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little stream of water, which I take to
Jou RNAL of MR. KING. (Continued from p. 38.)
Defiarture from Ramla.
May 10, 1825. We all left Ramkatogether, and pursuing our journey to the north, through the beautiful plain of Sharon, we came, in about ten hours, to a place; called Calan Sow wa, where we pitched our tents for the night. *
11. Left Calan Sow wa, at an early hour, and pursued our journey northwardly, for about four hours; then turning towards the east, we came, in about four and a half hours more, to an old ruined Khan, called Lejoon, which stands on the confines of the plains of Esdraelon. Near by, flows a beautiful
be a branch of the ancient river Kishon. On this stream and near the Khan, is a grist mill, between which and the Khan, are a few miserable Arab huts. After pitching our tents in the centre
| night, we were all suddenly awaked out }, of sleep, by a terrible outcry, and the
firing of guns. From the noise, I supposed we were attacked by a band of robbers, and that they, and our servants, and the muleteers, were, perhaps, actually killing each other. w Some sprang up in a fright, crying out that we were attacked ; one, as he started out of sleep, hardly knowing what he did, got hold of his pillow, in| stead of his pistol; others seized their arms; and all was confusion. When the noise had a little subsided, we learned that a trunk of the Rev. Mr. Lewis had been stolen by a couple of Arabs. The alarm was given by a mule. Ali, one of our muleteers, had tied the mule to his leg, so that he might be awaked, in case any one should attempt to steal the animal. The mule, being, as was supposed, a little frightened at the thieves, gave a sudden jerk, which awaked him just in time to see them as they left the Khan, and he set up the cry of robbers, but could not extricate
of the Khan, an old Egyptian Arab came and sat down by us, and told us that we were in a bad neighborhood, and that we must be on our guard through the night, if we wished to keep our things from being stolen. This caution he repeated two or three times. We had two tents, which were pitched near each other. In one was Messrs. Madox, H Lewis, and Dr. Bromhead; in the other, Messrs. Fisk, W. B. Lewis, Dr. Dalton, and myself. Before retiring to rest, I Roo. that a watch should be kept y some of our servants, as I supposed, not only from what the Egyptian had told me, but from what I had heard previously, that the place in which we were, was rather dangerous. A servant of the Rev. Mr. L. was one of the first to keep watch, and when we lay down to sleep, took his station in an old tower, which rose a little above the wall of the Khan, on the east side.
Being much fatigued, I soon fell into a sound sleep ; but about one o’clock at VOL. XXIII.
himself from his mule till they had gone.
.Adventures on the Plain of Esdraelon,
12. This is with me a memorable day. We were on the borders of the plain of Esdraelon, famous for many a battle. It had been my intention to pass over this plain, between Tabor and Hermon, and go to the sea of Tiberias, which is about a day’s journey from . Khan Lejoon. When the morning came, we agreed to go in search of the trunk. Presently three Arabs came to look at us, and some of our party seized upon them and bound them with cords. I remonstrated, and said, I can have nothing to do with such violent proceedings.
These were afterwards released, and two others, who were suspected of having stolen the trunk, were seized at the mill, and brought in, with their hands tied behind their backs, fastened to each other, and with ropes about their lecks,
and led off before us. Seeing this, I gave up "...". over the plain to Tiberias, and determined to make my way to Nazareth, which I supposed to be only two or three hours distant. We found it to be, however, five hours. As we left the Khan, and passed over the stream, which I call a branch of the river Kishon, the two Arabs, who walked bound before us, made signs, and called to three or four men, who were sitting down near the village, and in a minute or two after, I heard those men calling as if to some one at a distance. In the land of the Philistines, I had seen the Arabs spring up like grasshoppers, where, at first, only two or three seemed visible, and I felt very sensibly, that our situation was now dangerous. So I hastened on to speak with , who were in the foremost part of the Kofila, near the Arabs who were bound ; for the Kofila was, at this time, stretched alongin Indian file, with the muleteers and baggage in the rear. Our path lay down the gentle declivity of one of those hills, which skirt the western borders of the plain, and on either side were high weeds and grass, so that we naturally fell into the position above mentioned. On coming up to the prisoners, I said to , “You had better let these men go—you will be in difficulty—the safest way is to let them go.” To this I had no reply. But the words were scarcely out of my mouth, when an Arab came riding furiously along by the side of the Kofila, then stopped suddenly, turned, and set up a loud cry. I then said, “They are coming,” and again requested that the two Arabs should be liberated. No answer was given ; but in a moment we saw a large compa
I then ordered a Mussulman, who was near to me, to u; tie the prisoners, and }ct them go. At this instant, the Dragoman of Dr. H. levelled his piece to shoot the Arab, who first came on horseback. I presurned that if he fired, we should, in all probability, be cut down by the infuriated mob that was coming, and I cried to him, not to fire, and Dr. B also ordered him not to fire. But he did not seem to hear, and a Moslem, one of our compamy, ran o caught hold of his gun, and prevented him from shedding blood. T.u. Moslem had scarcely got hold of his gun, when one of the Arabs, who were pursuing us, came up in a most determińcd manner, with his sword drawn, and as I was close to the prisoners, I feared, that his first pass would be at ine. So I turned a little from him,
and stopped to see what was coming upon us. Running up to the prisoners, with one blow of his sword he severed the rope that bound them together, then cut the cords which bound their hands, and set them at liberty, giving one of them a heavy blow on the shoulder, for what reason I could not understand. While this was passing, every part of our Kofila was attacked by the Arabs, who poured down upon us like a torrent, some on horses, some on foot, with drawn swords, guas, and heavy clubs, at the some time setting up a terrible yell, like the war-whoop of the savages of North America. It was no time for parley. All was confusion. No one knew whether to expect life, or death. The latter, however, seemed to stare us in the face. Some of our servants I saw falling from theor animals, and all of us were put in rmotion, and driven like a flock of sheep before a band of wolves. I was unarmed. If I had had arms, I should not have used them. I came here not to sight, but to bring the Gospel of peace. The cry was, fly, and we fled, or rather we were forced on by the Arabs, who were among us, around us, beating us with their heavy clubs, and guns, brandishing their swords, riding by us on their swift horses, and yelling like so many furics. One of them aimed a deadly blow at Mr. Fisk, with a club, which providentially did but just graze his forehead, knocked off his turban and slightly touched his arm. Flight from the Arabs was impossible. We were for the most part badly mounted; their horses are fleet as the wind: we had twelve miles to ride over the plain: we were unacquainted with the road, and
| our pursuers knew every turn. ny of Arabs pouring down upon us, and
Our baggage was at length cut off; there scemed to be a little cessation on the part of the Arabs; and I hoped, that, contented with our baggage, they would let us go in peace. But in a moment I saw them coming on again, and I thought that probably all was lost, and that as they had stopped our baggage, they now intended to take our | lives. It was an awful moment. I could only say, “Heaven defend us.” I was in front of the Kofila, and a little distance ahead, when an Arab Sheik came flying up to me on his steed, with a large club in his hand. Making a halt, I addressed him, calling him brother, and said “Do me no harm—I have not injured you.” I spoke to him words of peace and gentleness. Upon this he let down his club, which he had been brandishing,
halted, listened, and presently turned away, and soon after I saw him driving back some of our pursuers, and the cry of “ayman,” (safety) was heard by us, and I need not say, that it was a welCome sound to our ears. The baggage, too, to my surprise, was soon after permitted to come on. - No life was lost, and I presume, that it was not the intention of the Arabs to kill us; for had this been their design, they could have accomplished it with perfect ease. The attack was a gallant one, and made by the Arabs, as if they were determined to carry their point through life or death; and I have no doubt, that had one of their party fallen by our hands, it would have been the signal for the slaughter of us all. I will now say, “The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower. The Lord liveth, and blessed be my rock: and let the God of my salvation be exalted.”
Qn arriving at Nazareth, Messrs. Fisk, Lewis, Dalton and myself, took lodgings in the house of a Greek priest. The rest of the party went to the convent of the Terra Santa.
13. Mr. Fisk, Dr. Dalton, and myself set out for Tiberias. The morning was fine, all around me was peace and stillness, and I could not but feel in my bosom emotions of gratitude and joy. I had been for about two months at Jerusalem, in the midst of sorrow and sighing; I had seen the tear of oppression, and heard the groans of the bruised, the wounded and the dying; qur journey from thence was through a troubled country; and we had just now escaped as it were from the jaws of death. This I might say was the first day of peace, that I had enjoyed, since §. arrival at Jerusalem in the month of March,
we came to a pure stream of water, springing from the earth. Of this we drank, and I think it the finest water I have seen in any part of the country south of Mount Lebanon. The upper part of the village is inhabited by MusSulmans, and the lower by Christians. Were I to select for myself any place for a missionary station between Tyre and Jerusalem, I think I should select Cana of Galilee, both for its beautiful situation, its vicinity to the mountains, the excellence of its water, the character of its inhabitants, half of whom are Christians, and from its situation with regard to other places, being six or seven hours from Akka, five from Tiberias, about the same from Safet, and only two from Nazareth. From the latter place, it lies about north-east.
In seven hours from Nazareth we arrived at Tiberias, where we took lodgings in the Greek Catholic church. After resting a little while and taking some refreshment we went to see the Jordan, where it issues from the lake, at the south-west part of it, which is two hours from Tiberias. On our way, we visited the hot bath, supplied by a hot spring, which rises, as I was told, in the mountains above, and proceeding under ground, comes out in five or six places, at Ammaus, near the shore of the sea. The thermometer rose in the water to 139 degrees of Fahrenheit.
Returning to Tiberias, we pitched our tent in the court of the church, and
artook of an excellent supper of leben, [. and fish. The fish here are very excellent.
14. Early in the morning, I went with Dr. Dalton to visit the Jewish synagogues, of which there are two close by each other, one for the Sephartim, and one for the Ashkenasim Jews.
We were informed, that there are here about six hundred Jews, four hundred Mussulmans, and one hundred Greek Catholics. The situation of th
lace is very low, and the air hot; stil it is considered healthy, much more so than Safet, which lies high on the mountains. The water of the lake is pure and good.
.it Majdel and Safet.
About the middle of the day, we set out for Safet. In a little more than an hour, we came to a small village which is called Mejdel. It stands on the sea shore, and must be, I think, the ancient Magdala.
His seven hours and a half, we arrived
at Safet, where we took lodgings in the house of a Jew. Sabbath, 15. We remained at Safet. Visited some of the Jews. They are very numerous in this place, and live jo. in a very miserable manner; their houses being small and filthy. Some estimate the Jewish population at several thousands, but I think this estimate is quite too large. The place is considered unhealthy, being subject to fevers, I think, however, that its unhealthiness may in †. part be eweing to the filthiness of the people. Over against Safet, on the north-west, is a high mountain, which the Jews call Tabor, and close by, on the east, is another, which they call Hermon.
and, for this country, abounds in wood.
We saw in the valleys numerous herds of cattle, and flocks of sheep and goats, and many Bedouin tents; at a distance from us we saw very many beautiful villages, on the tops of the hills and mountains, and in the vallies.
This, I think, is one of the finest parts of the country, that I have visited. The more I see of Palestine, the more I am convinced that it is a goodly land, and capable of sustaining an immense population. Were it under a good government, and proper cultivation, it would be one of the -finest countries in the world. It is even now fertile under the blasting breath of Turkish tyranny.
At Tyre, we lodged with Mr. Chasseaud, the British Consular Agent, who ever treats us with the greatest civility. He is well calculated for the station he holds, as he is very decided in all his measures, and makes himself very much respected, not to say feared, by the Turks.
...At Der El Kamer.
18. Arrived at Beyroot, where I remained about a month; then went to Der El Kamer, where I remained six weeks, about four of which were spent in the study of Syriac.
During my residence here, I had, as formerly, many opportunities for conversing with the people, and of declaring to them those truths, which are contained in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. At length I was compelled, by ill health, to quit my studies, and I decided to go to Beyroot, where I might be more §o situated, than I could be among the Arabs.
Remarks on Asaad Shidiak.
My teacher, Sheik, Asaad, was a Maronite, and formerly a student in Ain Warka. He has been much with the Patriarch, at Canobin, and is one of the most intelligent men I have met with on Mount Lebanon. He was with me from morning till night, and hours were spent by us, almost every day, in discussing religious subjects. One day, after a long discussion with him about the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches, he took up a New Testament, written in Carshun and Syriac, and opening it said, “The first passage I cast my eye upon shall be for the English.” The chapter to which he happened to open, was the first of Luke, and he read, beginning at the top of the page, as follows; “the word; it seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee, most excellent Theophilus; that thou mightest know the certainty of those things wherein thou hast been instructed.” He seemed to be struck with the passage, as the first word was “the word,” and remarked, that it was very appropriate, as we distributed the word. Then closing the book, he said, “Now I will open it, and the first passage shall be for the Pope.” On opening, the first word that met his eye was “Unclean,” and he read as follows;—“the unclean is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house, whence I came out. And when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh to him seven other spirits, more wicked than himself, and they enter in, and dwell there, and the last state of that man is worse than the first. (Luke xi. 24–26.) JAugust 3. Went to Beyroot, where I took lodgings with Mr. Bird. From the change of air and mode of living, I soon felt much relief. 4. Dined with Mr. Abbot, in company with Lord St. Asaph, who very kindly invited me to take passage to Smyrna
with him in lais vessel. 12. One of my cyes became very much inflamed, and I feared an attack of the ophthalmia, as one of Mr. Bird's little children is now afflicted with it, and it is said to be contagious. i Sefit. 5. , Was occupied most of the day in writing a Valedictory Letter to my friends in Palestine and Syria. 7. Finished the translation of it into Arabic, and made some corrections. 12. Spent the forenoon with Mr. Fisk in correcting the Arabic of our reply to the Maronite Patriarch. | 18. Preached in Arabic, from Acts xxiv. 14. “But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and the prophets.” | .1t Hadet.
23. Went to Hadet, with Messrs. Fisk, Bird and Goodell, to visit the family of my teacher, and the two Emirs, who, the last winter, had their eyes burned out, and their tongues cut off, by the Emir Bushir, the Prince of Mount Lebanon. After spending a little time at the house of my teacher, Messrs. Bird, Fisk, and myself, called on the Emir Fares, who professes to be a Christian. He told me, that when his eyes were put out, a hot iron was thrust into them “halt a finger’s length.” This may be a little exaggeration ; but a man, suffering with a hot iron run into his eyes, might well be allowed to suppose, that it was as he represented it. His eyelids seem to be grown together, and “his orbs” are indeed “quenched in everlasting night.” His tongue, he told me, was cut off twice, yet a little less he thought than two fingers width. He speaks with perfect fluency, and finds no difficulty in pronouncing any of the letters of the alphabet, except R, which he pronounces like the English R. With him we had much interesting eonversation on the subject of religion. He belongs to the Maronite communion, but is inclined to be more liberal in his Sentiments, than the Maronites generally. He confessed, that the worship of images was not right. On leaving him, he requested that our visit might be repeated before we left Hadet. 'rom his house, we went to call on his brother, the Emir Silman, who ap"pears to be much older than the Emir Fares, and who is a Mussulman. On my addressing him, he asked me if my name was King? and spoke of having heard read my Valedictóry illetter, which was, he said, “good aid ulanswerable.”
This led to much interesting conversation about the character of Jesus Christ, as God, and Man, and Mediator; the Sacrament of the Lord’s Super; the state of man by nature, and is need of a Saviour to save him from sin, and of a Mediator to reconcile him to God, whose holy law we have broken. He was inquisitive on all these subjects, and listened to our replies with much attention, as did also his son, a fine youth of about sixteen. The eyes of the Emir Silman, like those of his brother Fares, are sealed up for ever; but his tongue, though cut off, still articulates, perfectly, every word.* Delighted with our visit, we returned from the Emir Silman’s to the house of my teacher, where we had a dinner provided in the Arab style, and of which we partook, sitting on the floor, according to the custom of the country.
To day, Mr. Fisk engaged my teacher to open a school for Nahhoo, (that is, for o Arabic grammatically,) at Beyroot. If this school can succeed, I have great expectations with regard to its utility. It is what I have long been wishing to see established. The grammatical knowledge of the Arabic, is principally confined to the Mussulmans, who will seldom condescend to teach a native Christian; and at the Maronite College in Ain Warka, no one is allowed to enter, except with the intention of becoming a priest. Thus a knowledge, often indispensable in order to understand the Arabic Scriptures, is almost entirely shut out from the common people. This school would be useful not only to the people of the country, but to European travellers, who might wish to acquire a knowledge of Arabic. It was often with the greatest difficulty, and, in many places, absolutely impossible, for me to find a man capable of teaching the Arabic language. I trust this school will not be relinquished for the want of support. One hundred and fifty dollars a year would, for the present, be quite sufficient to render it a free school.
24. The Emir Fares sent a message to me at Beyroot, requesting me, if possible, to come with Mir. Fisk, and spend a day with him.
23. In the morning Mr. Fisk preach