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ledge of astronomy, have published the

DEGREES CONFERRED. following report:

BACHELORS IN DIVINITY. "That the condition of the books and Rev.E.Duncan Rhodes, Fell. of Sidney Coll. instruments is very satisfactory, the Pro- Rev. Edward Boteler, Fell. of Sidney Coil. fessor having marked and registered them, Rev.Charles Smith, Fell. of St. Peter's Coll. so as effectually to secure the property of Rev. T. Hartwell Horne, St. John's Coll. the University. The transit telescope and Rev. George Hull Bowers, Clare Hall clock, which are the only capital instru Rev. William Thomas, Jesus Coll. (Comp.) ments at present erected, are highly ap Rev. Thomas Jones, St. John's Coll. proved of by the Professor. The mural HONORARY MASTERS OF ARTS. circle, in the hands of Mr. Troughton, is in Lord Wriothesley Russell, Trinity Coll. a forward state, its completion being solely son of the Duke of Bedford delayed by the difficulty of procuring pro- Lord Norreys, Trinity Coll. son of the per materials for the object-glass. The Earl of Abingdon equatorial is in progress. Several valuable

MASTERS OF ARTS. instruments, including an excellent forty Rev. J. Gautier Milne, St. Peter's Coll. six inch achromatic telescope by Dollond, Rev. Edward Murray, Trinity Coll. with a triple object-glass, were purchased Francis Ford Pinder, Trinity Coll. at the sale of Professor Woodhouse's effects Frederick Osborne, Trinity Hall. on terms highly advantageous to the Uni- Rev. John Phillips, Sidney Coll. versity.

Rev. S. Bagnall, Downing Coll. (Gr.Comp.) « The whole time of Professor Airy has Rev. W. Metcalfe, Fell. of St. John's Coli. been devoted to the duties of the Observa- J. A. D. Meakin, St. John's Coll. tory, except those portions occupied by the Rev.C.W.Hughes, Corp. Chr. Coll. (Comp.) Plumian lectures, and by a scientific ex- Rev. William Powley, Jesus Coll. (Comp.) pedition to Cornwall, to which he was Rev. Abraham T. R. Vicary, Jesus Coll. pledged previously to his appointment.

LICENTIATES IN PHYSIC. "A volume has already been published William J. Bayne, Fell. of Trinity Coll. containing observations made in 1828, with Nicholas F. Davison, Caius Coll. the results deducible from them, which are

BACHELORS IN CIVIL LAW. of the highest value. An attentive exa Rev. R. M‘Donald Caunter, Sid. Suss. Coll. mination of this volume can alone give an Richard Cargill, Catharine Hall. . adequate idea of the labour and skill be Frederic Trotter, Christ's Coll. stowed upon it. The instrumental errors

BACHELORS IN PHYSIC. have been measured by independent me Alexander L. Wollaston, Caius Coll. thods, and each observation reduced to the James F. Bernard, Corpus Christi Coll. true meridian. In the standard catalogue Francis Ker Fox, St. John's Coll. of some of the principal stars, Polaris for Alexander Murray, St. John's Coll. instance, the Professor conceives that he Algernon Frampton, St. John's Coll. has discovered errors. The right ascensions Thomas Briggs, Cajus Coll. of several smaller stars have been deter Frederick Johnstone, Jesus Coll. mined, but the want of assistance has

BACHELORS OF ARTS. greatly limited this class of observations. John Wolvey Astley, King's Coll.

“ Numerous observations of the Sun, Charles Luxmore, King's Coll. Moon, and Planets, have been reduced and Thomas Phillpotts, King's Coll. compared with the calculated places given Charles Waymouth, Trinity Coll. in the Nautical Almanack, and in Schu Henry Bowyer, Trinity Coll. macher's Auxiliary Tables. The diffe Francis Rodd, Trinity Coll. rences are exceedingly minute, a proof of Charles Bigsby, Trinity Coll. what has hitherto been doubted, that the George Gordon, Caius Coll. motions of the brighter planets are known James Richard Holden, Christ's Coll. with sufficient accuracy for determining the John Gwalter Palaipt, Christ's Coll. longitude at sea.

William Whitear, St. John's Coll. “ The Syndicate wish to express their Frederick Elwes, Pembroke Coll. sense of the great industry and judgment James Abbott, Queen's Coll. shown by the Professor in the discharge of George Kember, Queen's Coll his duties, and their conviction that the . Henry William Stuart, Queen's Coll. Cambridge Observatory is likely to fulfil Thomas Brand, Magd. Coll. the highest expectations of those who The Rev. Samuel Smith, M. A. of Christ interested themselves in its establish- Church, Oxford, has been admitted ad ment."

eundem of this University.
“ C. J.” has our thanks. His prose communication shall be inserted.
We repeat our acknowledgments to “ A Churchman."
Our Oxford University Intelligence is postponed for want of room.



AUGUST, 1829.


Art. I.The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans; with an

Introduction, Paraphrase, and Notes. By C. H. TERROT, A.M. late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. — Hatchard and Son, London ; Black, Edinburgh. 8vo. 1828. Price 9s. Pp. 312.

Those who are acquainted with the necessary arrangements of periodical criticisms, need not to be told that it is not always possible to notice books exactly in the order of their excellence, or indeed in any constituted order whatever, especially where a critical department is so confined as ours. In fact, the excellence of a work is often a reason for delaying a review of it.

Χρόνος δίκαιον άνδρα δείκνυσιν μόνος

Κακόν δε κάν εν ημέρα γνοίης μία Merit is often retiring ; error and failure are generally palpable. A work like that before us, when well executed, requires close inspection and accurate study, in order to appreciate its merits, and enable the reviewer to do justice to his author. This must be our apology to Mr. Terrot for delaying a notice as agreeable to ourselves as we hope it will be satisfactory to him.

In a former article* we have observed, “ there are only two senses in which a translation of St. Paul can be said to be good: either where it adheres, like the authenticated version, to the strict grammatical meaning of the words, or, where it endeavours to approach the sense by deserting the verbal construction.” In the first of these respects we do not say our version could not be improved by revision; but we take leave to repeat, " as a version, it cannot be surpassed." A new literal version, made independently of it, will never equal it. We confess, therefore, that we do not feel strongly predisposed to

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examinaare placed in thestle, and the

favour private literal versions of Scripture: and much less literal versions of St. Paul, which are only excusable under the peculiar circumstances of national translators. Paraphrastic versions, however, challenge attention; they are often the best translations ; always, if good, the best interpretations.

Mr. 'Terrot has taken up this position, and most ably maintained it. His paraphrase is lucid, concise, and elegant: nor do we remember to have perused any work on this profound and important portion of Scripture more clearly illustrative of its force and bearing. The arguments of the Apostle, and the objects to which they are directed, are placed in the broad daylight of philological and historical examination. Mr. Terrot is evidently no Calvinist, but he has taken no pains to extricate St. Paul's language from Calvinistic perversion. The closest observation (so far as we can speak for ourselves) can detect nothing on those points which is not fully borne out by the text. And even where, on a superficial review, we might be inclined to suspect a little accommodation to hypothesis, a nearer examination has convinced us that our author has not spoken without book. His coolness and accuracy, qualities always rare, here of the most indispensable value, are above all commendation. Though eminently qualified, by talent and learning, to stand forward as an independent authority, with the modesty and just humility of a scholar and a Christian, he disregards the practice of “this enlightened age," and draws largely on the stock of other illustrious theological critics, always, however, indicating the sources whence his foreign matter is derived : and, in so doing, he communicates new light to his borrowed authorities ; or, if he dissents, assigns his reasons with a humble and scholarlike moderation.

That awful text of St. Peter, no less prophetic than historical, which asserts that the unlearned and unstable wrest the writings of St. Paul to their own destruction, has never been regarded with an attention at all proportionate to the weight of its significance. It might have been supposed that Christians, in perusing these valuable portions of Scripture, would never have suffered this text to escape their continual observation, and would have prayed and struggled with the utmost feryour and earnestness against unlearnedness and instability. But the disregard of this most important text, the disparagements of human learning, the self-conceited and mistaken views of private judgment, which have brought upon that noble and Christian doctrine the invective of Papists, and error without end upon the “ unlearned and unstable," have never been so strongly exemplified as in the interpretation of the Epistle to the Romans. The “unlearned and unstable,” those who have combined both characters, or sustained either, have elicited from this epistle that the

God of mercies is a stern and arbitrary tyrant; that his moral creation is a piece of mechanism, and that right and wrong, if they have any existence at all, have, at least, no influence on man's future doom. Now if a right understanding of the Epistle to the Romans be important for the private Christian, most especially is it so to those who are appointed “ stewards of the mysteries of God.” That they should not, under that venerable appellation, dispense the figments of unlearned or unstable men, is even of the very first importance. Yet the thorough study of that profoundly argumentative piece of Scripture requires the assemblage of various critical labours and historical illustrations, scattered through many volumes, and demanding time, labour, and discrimination, to be well examined and comprehended. Mr. Terrot has collected these into one clear and judicious view : and though it would be too much to say he has never been mistaken, yet such is his general research and critical ability, that we cannot differ from him without distrust and deference.

Mr. Terrot considers the great leading doctrine of the Epistle to the Romans, and that, indeed, on the right understanding of which its whole interpretation depends, to be JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH. On the misapprehension of this, as he conceives, all erroneous expositions have been founded. Not that he offers, or pretends to offer, any new statement of that doctrine. Mr. Terrot is too good a scholar to patronise novelties in divinity. On the contrary, he is fully sensible that the nearer he approaches the model of the primitive creed, the nearer his interpretation must approach the truth. He has drawn on the critical wealth of our own Whitby, Doddridge, Macknight, Taylor, Pearson, Bull and Paley : and on that of the German Semler, Koppe, Ammon, Knappe, Schleusner, Noesselt, Rosenmüller, and Morus.

As a useful apparatus towards a fair examination of the Epistle, are prefixed.

I. A Chronological Table of the Acts of St. Paul, abridged from Bishop Pearson's Annales Paulini.

II. A Brief Exposition of the occasion, date, and genuineness of the Epistle. III. An Analysis of its Contents.

IV. A Critical Inquiry into the meaning of certain Theological Terms, frequently used by the Apostle Paul in this and in his other Epistles.

V. X List of all the Passages of the Old Testament, quoted in the Epistle to the Romans.-P. 2.

ch the nöddridge Germier,

Under the fourth head, Mr. Terrot investigates the import of the terms, 1. δικαιόω and δικαιοσύνη, which he determines critically to be forensic expressions, signifying to acquit" and "acquittal.Hence it follows that God's acquittal of sinners is not the same as pardon, which is an act of mercy: it is an act of JUSTICE; and as it could never be such an act in reference to the sinner only, it must be so in reference to some extraneous satisfaction. We do not exactly

understand Mr. Terrot's distinction between the death and the resurrection of Christ, which last only he considers as this external cause ;* and it appears to us that he has too closely pressed the words of the Apostle (Rom. iv. 25) in drawing this distinction. 2. The author examines the meaning of the term niotis. He contends that this expression has really the same signification in St. Paul and St. James ; that it does not, in the former, comprise obedience, but that it is regarded as the principle on which obedience is to be exercised. On this point our author shall speak for himself.

If niotis actually contains obedience as part of its meaning, then we must seek for another meaning of the term, as used in the writings of St. James, where it evidently does not include obedience; and in 1 Cor. xii. 2, where St. Paul himself speaks of faith as a thing totally distinct from charity, and totally unavailing without it. To say that belief of the gospel means obedience to it, is surely a harsh and unnatural definition; but to say that the proposition we are justified by faith, means not that we are justified by the mere possession of belief, but by the proper action of that belief in our heart and conduct, is quite consistent with the ordinary usage of language. Nothing is more common than to speak of a man's being saved by his skill, his presence of mind, his courage; when we really mean, not that the man was saved by the mere possession of these qualities, but by the line of conduct which they enabled him to pursue. Since then it is clear that the proper action of faith, is such a use of the means of grace as will enable us " to perfect holiness in the fear of God;" since it is clear from St. James, that faith alone does not justify, (Jas. ii. 14.) and from St. Paul, (1 Cor. xiii. 2) that without charity it is unprofitable; we must I think conclude, that faith, or a belief of the truths of the gospel, justifies not by its existence, but by its action.—Pp. 33, 34.

3. The expressions vópos and épya toữ vóuov, come under our author's consideration. These he limits to the requirements of the Mosaic law, ceremonial and moral. 4. Next he considers the term odpł, which he renders " the animal propensities, and more generally, the natural state and powers of the human mind as enslaved by these propensities.” 5. and lastly, he examines the term loyíšouai, which he calls “a commercial term,” signifying, “to put any thing to account, whether on the debtor or creditor side."* “ BUT NEVER," says Mr. T. “Is It USED IN THE CALVINISTIC SENSE, OF AN IMPUTATION OF A GOOD OR BAD QUALITY OR ACT OF ONE INDIVIDUAL TO ANOTHER.”I

From this general view of the cardinal terms and phrases of the Epistle, our readers will be able to form some notion of Mr. Terrot's system. The arguments by which his interpretations are supported, do not admit of abridgment. From these we will now advance to offer a few observations on peculiar passages.

On chap. V. ver. 15, Mr. Terrot remarks:

It appears from this verse, and still more plainly from verse 17, that eternal misery formed no part of the penalty of the fall upon Adam's posterity, since in

• He appears to contradict this theory, chap. ii. Note 36.
† P. 49.


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