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denied its resurrection or reunion with the soul after its separation. They discouraged marriage, as a connexion of minds polluted by carnal feelings; and they partook of sensual pleasures, with the grossest and most unrestrained indulgence, because they divested it of all sentiment or mental association. But their most remarkable tenet was, that malevolent spirits ruled the world, presided over all nature, and caused diseases and human sufferings; but that by knowledge and science, these spirits could be controlled, their power suspended, and even their malevolence rendered subservient to the use and service of man. This science they thought they had themselves exclusively attained, and that it principally consisted in the effiacy of numbers, and certain mysterious hieroglyphics adopted from the Egyptians. Hence they made systems of monads, triads, and decads; and formed figures of Anubis, Serapis, and other idols. This composition of certain abstruse words and mysterious figures, was engraved on gems and stones of different kinds and qualities; and they affirmed that whoever bore one of these on his person, was secured by it from the particular evil it was made to guard against. These images and figures of different materials are mentioned by Irenæus, and some of the mysterious words engraven on them are described and explained by contemporary historians. They were called Amulets from their supposed efficacy in allaying evil. Amulets, against disease, were formed of materials, having an imaginary connexion with the distemper; red against all morbid affections of a fiery or febrile character, crystal or glass against those that were watery or dropsical, and so of others. The immense number and variety of these Talismans that have been, and are still found in many places very remote from each other, at once attest the accuracy of the ecclesiastical historians who have described these sects and their opinions, and the great encouragement and reception those opinions met with in different parts of the world.-Pp. 33–36.

The tenets of this first and most remarkable of the early heretics, combining the fundamental doctrines of Christianity with the most absurd and extravagant fictions of heathen superstition, the author proceeds to illustrate by a series of eighteen gems, none of which have been hitherto noticed by other writers. In the examination of these gems, ' under the guidance of Dr. Walsh, the reader will find an abundant store of amusement and instruction; as well as in a series of twenty coins, which exhibit a strong historical evidence of the progress of Christianity under the several Roman Emperors, till the close of the tenth century.

As a specimen of the author's mode of elucidation, we subjoin his analysis of a coin of Justinian, which was struck in commemoration of a circumstance, by no means the least interesting in the annals of Christianity:

One of the great and laudable labours of Justinian, was the reparation of such cities as had been destroyed either by the violence of the enemy or the convulsions of nature. The towns of Syria had suffered greatly in both ways, particularly Antioch. This city had been rendered famous in the early annals of Christianity, as the place where its doctrines met with the earliest reception, and its professors were first called Christians, and where St. Peter established the first Christian See. It was for these reasons held in high respect by the early Christians, and we have seen with what determination the inhabitants had dissented from, and exposed the apostasy of Julian. This city the pious Justinian took under his especial care. He turned the river Orontes, so as to bring it to the walls of the town: he paved the streets with immense blocks, so large, that Procopius says, each of them was a burthen for a four-horse cart: he repaired

the parts that had been burnt: he re-edified the whole town after it had been shattered with an earthquake: and he adorned it with two splendid temples, one to the Deipara, or the Virgin mother of God, and the other to the archangel Michael. Having done all this he changed the name from Antioch, by which it was known and recognized on the coins of all his predecessors, to OcOUTORIS, "the city of God;" and to commemorate the fact, his coins of that city are marked CHEYP, and so the practice was continued generally by his successor. He died in the year 565, in the 83d year of his age, worn out with cares and anxieties.

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The above engraving of the coin represents, on the obverse, the emperor with a crested crown, holding in one hand a globe-bearing cross, and on the arm of the other a shield; the legend, DOMINVS JVSTINIANVS, PERPETUVs, Pivs, AFGVSTVS. On the reverse are the letters ANNO XXXI, the year of his reign, and the Greek capital I, supposed by Jobert to stand for 10, the number of smalí coins for which it was exchanged. In the exergue is THEY for OeOvtohis, the name he had conferred on Antioch.—Pp. 122–124.

It is some time since we have met with a work, which has given us such unmixed satisfaction in the perusal as this of Dr. Walsh; and we do not hesitate to recommend it most earnestly to the notice, not only of the collector and connoisseur, but of the general reader. To the theological inquirer it cannot but be interesting and useful, not only as elucidating the history of early Christian coins, but also of early Christian orthodoxy and heterodoxy. From the coins of Constantine, we gather the most decisive evidence of the early establishment of the doctrine of the Trinity; on those of Julian, we recognise the emblems of the intended extirpation of Christianity, and on those of Jovian, of its restoration; while those of the succeeding emperors afford similar records of the passing events of the ages in which they lived. Above all, the reader will be powerfully struck with the connexion between heathen amulets and Romish relics, and be led to appreciate the probable effect of liberalism in religion amongst ourselves, from the enormities and absurdities it produced among the primitive Christians, by the incorporation of pagan rites and opinions with the pure and holy doctrine of the Gospel.

28

LITERARY REPORT.

A Charge delivered at the Primary

Visitation of John Lord Bishop of Lincoln, in 1828. Deightons, Cambridge; Rivingtons, London.

It is a fact, and a fact not a little remarkable, that a great portion of the English Clergy are in many respects wholly, and in others partially, unacquainted with the existing state of the law respecting their own situation. An Episcopal Charge, therefore, such as the one before us, illustrating and explaining the more important provisions of the consolidated act, passed in the year 1817, was much needed. In reference to this act the Parochial Queries, annually submitted to the Incumbents throughout the kingdom, are compiled; and by the answers returned to them, the Bishops are assisted in forming their estimate of the state of the Dioceses over which they respectively preside. The particular queries, upon which the Bishop of Lincoln has commented, are, doubtless, those on which his own Clergy seemed more especially to require information; and he has in a mild, yet manly, tone, stated the true extent and purport of them, and declared his own determination to enforce a due observance of them. Upon the subject of non-residence, his Lordship first traces the origin of the evil to the system of pluralities, and that again to the transfer of ecclesiastical property upon the dissolution of religious houses, by which a large proportion of benefices were so impoverished, as to render them inadequate to the maintenance of an Incumbent. In order to remedy the evils resulting from the non-residence of the Incumbent, the Legislature concurs in the appointment of stipendiary Curates; whose duties and obligations, after the following admonition to Incumbents, the Bishop proceeds to explain :

The necessity of the case has compelled the Legislature to tolerate non-residence; to specify certain grounds on which Incumbents are exempted from residence, and others on which the Bishop is empowered to grant licences of non-residence. But

because Incumbents, to whom these indulgences are extended, are relieved from positive penalties, let them not imagine that they are also released from the responsibility attaching to the cure of souls. In no case can the enactments of human law afford an adequate criterion by which to estimate the extent of moral obligation: least of all, in the case of the Ministers of the Gospel. Let them not imagine that when they have paid their Curates the stipends fixed by law, and provided for the repairs of the glebe-house, they are then absolved from further care, and may dismiss the Parish from their thoughts. Though their personal ministry is dispensed with, they are still bound to promote its welfare with unremitting diligence; to take care that the Curate whom they substitute in their place is fully adequate to the discharge of the important trust—that, in a word, neither the temporal nor spiritual interests of their flock suffer by their absence.-Pp. 15, 16.

His Lordship insists upon it, as an indispensable duty of every Curate, to supply two services every Sunday, if by any means practicable; recommending as a useful substitute for a second sermon, a running practical exposition of some connected portion of Scripture. The necessity of public catechising he also strongly enforces, as a practice of the first utility and importance : and after a slight allusion to licences and stipends, he concludes with a few brief observations on the nature of the concessions lately made by the repeal of the Test Act.

A Sermon preached at Bedford, at the

Visitation of the Lord Bishop of Lincoln. By the Rev. Thomas BARBER, B.D. Deightons, Cambridge; Rivingtons, London.

To our notice of the able Charge of the Diocesan, we cannot do better than add our report of a Discourse which was delivered in the course of his Lordship's visitation. From Ephes. iv. 1115, Mr. Barber undertakes to deduce the salutary effects of Christian unity

and Christian charity, and the conse- in explanation of which discovery we quent duty of Ministers to promote are informed, in a note, that “the them. The subject is treated under writer is only endeavouring to remove the three following heads :

the idea, that the Gospel means certain I. That our Lord ordained and reserved books of Scripture exclusively, rather in his Church a standing order of Priest than redemption made by Christ, rehood, for the work of the ministry :-“He vealed in Scripture." (Pref. p. v.) We gave some pastors and teachers.”

learn, also, that in the Epistles "it was II. The ultimate end of their appoint

not Paul that spoke, but the Spirit of ment,-the edification of his Church,

his Father that spoke in him ;(p. 7) " for the perfecting of the saints,- for the the edifying of the body of Christ.”

that St. Paul “never called himself an III. The arduous and responsible duties

empty vessel;" (p. 8) that he “got it thence arising :—" speaking the truth in

(the Gospel) neither from Matthew, love."

Nark, Luke, nor John ;..... asked no Each of these points are well argued,

evangelists, neither read their books,

but preached the Gospel as he received and clearly made out; but we particularly recommend the considerations

it." (p. 9.) We are farther instructed

that Pyle “was blind to the grand docheld out under the third and last to the

trine of the Gospel;" (p. 10)—that his notice of our clerical brethren.

“insinuations overturn the authority of Apostolical Preaching, the Ministration

all Scripture;” (p.11)—and that he and

Mr. Warner represent the Epistles as of the Spirit; in Answer to Mr. WARNER's Sermon. By the Rev.

“unprofitable to readers of the present Thomas Newton, M. A. Seeleys,

day.” (p. 17) (Query, where?). Further

be it known, that “ Jesus, while he London.

lived, kept the will, i. e. the New TestaOur readers will probably be in

ment, sealed up in his breast;" (p.13) clined to suppose that we took up

that “the Lord's prayer is imperfect;" Mr. Newton's Tract with somewhat of

(p. 14)—that “ the Epistle to the Roprejudice in favour of Mr. Warner, and

mans contains about eight doctrinal to against his opponent. If such was our

four practical chapters:” (p: 24), and misfortune, which we do not altogether

that to those who are “conscious that deny, we are still unhappily in the same

the fig-leaves of morality cannot cover uncritical plight; for with the utmost

them, the Saviour says, Come, my yoke stretch of our attention, and the keenest

is easy, and my burden light.Such exercise of our wits, we are as yet

is a portion of the instruction we have unable to discover the drift of Mr.

gathered from Mr. Newton; and it is Newton's argumentation. That he does

but fair that he himself should state the not admire Mr. Warner, and that he

source of his information. kindly vouchsafes him some good advice, is sufficiently manifest; but why

Many of my brethren can testify with he does not admire Mr. Warner, and

me, that we were brought up in Mr.

Warner's opinions; and we gave them a what is the purport of his advice, is

fair trial; but we never found peace in to us as inconceivable, as we should

them, nor overcame the world by thein. think it is to Mr.Newton himself. We do

Whereas, when we had heard “ the truth not mean to say, however, that we have as it is in Jesus," from our despised breobtained no information from the peru thren who gloried in his cross, we found it sal of the pamphlet before us. We the power of God, and the wisdom of God have, indeed, been considerably en to the salvation of our souls. We have, lightened thereby; and as we are nei therefore, turned King's evidence, and tell ther selfish nor incommunicative, we

the world that Mr. Warner's doctrine will readily impart the knowledge we have

do to keep the world asleep, but it will not

do to awaken them out of their slumbers acquired to our readers.

and to create in them that spiritual mind We learn first, then, that “both (i. e.

which is life and peace. the Acts of the Apostles and the Gospel;

Such an one, let him be called evangeso, at least, we understand Mr. Newton)

lical or orthodox, is a minister of Christ, and are to be received—both are full of

a steward of the mysteries of God, and, as grace and truth: but the former alone

far as preaching goes, is faithful to his is, properly speaking, the Gospel;" trust,

The Necessity of a Decent Celebration of

Public Worship: a Sermon preached
in the Chapel of St. David's College.
By the Rev. A. OLLIVANT, M. A.,
Vice - Principal of the College, sc.
London: Rivingtons. 1828.

1 Cor. xiv. 40.-In this Sermon we have an admirable illustration of the Eighteenth Canon of our Church. Mr. Ollivant has treated his subject with great force of argument and persuasion; and both the matter and manner are calculated to produce a most beneficial result upon those who are training for the ministry, as are the students of St. David's College, to whom it was particularly addressed.

sideration of the congregations which frequent these new places of public worship, a brief statement of the nature, the principles, and the practice of the Church of England.” The following is a table of contents:—“Scriptural Origin and Character of the ChurchChurch of England a true Branch of the Church of Christ-Brief Statement of the Duty of a consistent Member of the Church of England—Importance of the Sacraments. The language is clear and concise; the sentiments are sound and pious; and the exhortations are solemn and persuasive.

Evidences of Immortality: a Sermon,

preached in the Cathedral Church of Lichfield. By the Rev. T. R. Bromo FIELD, M. A., Prebendary, and Rector of Napton and Grandborough, Warwickshire; with Notes, Critical and Explanatory. London: Rivingtons. 1828. .

The preacher's object is to compress into the compass of a sermon, the principal arguments in support of the soul's immortality. This he has, as others have before him, deduced from nature, from reason and philosophy, and from revelation. The texts employed for the latter part of the discussion, are for the most part, as might have been expected, the same which have been adduced in the able Essay on “ Departed Spirits," which is concluded in our present Number. They are not of course so copiously investigated; but the sermon is nevertheless a welldigested summary of the evidence on the momentous question which it is intended to establish. There is also some valuable matter in the notes.

Questions and Answers for Young People

of the Church of England, to guard them against its Enemies. London: Rivingtons. Pp. 23. 6d.

Tuis little pamphlet contains much useful information and instruction for those young persons who are desirous of guarding themselves against those who are unfavourable to our excellent Establishment. It treats of Schism and its consequences - the nature of the Catholic or Universal Church-its alliance with the State—the Reformation-Heretics and Sectaries, &c. &c. &c.; upon all which subjects the remarks are so just, that we unhesitatingly recommend its perusal.

Sacred Songs ; being an attempted Para

phrase or Imitation of some Portions and Passages of the Psalms. By William Peter. London: Longman. 1828.

In this little volume we are presented with the whole or part of the first fifty Psalms, together with the cxiv. cxxxvii. cxxxix., we cannot say newly translated, but the spirit of them infused into English verse. There is much pleasing poetry, and more sober piety, in every one of them; but we more particularly direct the reader's attention to Psalm i. iii. xxii. xxiv. xxix. xxxiv. xlvi. cxxxvii. The last, as being one of the shortest, we shall extract. Whilst pining for our native land,

By Babel's waves we sat and wept, And tuneless on the willowed strand

Our harps, in mournful silence, slept;

An Appeal to the Inhabitants of the

Districts in which New Churches have been erected under His Majesty's Parliamentary Commissioners. London: Rivingtons. Pp. 44. 1s. 6d.

In this Appeal the author, " taking advantage of that important occurrence in the religious history of our country— the erection of additional Churches in populous parishes-submits to the con

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