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their own character, and, from a sense of their own sinfulness, be ready to forgive others.” Subhan Ali Khan then said, “In the Revelation of St. John, I have read that one person, clothed in white, stands before the throne of the Most High: that respects our prophet for Jesus Christ wore black clothes.” I answered, this passage is taken from the fourth Chapter;
and there it says, that twenty-four persons worshipped before the throne: pray, since you
that sentence, that the Jews might reflect on |
say one was your prophet, who were the other twenty-three?” The vizier said, in an audible voice, in the hearing of all, “It is by no means necessary that a man should follow the religion of his forefathers: moreover, it is highly proper, that whatever religion is proved to be righteous and worthy of approval, he should embrace it.” When Subhan Ali Khan saw that the vizier paid attention to what was said, he began to ask me the meaning of hard words. From the anxiety of my mind, as well as from long disuse of learning, I mistook the word, and gave a wrong answer. He, on this, said to the vizier, “This man has not the learning of a child.” Addressing the vizier, I said, “When did I ever pretend to learning? But if I had thought that Subhan Ali Khat would have judged of my religion from my knowledge of hard words, I would have looked into some dictionary, and have committed some to memory.” The vizier smiled, and said, “I am much pleased with your conversation, and I have also heard of you from the resident. I am told that you are going to Calcutta, some time hence: you must not go without visiting me again.” He then called for otter, with which he perfumed my hand, and dismissed me; and I returned home, where also I had to continue conversing about religion.
Abdool Messeeh, stationed in that part of India, where he daily comes in contact with various sects of Mahomedans,—with pagans differing in character and in devotedness to their superstitions,—and with nominal Christians, and infidels, must have his knowledge of Christianity, his ability to defend it, and his steadfastness of principle, severely tested; yet, though standing alone, or with only the littie Christian society, which he has been chiefly instrumental of raising up, and surrounded by a vast expanse of heathen popula. tion,-his spirit of devotion, his love for the spiritual welfare of his countrymen, his zeal in laboring to promote it; his readiness and ingenuity in debate, and his meekness under insults and contradiction, seem never to fail him—Such men as he, and Asaad Shidiak in Western Asia, are most striking instances of the effect of the Gospel on superior minds, not only enlightening and sanctifying them, but making them eminent instruments of widely disseminating truth among their own countrymen. Such individuals, the missionaries, and they who patronise missions, may expect to
** rising up here and there, over the whole
field of missionary labor. The number of heathens converted to Christianity, and who, by conversation, by instructing schools, and distributing books, render essential service to the different missions in the east, is already not suall; but it cannot be expected,—considering the want of all knowledge and thought, in which the heathen are educated, and the many and degrading errors, with which their minds become filled, and the little demand there is among them for mental effort of any kindthat, generally, when they come to understand and embrace the Gospel, they should at once start on their Christian course with decision, and become active and judicious instructers and preachers of divine truth. This can be reasonably expected of those only, who, owing to original superiority of mind, or to circumstances which rendered their minds active, have been raised above the besotting influence of idolatry and superstition. We ought hardly to expect to find in a convert from heathenism, the same sort of being, which we look for in a man who becomes a true Christian among us; who has previously had his mind stored, in a good degree, with useful knowledge, who has been trained to habits of thinking and business, and been taught to feel the responsibility resting on
broke up the school; but afterwards it seemed to make it more decidedly useful.
I am satisfied, says one of the superintendents, that, their relinquishment of caste by entering the Seminary, has greatly assisted them to get more perfectly rid of the world, and to submit more decidedly and unreservedly, to Christian principle and Christian discipline.
According to the survey of this station in 1824, there were 31 natives in this Seminary, of whom 20 were believed to have been turned, by the gracious influences of the Holy Spirit, from darkness unto light; and great hope was entertained of several others. In the survey of 1826, there are stated to be in the Seminary, 36 native youths, from 8 to 22 years of age. The missionaries say—
Of these, 24 were fluent readers and good writers in Tamul, and were advancing in geography, history and divinity: the other 12 still attended the Central School. There were 13 in the Hebrew class; and all, except the four last admitted, were learning English. The 24 more advanced youth have heard lectures on the Epistle to the Romans, which they have copied and committed to memory; and have lately begun to receive lectures on the Bible generally.
A few extraets from the journals of the missionaries, will show how these youths, just rescued from the ignorance and debasement of heathenism, value the privileges enjoyed in the Seminary, and what gratitude they feel towards their instructers.
After the usual prayer-meeting, the two el‘der Seminarists came forward and expressed, in their own name, and in the name of the rest, their thanks for the pains which we had taken with them; and prayed that the Lord would bless us. This was unexpected. I believe most of the youths really feel the great benefit eonferred upon them. To the Lord our God be all the glory. We dismissed our Seminarists to visit their respective homes. On our question, Whether they greatly rejoiced at the prospect of seeing their homes again, some said that they did rejoice,because they wished to make known to the people there, what they had learnt and experienced from the word of God: a few said that they did not much rejoice, because they should forget what they had learnt, and see and hear o in their village which might Jhurt their souls. We had a special conversation with seven Seminarists, who have long asked for baptism. The state of their minds is pleasing: it would , rejoice our Christian friends to witness their feelings and expressions. Thus the Lord gathers to himself a Church from among this people. The parents of two of them refuse their consent; but the youths said, “In this we cannot obey our parents. He, that loves father or mother more than ne, is not worthy of me.” They are prepared ...to suffer,
1. A Teloogoo man brought a boy, his relative, I' of apparently 13 years of age, who earnestly begged to be received into the Seminary. The boy's occupation was that of a shepherd: hearing some people, probably Christians, speaking of our Seminary, he felt a very strong desire to learn also, although he did not then know a letter. As he is an orphan, he lived with his relative, whom he never ceased to importune, till the man resolved to bring him hither. The boy has such a firm and stern countenance as we may fancy Cato must have had: when, in order to try him, he was told that he would be kept very strict here, he replied in such a cool, resolute, and laconic manner, as I do not recollect to have ever witnessed before—“Beat me—do what you like— I shall bear it.” It reminded me very forcibly of that philosopher, who said to his teacher, “Beat me as much as you please, you will not find a stick hard enough to drive me away from you.”
Labors of the Seminarists among their Countrymen.
These youths, having, by means of Christian instruction and the influences of the Holy Spirit, been delivered from the darkness and slavery of sin, are not without feelings of compassion for their brethren and kinsmen according to the flesh, and show great zeal and activity in disseminating among them a knowledge of that Gospel which they so much value themselves.
We may see, in the details of the character and conduct of these Seminarists, the feasibility of communicating intelligence and Christian principle to the heathem, even in India;-of making them patient of study and hardship, and fearless of ridicule and reproach; and prudent, yet assiduous, in giving instruction. We see too the result of schools in heathen countries, a result which is legitimate, and, by the blessing of God, to be expected, when they are well conducted and vigorously supported. There are great difficulties to be overcome; and much patient and laborious exertion is necessary to work out this result: but such exertions are not in vain; and they will be found, in the end, not only to have been the means of enlightening and saving the scholars, but also of multiplying the number of Christian laborers, and raising up a Christian community for the next generation.
The missionaries write—
of them were ready to hear, and expressed pleasure at the things which they heard, asking for Tracts.
Feb. 22, 1825. A few weeks ago, our Semimarist, Prakasen, mentioned to me, that, as the idolatrous feast at Tritchendoor is nigh, he felt much inclined to go thither, and disseminate the Word of God among the people who flock together there from all quarters. I cordially approved his wish; and, to-day, he, and Vandamoottoo, Aisodion, and Jacob, were dismissed for that purpose, and recommended by prayer to the Lord of the harvest. They have about 700 Tracts with them; and go off in the best spirit. Who will not rejoice at these volunteers, and pray for a blessing upon them!
These youth from school, when armed with the sword of the Spirit, can move the old and
honored brahmin. | An aged brahmin was much affected by what he heard them read and speak; and, at last, begged them for the large Book, meaning the part of the New Testament which he saw with them: they could not well spare it as they had only that one; and therefore refused it: however, he pressing very hard for it, they at last gave it him; but before he took it, he begged them to accompany the gift with a good wish or blessing: accordingly, one of them, giving it to him, pronounced the following wish—“May God destroy the bad mind, by which you have hitherto drawn many ople to false gods, and thus deceived them! lay He grant you His Holy Spirit, to know your corrupt nature, to renounce the gods whom }. have hitherto worshipped, to turn to the ord Jesus Christ, and to be saved by Him, and to be sanctified!” The Brahmin then took the book with joy and thankfulness, and went his way. How marvellous is this, when, in the views of Hindoos respecting caste, we consider the receiver and the distributors! They have been several times questioned about their taste; to which they replied, that, as all men had sprung from the same parents, there was but one caste: with this the people had been contented; in fact, they themselves say, that there are but two castes—male and female. On several occasions, the people had become angry with our young men; and, at one time, were near upon beating them, “But,” said they, “we prayed; and their anger was always turned into the acknowledgment of the truth.” One man had shewn much anger toWard them; but, afterward, told them that he had done so in order to try them: he wished to see whether they would fall into a pastion: “but,” said he, “you have remained steady, and that is right: so it must be.”
that is, destroyer of sin. They took about 300, Tracts with them. They then went to Ambassamoottiram, and found there a vast assemblage of people celebrating an idol's feast; there also, they read the Tracts, and o to large multitudes, who so greaty desired Tracts as to exhaust their store; and having but two left, they sent to me and begged a large supply: they also requested for some Testaments, as they had asked for large books. I sent them about 600 Tracts, with directions to be careful. In their journal, kept at Ambassamoottiram, they thus speak:-"It was just the ninth day of the feast, and a great many people had come from all quarters: we stationed ourselves in the front of the temple, and read aloud the Tract on the Ten Commandments and the Short Catechism: a large number of people, perhaps 5,000, came and heard with much attention; there came a man who asked us for medicine, to heal the disease of sin: in reply, we shewed him that the Lord Jesus Christ is the Saviour from sin, and the true, Pavanasam: the son of a great man of the place came and asked for a book: a brahmin paid two fanams for a copy of the Gospel of St. Mark; after this the people pressed upon us from all sides for books: about 500 Tracts were distributed among them: in this place we staid three days. We then went to Pavanasam, and told the assembled multitude that the Lord Jesus Christ was the true Saviour from sin: the people heard with pleasure; and said “True:” some Moormans and brahmins paid in all 10 fanams for gospels: many people took Tracts; about 300 were distributed in that place. Having been two days there, we went, on our return, to Veeranalloor. to the church of the Roman Catholics: we spoke with them, and read to them the Tract on the Pearl of great price; on which one of them said, “The wolf has put on sheep's clothes, and is come among us.” after some further conversation, they got very angry and threatened us: we were delivered from them as Daniel was from the mouths of the lions, for which the Lord be praised!”
The missionary, who is thus made the instrument of communicating knowledge and piety to a school of native youths on heathem ground, must feel himself, as it were, multiplied, and capable of being present and exerting an agency in many places at the same time. Such seem to be the feelings of Mr. Rhenius, from whose journal these extracts are made.
30. This morning I found but few Seminarists in the room: they were out in the street and fort, speaking and reading to the people. It is impossible to relate all the various occurrences which take place while they are thus engaged. It is indeed wonderful to behold; and makes us to encourage each other to magnify the slord, and to rejoice in God the Saviour of all mankind. Many hundreds, if not thousands, far and wide, ño. heard the Gospel; and about 1,000 Tracts have been distributed. The people's desire aster, them is great. Some paid a little money for them: for parts of the Testament some fanams were paid: one man said that he had no money by
him to pay for a part, and when Nallatambi hesitated to give it him, he begged for it until Nallatambi was overcome and gave it him: another man, also, had no money; but he took his wife aside, and made her take one of her silver rings from her toes, with which he paid for a book. High and low partook of this spiritual feast; and though some were angry with our young men for saying that idols were vain and could not save them but that the Lord Jesus could, and some even abused them for it and were about to beat them, yet, on the whole, the people acknowledged the truth of —what was told them. Prakasen continued his report of his late excursion to Pavanasam: the people there had nearly all acknowledged that their bathing in the stream from the rock could not wash away their sins; and that they had bathed merely from custom. He related also, that, in one of the villages, he had found a man who had long most strenuously and devoutly trusted in his idols, and had been very proud on account of it, thinking himself some superior being for doing so: he also came and heard the reading of a Tract; when, to the astonishment of many, he declared that that was the truth, and began shockingly to abuse his idol-gods as worthless things, and because they had deceived him; saying he would now become a Christian: his wife was very angry with our young men for bringing these doctrines into the village, and abused them dreadfully, and threatened to bring her daughter, dash her on the ground at her father's feet, cut out her own tongue, and be no longer his wife in case he should persist in his resolution: her husband told them not to mind her abusive language and threatenings, and that he would nevertheless become a Christian. Vedamoottoo also related his transactions in the fort yesterday, when a number of very respectable people surrounded and disputed with him, sometimes threatening, sometimes arguing. Our Christian schoolmaster at Kanabadinadenoor, in the west, near the mountains, who seems to be very diligent in propagating divine knowledge in the midst of various vexations, related several pleasing events: the Word of God has found acceptance there, also, with many; who receive Tracts, which they read among themselves and to others, praising their contents. At the conclusion, we soft, prayed for the Lord's blessing on the seed sown. May it prosper abundantly! As for our young men, we may indeed say, Has not God chosen the weak and the despised among the people, to confound and bring to nought the wise and the strong? And is it not very remarkable, that persons of all castes, even brahmins, ji". a willing ear to such otherwise despised, heralds; and be readily instructed by them? Surely the finger of God is here!
We dismissed our young evangelists to their respective stations, with proper instructions how to proceed. May the Lord hear the prayers with which we sent them out! They are to stay a fortnight at their stations,and then to return for a week for their own instruction. So the Lord has realized the hopes and wishes, which we cherished concerning them three
mer different from what we contemplated, and beyond what we expected. Praised be his holy name.
We had sent to some neighboring villages, about ten miles to the east, our Seminarists, Tanjore-Savarimoottoo, Samuel, Sinna-Savarimouttoo, and Ramanaden: they heard that there would be a feast, and took a number of Tracts for distribution. To day they returned, rejoiced at the hearing which they have obtained, and wondering at the desire of the people... An abstract of their report follows—
“We came first to our school at Moorappamadoo, where we sat down to rest, and where a Moodelliar and other people came together, asking us of their own accord to read Tracts to them. Reading on, we shewed them the vanity of idolatry; which they expressed themselves convinced of and added, “It were better that the honorable Company gave money to print such books for ignorant people, than to our temples:’ they all took Tracts with pleasure. We then went to the temple of Poysollemeyer, that is, of ‘the God that is true, speaking no lies;’ the name of an idol: we spoke there with a person about their worship, and read a Tract to them; whan he also appeared convinced, and began to express anger at himself, the idols, the worshippers of them, and those who made them: he then took some Tracts gladly, and acompanied us a long way to the next village.
In Satangkoolam many heathen wait for the finishing of the church which is there building, when they also will join the congregation: in Pandarapooram a woman taught her little son, not yet four years old, the principles of Christianity; and, though not yet able to speak well, he had rehearsed them, not missing any thing. Paradesi and Sarkoonnen have also been rejoiced at the people's readiness to learn the way of God: their former idol temple is too o for the whole congregation, and the people will enlarge it: the children, which are many, have even troubled them to teach them to read and write. o
years ago! It is certainly in a way and man- || but the Catholics from Portugal, by force and
s intrigue, induced many of them to submit to . the Romish church; and, as far as possible, they cut off all intercourse between the Malabar Christians and the mother church of Antioch. In 1653 Mar Ignatius, a patriarch, came from Antioch, but not being permitted to enter on the duties of his office, or even to visit the churches, he commissioned Thomas, an archdeacon, to act as metropolitan; and though deputies have often been sent from Antioch to visit them, the office of patriarch has ever since remained in his family. Ignatius was afterwards murdered by the Portuguese. The late metropolitan, Mar Dionysius, died 16th of May, 1825, and was succeeded by Malpan Philip. These churches having long desired to receive a visit from some one appointed by the mother church, were gratified, shortly after the death of Dionysius, by the arrival of Mar Athanasius, appointed by the patriarch of Antioch to be metropolitan of the Syrian church of Malabar. The newly-elected metropolitan, when at Calcutta and Bombay, made a very favorable impression on the members of the English church, and he was received with great respect by the Syrian churches. |
All the people were overjoyed at having a foreign inetran, and shewed him every possible respect. In the course of a few days, the senior metran, though very ill, arrived from the north. He immediately went and paid his repects to the foreign metran, who neither || returned his visit, nor sent his ramban to inquire after his health; nor, indeed, shewed him any respect. He soon began denying the validity of his title; and exercising, himself, the rights of the metropolitan of the church: he suspended catanars for acts done in obedience to the orders of the deceased metropolitan—demolished a tomb erected in the church to the memory of the former metropolitan– gave orders for omitting the names of the present metropolitans in the prayers—and did many other rash acts, without even asking a question of them.
Mar Philoxenus, who preceded Dionysius as metropolitan, but had resigned the office on account of infirmity, was, after the death of Dionysius, induced to resume it again, and he and Malpan t’hilip, at this time held the office together. Athanasius demanded that they should be stripped of their authority, and return to the office of priest; that every priest and deacon ordained by them, should be re-ordained; and that all the ecclesiastical acts of the church for the last nineteen years, should be annulled; and publicly, over the Gospels, pronounced the two metropolitans accursed. But the metropolitans and the people were |
strongly attached to their former liberty, and
soon awakened general dissatisfaction. It became evident that it was a main point with him to exact from then as much money as possible; as he taxed marriages with heavy fees, and made bargains with the richer Syrians for their daughters to be married to catanars. His resolute destruction of images might have been a real service to the church; but it may be feared, that the disgust, which his proceedings ultimately occasioned, may lead the people the more . pertinaciously to cherish this evil. In his attempt to obtain possession of the college, he was resisted by the missionaries, under the authority of the resident, colonel Newall; who was, at length, under the necessity of providing for his removal from the country, which step was ordered in the month of April: he was to return in a Turkish vessel.
1. As to their civil privileges. Since the time of Napoleon, who showed himself very favorable to the Jewish nation, they enjoy, in most parts of Germany, equal rights with Christians. They are only excluded from situations in life where the influence of a Jew would be visibly pernicious, F. the office of magistrates, and of professors in academies.
2. Their employment in Germany is almost universally that of dealers in clothes, watches, jewels, &c. Some few are tradesmen, but very few indeed. A number of young people are teachers of the children, teachers of the Talmud. Some few of the educated class have entered the army as Jews. There are 200 in the Prussian army. Some are physicians and dentists.
3. As to their attachment to the law, [the Old Testaument, among the educated class in