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institution of the Eucharist, “to shew forth his own death till he come.” That this upper room, in which the Paschal Supper was celebrated, was never diverted from its hallowed appropriation, and that the disciples continued to assemble in it for the purpose of Christian worship and communion, the traditions of the Church abundantly testify; and as the Gospel spread, wherever the converts were sufficiently numerous to form a congregation, a similar apartment was furnished by some eminent disciple for the place of solemn assembly. We have instances of this at Joppa, and at Troas, mentioned in Acts ix. 37 ; xx. 7; and Mr. Norris has collected the authorities in proof of the fact, which occur in the New Testament and the Ecclesiastical writers, in an Appendix (No. II.) replete with the most interesting and valuable information.
Thus did God's house become a house of prayer for all nations ; and though parties were formed under different teachers, even in the apostolic age, yet never was a rival edifice, wherein his name had not been authoritatively recorded, erected in opposition to the Church, which was “the one place to which they came together.” In like manner all the churches of God in our land are to be considered as composing together that integral portion of the Christian temple, in which all amongst us in this particular nation of the earth, “ with one mind and one mouth,” glorify God, and present "with one accord our common supplications.” The severe judgments inflicted upon the whole congregation of Israel at Peor, when only a part had turned aside to worship their own inventions, are fearful proofs that the due hallowing of God's name is a matter of public responsibility; and therefore, with every feeling of respect for the truly conscientious seceder from the divinely prescribed unity of the Church, we cannot but join with Mr. Norris, in severely reprobating those, who, differing as widely among themselves as they differ from the Church of England, “ cast their heads together with one consent, and become confederate against her.” Here there can be no conscience; and though God does not take instant vengeance upon such as seek him not “after the due order," their punishment will not be eventually less severe. Nor will the plea avail them, which is so often alleged in their defence, that the courts of the Lord's house, dispersed throughout our country, are utterly disproportionate to the surrounding population; at the same time that the fact should impel each of us to do his utmost to supply the deficiency. With an eloquent and earnest appeal to this effect, and in accordance with the royal command, in which the discourse originated, Mr. Norris concludes ; urging upon his hearers the examples of the Israelites in their overflowing contributions towards the building of both their temples, and of our own forefathers in the erection of those splendid piles, which sanctify this
Christian land; and obviating the shallow pretext of eleemosynary charity, which some have not hesitated to adduce, as interfering with their pious contributions towards the erection of dwelling-places for the name of the Most High. Upon this subject the following eloquent and forcible observations of the judicious Mede are appended in a note; and the reader will be amply recompensed by a perusal of the entire Concio from which they are taken, and from which Mr. Norris has availed himself of some excellent matter in the composition of his discourse.
At interim meminerint velim hujusmodi sermonis autores, nos non absolutè sed comparatè locutos de Templorum ornatu, ut ne sint minus quam hominum ædes ornatæ. Deinde sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sed, et Regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum ædes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu ædes tuas dirue, quin Regum et nobilium palatia demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid igitur tibi tantus domi aulæorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum at concamerationum deliciæ ? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus supervacuus? Aufer, aufer hæc, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis erit domi, et pauperi inde multum eleemosynæ. Postea si indigeant pauperes, causam non dico quin Templis omnem auferas ornatum, imo ipsa; non enim pro Templis homines, sed pro hominibus Templa sunt condita, ut in re Sabbatica dixit Servator.”—Mede’s Concio ad Clerum de Sanctuario Dei. Works, Vol. I, p. 513.-P. 32.
We have now followed the author through his excellent Sermon ; and we might part with him by repeating our thanks for the valuable information which he has brought to bear upon the important doctrine of Holy Places; and for the pious zeal and uncompromising firmness, with which he upholds the claims of the Established Church to the support of its members. Turn we, however, for a moment to his preface; in which, after adverting to the special presence of God in those places where he is said to dwell, to the sanctity thereby communicated to them, and to his jealousy of their promiscuous usage and desecration, he writes thus :
Such is the wisdom the Scriptures teach. But human wisdom, in our age and country, is wise not only above, but contrary to, what is written: for the popular opinion upon the subject, as a great authority lays it down, is, that “the Church is the place, however unpretending, where the faithful assemble to worship the common God and Father of all;" and the Law of England, as the same great authority promulges it, is, that “such a place once registered," (whereby it is legally constituted a “a place of religious worship,") "is registered for ever;" and so indefeasibly, that no w application to secular uses can vitiate the registration;" for which this portentous reason is assigned, that were it not so, “ it would be necessary, in many cases, to procure a new certificate every week." -Pp. iv. v.
The opinions here referred to are cited from the speech of a professed Unitarian ; but it is no less true than lamentable, that they are practically, if not avowedly, maintained by many, from whom we might hope better things. Frequently do we see our Churches, those venerable seats in which the Almighty has condescended to record his name-desecrated to the most sacrilegious uses. Tumultuous vestries,
noisy ballotrings, and profane disputes, are conducted with impious irreverence on the holy ground of the sanctuary; and the devout worshipper is scandalized at the idea that “ the Lord is in these places," and that these mockers“ know not of it.” Well may such practices be charged with the increase of ungodliness and of crime which deluges the land ; nor can we hope for a more favourable result, till the idle parade of Christianity which characterizes our day, is exchanged for a purer and more vital spirit of religion, and our " houses of prayer" are no longer converted into “ dens of thieves.”
Art. III.- Typical Instruction, considered and illustrated, and shown
to be suited to all, but particularly the early ages of the Church. By John Peers, A.M. Sunday Evening Lecturer of St. Antholin's, Watling Street, and late of St. Mary Magdalene College, Cambridge. London: Hatchards, 1828. Pp. xii. 584. 8vo. price 14s.
The study of types, and the discovery of their corresponding anti-types, is one of the most interesting, as well as most instructive, of theological inquiries. It is interesting, because it exercises, and instructive, because it convinces the mind. But amusement and conviction ought not to be the sole objects of pursuit with him who professes to be a student in the school of religion, and who wishes to become a teacher in things that concern not merely the temporal interests, but the undying hopes, of an immortal being. With such a man there will be a higher aim, and a more ennobling principle; to him the evidences of his faith will not be a mere exercise of reason or of judgment, a means of displaying earthly knowledge, or of boasting mental superiority; but they will operate in a more enlarged and more enlightening sense, and, whilst increasing and improving every faculty of thought, will reach forward to a higher object-the conversion of the heart. This, indeed, is the simple and pervading object of the Scriptures; and he that considers them merely as a fountain of wisdom for the supply of speculative conjectures, or of even sensible commentaries on the being, attributes, and purposes of the Deity, robs them of their greatest honour: for they are a well-spring of eternal life ; and we are commanded to “ grow in grace" as well as “ in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (2 Pet. ïï. 18.)
Now the typical instruction of the Bible is precisely of this nature: and though, doubtless, an excess of ingenuity in discovering an allusion, or a superabundance of zeal in the application of it, may lead to error, and perplex rather than elucidate; still the sensible and humble-minded teacher will, in the types of Sacred Scripture, find an unending series of examples, and an unceasing supply of arguments, for the instruction and the improvement of his people. Mr. Chevallier, VOL. XI. NO. IV.
the less to be home, in the abian comm
who (though we spoke of him on a late occasion, and we are convinced he deserved it,-in a tone bordering on harshness) has on this subject shewn more acuteness than on many others, has ably illustrated our position in his Third Hulsean Lecture for the year 1826; pointing out the indefensible extravagancies of the early Christian commentators, and of the self-blinded Church of Rome, in the abuse of typical interpretation : an abuse the less to be tolerated, on account of the abundance of instances in which that species of argument may be safely and consistently employed.
But whilst the doctrine of types is applied individually, rather than collectively, there can be little fear of an author's either under-reaching or over-reaching the mark; for having only one object in view, viz. spiritual benefit, his labours are directed solely to that point, with a sincerity and singleness of purpose little likely to be diverted or destroyed by the operation of extraneous causes : and if he should occasionally miss the limit of sound reasoning, having no sinister aim, little evil can arise either to himself or to others. Regarding the subject in this light, we had long contemplated a consideration of one branch of Mr. Peers' inquiry-the types connected with the History of the Israelites under Moses- as a topic capable of much useful illustration in the way of Christian instruction. It has, therefore, much pleased us, to find the matter of our prospective employment brought before us by a writer, who appears every way capable of doing justice to it, and who has, in our ideas, satisfactorily established the point which we allude to-viz. the application of the histories and the institutions recorded in the Old Testament to the situation and the progress of those who live under the institutions recorded in the New. It must never be forgotten, that there is this difference between the Jewish and Christian dispensations,- viz. that whilst the origin, progress, and decay of the one is recorded in the Old Testament, and its final overthrow, in the completion of it, recorded in the New—the establishment alone of Christianity is the subject of Gospel history. The progress of the religion of Jesus is not there given; there are no sacred annals, save in the prophetical discoveries of the Apocalyptical visions, of the march of the cross-that must be sought for elsewhere, in the pages of profane or of secular learning. Now to elucidate this subject, left, as it is, in obscurity, and without a clue to guide, the typical illustration of the Scriptures seems to be not unscripturally employed. For, whether regarded in the mass, or applied to the case of any given believer in the Church, the observation of St. Paul is to be remembered and attended to: “whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning.” (Rom. xv. 4.) Thus the types in Paradise the types connected with Noah, Abraham, Moses, Joshua, David, Solomon, and the Prophets, all illustrate the progress and perfection of the kingdom of the great focal anti-type, of which these events and these personages were the types. And, though no man with the eye of fleshly-wisdom can penetrate the unapproachable glories of futurity; or can measure with the most capacious faculties the illimitable purposes of the Eternal Counsels; or with the scanty line of human
the porno como capacito intellect can fathom the unfathomable depths of the Divine mind; yet, guided by the evidence and the instruction offered in the books of the Old Testament, when coupled with the revelations of unfulfilled prophecy, the events to come may be in some measure discovered, and the necessity of scriptural views on all broad questions of policy, or on the more humble, but not less influential, conduct of a simple individual, may be clearly and irreprehensibly established.
The author of the work before us has not undertaken to explain all the types which have been thus employed by the Head of the Covenant; but only such as illustrate the mode of teaching so employed, which he earnestly recommends to all Christians, but particularly to ministers. From a volume of such abundant matter, even a selection of the main arguments would too much enlarge our present notice : but it would be but a sorry return for the gratification derived from the perusal of it, if we dismissed it, after the manner of a moderator's compliment in the schools, with a " Bene disputasti, Domine." Although we cannot, however, make many extracts, we will make a few, trusting to their merit for a sufficient authority to recommend the book itself, which without all controversy, is one of the best upon the subject we have yet met with, and which we confidently recommend, as containing an abundant source of instruction on many of the chief points of Christian inquiry. We take the following from the chapter “on the Historical Types previous to the Deluge.”
Enoch bore his testimony before a generation, whose corruption and depravity called down a most signal display of the wrath of God against their unrighteousness; and he did this with a fearlessness of consequences corresponding with the exalted station which he held as an inspired minister of God, filled with zeal for his service, and the honour of his name; resembling one yet more exalted, of whom it is recorded—“And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up."
When he had thus, by a life of holiness, with a bold and animated declaration of the counsels of the Almighty, condemned the practices of a sinful world, and exhorted them to repentance, that they might have life, he finished his course, not by that death which is the common lot of all men, but God took him, both body and soul to heaven; thus giving proof of the efficacy of the covenant of grace, and the sufficiency of the redemption by the Messiah, which, though not completed, was yet powerful to save from condemnation, to triumph over the dominion of death, and exalt to glory.
The typical resemblances to a yet more exalted character appear in the singular holiness of his life, which as far as that which is imperfect can bear an analogy to that which is perfect, corresponds with the immaculate purity of the Son of Man, “who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth;" in the doctrines which he preached, salvation, righteousness, and judgment to come; in the energy with which he warned, reproved, and in