention of these complicated characto learn of us, let us not be asbamed to ters.' be instructed by them. From this source

• It is a long time,' he adds, since the translator obtained the entire Poem

we have had an opportunity to obtain on the Spring. Mr. Mathieu informs uis, also, in regard to a point on which any production of this singular and in

teresting people. It is a kind of discvery reader will be ready to put an

covery, to have found out a means of interrogatory,--that the poem appears reading the inscriptions on their fans to be written in blank verse, except the and tapestry, the characters of which introduction, in which the lines rhyme at first blush, appear to have so little by their initial syllables. This is relation with those we know. They however, a singularity even in the Chinese language, most of their verses the more curious, that they seem in

open, however, a field of observation; thyming by their closes. In regard to tended to bring under the eye of the metre, the lines are irregularly of three,

spectator the more esteemed extracts four, five, six, or nine feet. If we may of the poetry of the country, sometimes believe the translator, notwithstanding without reference to the designs of the the want of statedly recurring sounds paintings, but always with the laudable and of modulated cadence, poetic inspi view of promoting instruction and moration is easily discernible in the im

rality.' petuosity of the style. He thus express

Such is the account the translator es his veneration for this fragment of

gives us of the original of the poem antiquity. On retrouve dans ce poëme le laconisme We have been the more sedulous in

which he has entitled · Le Printemps.' impétueux, ce beau désordre, que l'on pourrait appeler pindarique, qui caracté- gleaning these particulars relative to it, rise les poésies antiques, et dont les poë- since it is exceedingly difficult to dismes orphiques nous donneraient le pre. cover any traces of its former self in the mier type, si la poésie chinoise, dans une dress which he has given it. Unwilling langue que plusieurs indications me feraient'volontiers croire la langue primitive et his loyalty, Mr. Mathieu bas plentifully

to lose any opportunity of discovering antédiluvienne, ne nous en fournissait un, peut-être plus antique encore, dans ce pre. interlarded bis performance with the mier chant du poëme chinois des saisons.* most fulsome and impertinent flattery

* "We find in this poem that energetic lacon of the House of Bourbon, whilst, with ism, that charming wildness, which may be an equally deplorable want of taste, he termed Pindaric, which indicates antiquity, and of has tricked out his primitive, antediluwhich the poems of Orpheus might be regarded vian, radical, straight-mark’d, Chinese language which I have been led by many con- bard, in all the common-place of a siderations to look upon as the primitive and antediluvian tongue, furnish us, in this very produce sian petit-maitre.

mincing, set-phrased, palavering, Parition, a specimen of the same kiad, possibly more ancient."

The poem appears to us, from what

we can gather in regard to it, to have nois avoir aussi des comparaisons dans been designed as a geargic. The foto deur poésies. Cette remarque prove évilowing is given by Mr. Mathieu as the demment que cette figure est inspirée par la

nature elle-même. Argument." “ Exposition of the Subject. The Again, on introducing an episode of

bis traces of winter still subsist; it is ne

own, yet of considerable interest cessary to break up the ice to aid the we confess, describing the renversement emancipation of nature. The ice is cut of a fisherman's cabin by an inundation, in pieces with sharp instruments. New he tells us, indeed, that the passage is frosts intervene to bafile hope. Let not in his author, and adds, in his own ardour be redoubled to counteract these justification, Jast efforts of winter. The time has Il ne m'a pas paru dans tous les vers now come to construct new habitations, Chinois, que j'ai vus jusqu'ici, que le goût and to till the ground, that the seeds n'est pas de ce pays, j'ai cru qu'il etait

Chinois adoptât l'épisode ; mais si celui inay germinate. The heat of the sun dans la nature du poëme, et qu'en vers increases, and reanimates industry and Français, il devait s'y trouver. nature. Now gardens are formed and

How far this may be satisfactory to embellished. The melting of the snows others we know not,-for ourselves we on the mountains occasions floods which had far rather see a Chinese poem, in alarm the busbandmen. The waters at all its nudity, than bedizened " en vers last subside. The caravans assemble. Français.” At any rate, we do not The soldiers are mustered-may they think Mr. Mathieu's poetic merit extehave no wars to wage. Commerce re- nuates the audacity of his innovations. vives, the vessels sail on their voyages. We shall limit ourselves in quoting from The children, who had been benumbed his version to a mere specimen, as we by the cold weather,resume their studies, do not wish to multiply French extracts, and return to the charge of the old men. and because we are still less inclined The middle-aged men undertake the to turn poetic strains into humble execution of those projects which they prose. In fact, if filtered through anhad matured in the winter. New families other translation, probably as little extend themselves. The youths en would remain of the sentiment as of gage in exercises suitable to their years. the language of the original. The folThose who study mathematics apply lowing debât of the poem may possibly the principles they acquire to geogra- convey some idea of the brusquerie and phy and astronomy. Finally, those abruptness of the Chinese ; and is a who learn to write, apply geometry to favourable instance of the faithfulness the regular construction of their letters.”' and even of the manner of Mr. Ma

Such is the plan of this poem, as far thieu. as we can disengage it from the epi. Mortels, ranimez vous, le soleil va renaitre ; sodes and allusions with which the La nature glacée, attend un nouvelle être. translator has so injudiciously encum. Avec elle à l'envi, commences vos travaux; bered it. We are indebted, however, Accourez, saisissez vos haches, vos marto his candour and simplicity, for two further facts in regard to the style of Pour vos nombreux enfans, il faut des toits the original. The dissolving of snow C'est l'instant de bâtir d'utiles édifices. by the sun is likened by the poet to the Hatez-vous ! mais toujours suivez, à chaque fusion of metals by fire. Mr. Matbieu takes care, and it is not amiss, to Du temps et des saisons les immuables let us know that this simile is found in the text. He further observes, with Que le hardi triangle aille, en sa marche

sûre, great naïveté,

De la terre et des mers vous donner la Il est vraiment curieux de voir les Chi.





thieu says

Qu'il forme des remparts, qu'il élève des était venu là faire un traité d'alliance et tours,

de commerce avec les Américains. Cet In, Des palais de vos rois, qu'il trace les con- de la Chine, est le chef de la hutième des tours;

cent premières familles chinoises au temps Et qu'au joug suspendu le soc fendant les d’Yao, l'an 2296, 48 ans aprés le déluge plaines,

d'Ogygés, auquel on peut rapporter la subPrépare l'abondance et le prix de vos mersion de l'Atlantide. Il a pu en sortir peines.

quelque temps avant la submersion, et se Șo much for the poem. There are, temps d'Yao, selon le Pe-Kia-Sing, livro qui

trouver encore quarante-huit ans ap rés, au however, some fanciful speculations, on contient tous les noms des cent familles a point concerning our own country, chinoises, au temps de cet empereur, et contained in a note, that have a bold- qui conserve toujours ce même nom : quoi. ness which commends them to consi- que le nombre des noms propres qu'il conderation, and are supported by a cor- tient, soit augmenté jusqu'a 438. Ces carespondent confidence of assertion. If ractères numeriques sont employés, à la

Chine, dans les livres les plus anciens, et they fail to convince, they will serve jamais les Chinois n'ont voulu se prêter à to amuse, In his prefatory remarks, les changer. J'ai, en ce moment, à ma speaking of the primitive characters in disposition un manuscrit chinois qui en which these verses are written, Mr. Ma- fait la preuve, concurremment avec le dic

tionnaire chinois de M. de Guignes, qui est

le titre le plus moderne. Ce manuscrit A l'aspect de ces caractères, au style de est un traite de mathématiques appliquées. ces vers, on serait tenté de croire cette jl paraît être fait par quelque missionnaire poésie tirée de ces livres antiques et sa- pour introduire à la Chine les mathéma. crés, écrits avec les fragmens de la ligne tiques européennes. Il contient des caldroite, entiere et brisée, qui ne sont sûre- culs, et sur-tout une espéce de table de lo. 'ment pas de l'arithmétique binaire, comme garithmes, où l'on voit figurer le 0, parmi l'a cru si bizarrement Leibnitz ; puisque les autres signes de numeration chinois, les caractères numériques chinois sont les qui sont aussi

atlantiques. Il semble que caractères romains dont l'origine est at- l'auteur ait eu l'intention d'inspirer aux lantique.

Chinois l'envie de se servir de ce 0, pour On this he introduces the following faciliter la formation des nombres, en Pem. Rote, which will be read with some avi. ployant concurremment avec leurs signes

ordinaires, à la manière des chiffres arabes. dity by our antiquarians.

Le dictionnaire chinois, au contraire, ne Cette idée de Leibnitz de voir son cal. fait aucune mention du zéro dans la table cul binaire dans les anciennes écritures qu'il donne des signes numériques chinois. chinoises, ne peut être que la rêverie d'un li indique toujours cette numération à la inventeur de calcul qui veut trouver son maniere romaine, ce qui prouve que los système par-tout. Le système de numé- Chinois, toujours fidèles à leur ancien usage ration chinois, les signes de cette numéra. n'ont pas voulu adopter seulement ce zéro; tion sont les mêmes que ceux de l'hiéro- par conséquent s'ils avaient eu originaireglyphe atlantique de Dighton, près Boston, ment une autre numération, ils l'auraient en Amerique, lequel paraît être de l'an du plutôt conservée que de la changer contre monde 1902, selon la traduction que j'ai une nouvelle aussi peu commode que la trouvé le moyen d'en faire, d'après l'art de romaine, pouvant choisir l'arabe de prëfelire les hiéroglyphes, que j'ai découvert. rence. On ne dira pas qu'ils tiennent la Cette numération atlantique est la même leur des Romains. Ce peuple n'a jamais que celle des Romains, qui la tenaient des été à la Chine ; et les livres chinois de Pélasges, peuples sortis originairement de Confucius, où se trouvent employés les l'Atlantide, où, selon Platon, qui donne le chiffres romains, ou plutôt atlantiques, sont nom de Pélagos à la partie de l'Ocean si- trop anciens, pour pouvoir supposer que tuée entre cettee île et l'Amérique, ils de la numération dont ils se servent, y a été vaient par consequent habiter la côte occi- portée depuis la découverte de la Chine, dentale. Elle paraît avoir été rtée à la même par saint Thomas. Confucius existe Chine par cet In, fils d'In-dios, roi de l'At- ait 550 ans avant notre ére, ou au moins, lantide, nommé dans l'hiéroglyphe d'Amé. selon d'autres, 483 ans. Ces chiffres ro: rique, pour le chef de l'expédition, qui maines dont il s'est servi, ne peuvent donc


y avoir été portés que par un peuple anté- which had arrived there for the pure rieur; or, aucun people n'est rapporté par pose of concluding a treaty of coml'histoire, y avoir été avant notre ére. Sans la traduction de l'hiéroglyphe atlantique This In became the founder of a dis

merce and amity' with the Ainericans. de Dighton, en Amérique, ce fait serait inexplicable

. L'identité de numération de tinguished family in China, and was cet hiéroglyphe et de celle de la Chine, living in the time of Yao, in the year l'identité de nom, d'In, Chinois, et de l'In, 2296, being 48 years after the utter atlantique de l'hiéroglyphe, dans le même submersion of the island of Atlantis in temps, prouvent bien, au contraire, que deux monumens viennent du méme peuple; the Ogygian deluge. This island of que ces deux In sont de la meme famille, Atlantis was, in its day, what Great comme je le prouverai d'ailleurs par nom- Britain is in ours; carried on a brisk bres d'autres faits que j'ai rassembles dans trade with the four quarters of the globe, un ouvrage que je publierai bientôt. L'on and established colonies and factories verra qu'à l'époque de l'hiéroglyphe atlantique d'Amérique, en l'an 1902 du monde, this great emporium of the arts and

to facilitate exchanges. Unfortunately où l'lle Atlantide pouvait exister comme i’hiêroglyphe le prouve ; Les Atlantes, au sciences was swallowed up about 1800 milieu de l'Océan, comme aujourd'hui les years before the Christian era !! Such Anglais, comme eux, fréquentaient alors is the amount of this wonderful story les quatre parties du monde. y faisaient of the events in which Mr. Mathieu des établissemens. Ils y portaient leur langue et leur numération, qui s'y sont speaks as familiarly as of the occurconservées jusqu'aux découvertes moder. rences of yesterday. We may safely nes, aprés l'interruption de communication recommend it to the reader to believe avec ces contrées, qu'occasionna, pendant as much of it as he can. si long-temps, la submersion de cette ile

As the inscription on the rock at fameuse. Voilà comme les scènes du mon. Dighton, seems to be the pivot on which de se sont succedees dans des âges differens, et que les hommes, dont la vie est

this ingenious theory hinges, it may be éphéinère, ont toujours cru que celle qui well to append such authentic informaSe passait sous leurs yeux, ou à la portee tion as we have, in regard to it. This inne leur mémoire, était la premiére. Ce formation is furnished in a paper comsont les moucherons d'un jour, qui bour. municated by the Honourable James donnent et voltigent sous l'ombre du cédre antique, en disputant sur la durée de cet Winthrop, of Cambridge, to the A. A. S. arbre éternel, et le soir ils ne sont deja from which we have made the followplus.

ing extract: For the benefit of those who may

Iccount of an Inscribed Rock, at Dighton,

in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, need an interpretation, we will give the communicated to the American Academy substance of the above in a few words. of Arts and Sciences, Nov. 10, 1788. By Mr. Mathieu, in controverting an opinion

James Winthrop, Esq of Leibnitz, states, that the Chinese sys

“In Taunion river, about six miles be. tem of numeration and the signs em- limits of Dighton, is a rock containing an

low the town of Taunton, and within the ployed in it, are the same as those hieroglyphical inscription, which has long found in the Atlantic hieroglypbical engaged the attention of the curious. l'he inscription at Dighton in Massachusetts, rock is on the eastern side of the river,

appears to bare been written in upon the beach, and the inscribed side the year of the world i902! This sys, the water retires from the foot of it, but

fronts northwesterly. At the lowest tides tem of numeration is similar to that of the Romans, who derived it from the The longest side contains the inscription,

at high water it is commonly covered. Pelasgi, a people originally from the looking towards the channel of the river, island of Atlantis! The same system and is the natural face of the rock, not

This side is ten feet was communicated to the Chinese by smoothed by art. that very 11, son of Indios, king of Atsix inches long, and four feet two inches

wide. The other sides are shorter, and lantis, who is named in the inscription drawn to a point towards the shore and of Dighton, as chief of the expedition, are rough, as if large pieces had been bro



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