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as perfect man, but without sin. He seems, however, to have thought that the divine nature in Christ was so blended with the human as to be in a certain sense communicated to it. For, speaking of the moral precepts of Christ, he says that the cause of their perfection is to be sought in the nature of him by whom they were delivered. -Pp. 65, 66.
With respect to the third Person in the Trinity, we have seen that Justin represents the Holy Ghost, in conjunction with the Father and the Son, as an object of worship. The distinct personality of the Holy Spirit is also incidentally asserted. It is, however, not unworthy of observation, that the passages most explicitly declaring the doctrine of the Trinity are found in the first Apology, not in the Dialogue with Trypho; in which Justin's principal object was to establish the pre-existence and divinity of Christ. When, therefore, he alleges the passage in Genesis i. 26. “Let us make man in our own image after our likeness," the only inference which he draws is, that the Almighty then addressed himself to some distinct, rational being. In like manner, in alleging Genesis üi. 22. “Lo, Adam is become as one of us to know good and evil,” he proceeds no further than to conclude from the words “ as one of us," that there were two persons at least in conference with each other; and he afterwards applies them solely to the Son. When the Holy Spirit is mentioned in the Dialogue, it is chiefly with reference to the inspiration of the Prophets, or to his operation on the hearts of men.
But though in the passages above-quoted a distinct personality is ascribed to the Holy Ghost, we find others in which the Spirit and the Abyos seem to be confounded. I know no other mode of explaining this fact than by supposing that, as the Abyos was the conductor of the whole Gospel economy, Justin deemed it a matter of indifference whether he said that the Prophets were inspired by the Aóyos, or by the Holy Spirit who was the immediate agent. The Holy Spirit is called in Scripture the Spirit of Christ.-Pp. 69–72.
Had the works, which Justin composed in confutation of the heretics of his day, come down to our hands, we should probably have obtained a clearer insight into his notions on these abstruse subjects. As it is, we cannot doubt that he maintained a real Trinity; whether he would have explained it precisely according to the Athanasian scheme, is not equally clear; but I have observed nothing in the Apologies or in the Dialogue with Trypho which appears to me to justify a positive assertion to the contrary. Those passages, which seem to imply an inferiority in Christ to the Father, may without any forced construction be understood of the part borne by Christ in conducting the Economy.-Pp. 72, 73.
These observations contain the substance of the Bishop's second chapter ; and we have made our extract thus at length, not only as exhibiting the opinions of Justin on the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, but as a specimen in which the other doctrines are subsequently treated. In the work itself, the authorities are given in the notes; and accompanied with occasional remarks on such topics as are only incidentally connected with the subject. The three next chapters are employed in producing the opinion of Justin respecting original sin, free-will, grace, justification, and predestination ; the two sacraments, the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the dead, the Millennium, the future judgment, angels, and demons. In the sixth chapter, we have a review of the state of Christianity in the time of the Martyr, together with the causes of its rapid diffusion; and the seventh contains an account of the prevailing heresies, with some remarks on the flagrant errors in Justin's chro
nology. The Bishop then enters upon a discussion, upon the interesting question, whether Justin quoted the Gospels which we now have. Lardner, in his "Credibility,” is convinced that he did. Bishop Marsh, in his “ Dissertation on the Origin of the Three First Gospels,” that he did not. The result of a luminous examination is decisive in favour of the foriner opinion; and we cannot do better than follow the Rev. Prelate, in subjoining the remarks of Mr. Everett, as decisive of the controvery.
“In fact the modern German Divines appear to have been the first who thought the verbal diversity of Justin's quotations from the present text of the Evangelists to be of any consequence. As a question of criticism, I own it is a difficult one; and did I think that Justin had not quoted our present Books, I should not hesitate a moment to avow it. But when we reflect that there is no difference in the facts mentioned: that the verbal coincidence is sometimes exact, and sometimes so great as to appear exact in a translation: that Justin calls his books by the name of Gospels, and says that they were written by Apostles and Apostolic men, which precisely corresponds with ours, two of which are by Apostles, and two by Apostolic men; and that Irenæus makes no mention of any other books so similar to ours, as Justin's were, if they be not the same: when we reflect on these things, we shall find it hard to believe that Justin quoted any other Gospels than ours. If, however, it be thought necessary, notwithstanding all this, to grant that he did not quote our Books, then it will be an inference scarcely less favourable to Christianity, that a set of sacred writings, different from ours, did yet testify to the truth of the same facts.”— P. 152. Everett, Defence of Christianity, 8c. p. 474.
The ninth chapter concludes the work, with illustrations of the preceding chapters from the writings of Tatian, Athenagoras, and Theophilus of Antioch ; among which, some additional remarks are interspersed. Of the utility of the work there can be but one opinion, and of the manner of its execution, the name of its author is a sufficient pledge. Another course of Lectures on the Writings of the Fathers, by the Rev. Prelate, still remains unpublished; and we sincerely hope, that they will, ere long, be given to the world. They excited a strong sensation in the University at the time when they were delivered ; and there is little doubt that their publication would lead eventually to the more general study of a class of writers, which have been greatly and undeservedly neglected. With this request, and our sincere thanks to Bishop Kaye for what he has already done, we bring our remarks to a close, cordially recommending the works on Justin and Tertullian to the attention of the theological student and the Divine.
Art. II.—Letters from an Eastern Colony, addressed to a Friend, in
the years 1826 and 1827, by a Seven Years' Resident. London: J. M. Richardson. 1829. 8vo. Price 7s.
From the title of this book, and, indeed, from a cursory glance at it, we at first conjectured that it was one of those multifarious offsets of literature, which the luxuriance of modern ingenuity occasionally throws up, when every man who has compassed a journey of one hundred miles from his door considers it his duty to communicate to the public the wonders he has seen, and the profound observations he has made thereon. In a general view of the book, we soon perceived that it touched largely on subjects which would recommend it to our consideration, and we then purposed to introduce it to our readers among our literary notices. On further examination of the volume, however, we found it impossible to render it justice under this form; and we have therefore determined formally to review it, no less for the advantage of our readers, than as a very merited act of respect towards the intelligent author. We certainly regret that one so capable of better things should have chosen to take his place among the superficial scribblers of the day, and that he did not furnish elaborate and finished pictures instead of a few rough sketches, the boldness and distinctness of which sufficiently prove his command of his implentents, and his capability of higher achievements. It is, of course, only the theological and ecclesiastical part of this book which invites our observation ; and had this been, instead of a few rambling remarks, a connected and digested argument, we are satisfied that it would have been exceedingly valuable, and especially well timed. The author, however, has our thanks for what he has done; and it is not too late to do more.
One advantage, undoubtedly, arises from the form in which these observations are offered to the world. Their light and superficial exterior is well adapted to the butterfly-hunting propensities of “ this enlightened age:" and the persons for whose conversion and conviction they are particularly intended, are the last to seek a profound knowledge of any thing. It is therefore more likely that the arguments of the author will obtain a circulation in the desired quarter under their present form than in the more majestic but less engaging garb of minute demonstration. But, however this be, the publication abounds with so many sensible and judicious observations, and so much positive information from personal knowledge, that we receive it with gratitude, as calculated to remove many erroneous impressions, and many injurious prejudices. In respect of personal observation the work is particularly valuable. Though anonymous, it is written with so much openness and candour, that we confess, for ourselves, we cannot believe the writer to have been guilty of wilful misrepresentation; and from the nature of the facts which he details, he can have committed no other. His arguments, however, need not always the countenance of his facts, and, though rapid and concise, they are such as to deserve attention.
The parts which we shall principally notice in this work are those on Education, Religious Missions, and the Roman Catholic claims. The latter subject has lately assumed so awful an importance, that every thing relating to it cannot fail to be interesting.
The great error in modern education is the omission of valuable and necessary knowledge, and the obtrusion of that which is useless. To this we may add another material feature: the superficial character of the instruction conveyed. On these points the author speaks with much clearness and good sense. There is little recondite or intricate in his observations : little that would stimulate the highly excited palate of modern readers; but there is much that would afford abundant materials for serious and attentive reflection, and for a purer and more profitable practice than what now prevails. Where there is studied and intentional perverseness, argument is, of course, futile; but wherever there is a sincere desire to follow the truth, which we in charity hope to be the case with many advocates of very distorted views of education, arguments like our author's cannot fail to take effect, as they are brief, direct, distinct, and convincing. We will now endeavour to support our criticism by examples.
The maxim cannot be too often repeated, “non omnes possumus omnia." The same man cannot be distinguished for many things. Either he may take a small space and dig deep, or he may take an extensive space if he chooses, but then he can dig to a small depth only. As a mathematician would say, the profoundness of his knowledge must be in the inverse ratio of its extent.-Pp. 81, 82.
It is admitted, that no man can, or at least ought to be, a merchant and manufacturer, or a linen-draper and cutler: why is it not equally perceived, that a man cannot be at once a mathematician and a linguist, an astronomer and a chemist! he may, indeed, be both, he may be all four! he may have the reputation of being these, and much more besides; but, as I before observed, he will lose in depth what he gains in superficies.
So again, we do not ask our watchmaker to repair our shoes, nor the contrary : why then do we expect Dr. M'Culloch, the physician, to reason accurately on the principles of political economy? or how can any one imagine that Mr. Joseph Hume, who is a Scotchman, a retired doctor, and a presbyterian, should be able to propose wise alterations for the army, the navy, the court of chancery, and the episcopal church of Ireland ? the thing is impossble; ne sutor ultra crepidam.—Pp. 85, 86.
The absurdity (not regarding the impiety) of omitting religion in education, is well exposed in the following observations :
This was, and still is called a liberal education, in favour of which one of its eminent advocates thus expresses himself :-"Can any thing be more obvious than this, that it is the birth-right of every human being to think for himself: that he is amenable alone to conscience and to God for his religious sentiments; and that whatever person or system attempts to legislate for the free-born soul, and coerce the faith of another, is perpetrating one of the most detestable of crimes, robbing man of his liberty, and God of his authority? In such a case, submission to man is treason against heaven."
Does not this doctrine strike at the root of every kind and degree of education, and subvert the authority of the parent over the child? For is not a parent who inculcates lessons of wisdom and piety on his child, and cautions him against prevailing errors, or what he conceives to be errors, and that at an age when it is certain that the impression made will be indelible, is not he legislating for the free-born soul? And were not the Jewish parents in particular, while diligently instructing their offspring in the commandments, statutes, and ordinances of the Lord, their civil and ecclesiastical polity, and embracing every opportunity of talking to them on these subjects, were not they too invading “ the birth-right," biassing “ the conscience," and directing “the religious sentiments" of their children?
If so, then, according to this writer, though in the very act of obeying a positive command of their Maker, they were “legislating for the free-born soul; and thereby perpetrating one of the most detestable of crimes, robbing man of his liberty, and God of his authority !"-Pp. 94–96.
The truth is, however, that though much mischief may arise from attempting to reduee the system in question to practice among the bulk of the community, yet the thing is utterly impracticable, because it involves the erroneous supposition, that the mind of man, if left to itself, will incline to truth and goodness, and is not subject to the influence of early associations. But in spite of all our efforts, the first and liveliest impressions which the child receives (and those most likely to determine his future behaviour) must be derived from those around him; from the very constitution of his nature, they cannot be the suggestions of reason alone. Circumstanced as he is, and as Providence clearly intended he should be, his opinions must be formed upon authority, not upon conviction : in other words, he must unavoidably contract prejudices, and the very end and object of education, is to provide that the prejudices he contracts may be such as his parents or tutors deem to be right. The latter may, no doubt, err in their judgment, but still worse evils would result from any other system.
So long as the nature of man remains what it is, the character of the rising generation, in every age and nation, must depend on the opinions, genius, and habits of that age and nation. “Society (says an eminent writer) must be governed by principles, as well as by written laws; and view the question of education in every possible light, we must come, at last, to this conclusion, that the mass of mankind will, to the end of time, be influenced more by authority than reason.”—Pp. 100, 101.
After laying down as a general principle, that affection for civil and religious establishments should be inculcated in every system of popular education, and that obedience to their rulers for conscience sake, and a manly and English character, should be early impressed upon the people, the writer shows that he is no advocate for a slavish acquiescence in the views of public men, in a passage which receives a powerful and fearful comment from recent events, and which we sincerely recommend to the consideration of those whose timid and irresolute conduct, by “breaking in upon" the British Constitution, with the wretched hope of 'conciliating sworn hostility, has alienated the minds of all the religious and loyal part of the community. VOL. XI. NO. VII.