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in the same language. ..... The Christian unity was a unity of goodness, -an affection of good men for one another,-because they mutually love God. But so soon as this was changed for another sort of unity, in which bad men could also be partakers, ..... then, the unity, of which St. Paul speaks so earnestly, was lost. ..... But whilst the true Christian unity was disappearing, a false one of a very different kind sprung up in its room...... In order to keep up a bond of some sort between men, who had no real spiritual union with each other or with Christ, great stress was laid not on a sameness of principle in religion, but on a sameness of opinion; not on a unity of faith in the scriptural sense of the word, but of faith in another sense, and which in fact is very nearly the same as opinion.-P. 91.
Hence came the error of Mistaking a false unity for the true one, a unity of form and opinion for the union of spirit and faith. And the evil is, that many persons feel more friendly disposed, I do not say to absolutely wicked, but to careless and unspiritual Churchmen, than to zealous and holy Dissenters : and this is to undo Christ's work,—to put an earthly and unimportant bond of union, in the place of that union of goodness and holiness, which was to bind men to one another in him, and in his Father.-P. 94.
This extract speaks plainly enough the sentiments of our author with regard to the nature and constitution of the Church of Christ. He writes to the same effect in his sixteenth Sermon, taking for his text, Matt. vi. 10, where he says, that
The kingdom of God is a state in which God is owned as King, and obeyed by his people. Heaven, therefore, is the kingdom of God in the fullest sense ; for there God reigns over willing subjects, and his will is theirs also. In another sense, the kingdom of God is set up in the heart of every good Christian. ..... These are the only two senses in which the kingdom of God does actually exist at present. —P. 205.
We would not use harsh language unnecessarily, but we will not permit such errors as are here committed by the quondam Fellow of Oriel to pass without reproof. How, indeed, can we acquit our author of gross ignorance, or wilful misrepresentation? How are we to account for the extraordinary manner in which he confounds the visible and invisible state of Christ's Church? As far as this Church is " a kingdom not of this world, it is of a spiritual nature, and in that capacity it is invisible ; but as a kingdom in this world, it is visible, and must have visible administration.”* Of the visible Church or Kingdom of Christ, all men become members by baptism : of the invisible Church, none but the sanctified in spirit are entitled to the privileges. We forbear to inflict upon our readers a detailed proof that our Redeemer instituted this visible and ecclesiastical kingdom, with its anointed ministers respectively subject to each other in triple gradation; and that the Apostles ordained every where successors to themselves in the ministry, whose office it was to superintend the ordinances, and to frame laws for the government of these religious communities : for it would wear the appearance of an insult to their
• Essay on the Church. Schol. armed, Vol. II. p. 24.
understandings to suppose them unacquainted with these historical facts. That the Church of Christ upon earth, like all other communities, was to be one and undivided, not in spirit only, but in discipline, in doctrine, and in ceremonies, as far as such external uniformity could be adapted to the different nations to whom the Gospel should be preached, we have abundant testimony to demonstrate. To “ continue stedfast in the Apostles' doctrine, and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers,” is plainly the duty, as it was unquestionably the practice, of the disciples of the cross. (Acts ii. 42.) “ The unity of faith,” and “ the form of sound words,” and “the speaking of the same thing," and the being “ of one mind,” and the glorifying of God " with one mouth," are characteristics of that body, in which there was to be “no schism ;" which was to be knit together in one brotherhood of love, and in one communion of external worship :-all the members of which were “ built upon the same rock, professed the same faith, received the same sacraments, performed the same devotions, and thereby were all reputed members of the same Church. To this Church were added daily such as should be saved, who became members of the same Church by being built upon the same foundation, by adhering to the same doctrine, by receiving the same sacraments, by performing the same devotions.”* Let a man dispassionately read the injunctions of St. Paul to the Corinthians, wherein he thus addresses them, in phraseology of singular affection, — “Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment;" and again,—" Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace;" and again,“For ye are yet carnal ; for whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not carnal, and walk as men: for while one saith, I am of Paul, and another I am of Apollos, are ye not carnal ?" Let a man read these emphatic injunctions, comparing them with the Apostle's directions to Timothy, (chap. i. 8.) and to Titus, (chap. iii. 10.) and we have no doubt that he will experience the same difficulty with ourselves in reconciling them with the marvellous declaration of Dr. Arnold, that " a unity of form and outward ceremonies,” and " the speaking in the same language,” are subjects about which the inspired penmen“ have displayed no earnestness !”
Not less strange, not less unaccountable is our Author's dictum touching “ the only two senses in which the Kingdom of God does actually exist at present.” “ The Kingdom of God is a state, in which God is owned as King,” &c. &c.—or it “ is set up in the heart,” &c. &c. :-these are the only two senses, &c. &c. (Sermon XVI. p. 205.)
* Pearson on the Creed. Fol. Edit. p. 339.
We beg leave to remind Dr. Arnold, that He who “ spake as never man spake," discourses of the Kingdom of God in another sense, as comprehending nominal as well as vital Christians within itself;—“ For the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a field, in which wheat and tares grow together unto the harvest ;--- like unto a net, which was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind ;"—like unto “ a floor, in which is laid up wheat and chaff;"- like unto a marriagefeast, in which some have on the wedding garment, and some not. “ This is that Ark of Noah, in which were preserved beasts, clean and unclean. This is that great house, in which there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some to honour and some to dishonour."*
The fact seems to be, that our Author has forgotten, or wilfully suppressed, all mention of the visible Catholic church as distinguished from the invisible kingdom of Christ. However this forgetfulness, or this suppression may suit the liberal principles of thé “ nineteenth century," it is an exceedingly mischievous error, the propagation of which from the pulpit of the Establishment we feel it to be our duty to reprobate in the most unqualified terms; for it contains within itself that disorganizing principle, which can terminate in nothing but confusion, and the utter disruption of the ties of ecclesiastical communion!“ Schism no sin,” and “ Church-communion no duty," are the natural issue of these lax notions; and the visionary enthusiast, who decries the obligation of conformity to the appointed ceremonies and rites of the visible Church militant here on earth, under the mistaken idea that he has the kingdom of heaven within him; however he may talk of his spiritual fellowship with Christians of all denominations, fondly expects the end without the means, and adopts the self-sufficient spirit of Quakerism, which begins with pride, and ends with delusion!
We are told that the Sermons now under review are “ printed exactly as they were preached, with the exception of a very few verbal alterations.”—(Preface, p. 1.) We insert the following passage, which is the exordium to the fifth Sermon, (the text is taken from Matt. xiii. 17.) as a fair specimen of Dr. A.'s style.
There are a great many other passages in the Scripture which speak nearly the same language : there are a great many which speak of the Gospel as the greatest blessing which was ever given to the world; nay, it is said, that the things which it shows us are so wonderful and so excellent that even the angels desire to look into them. In this, as in many other instances, the words of the Scripture are repeated by ourselves over and over again, till they become words
*'See Pearson on the Creed. Pol. Edit. p. 314.
of course, which we fancy we most thoroughly believe. Every body, who calls himself a Christian, talks of the excellence and of the blessings of the Gospel, and that it is the most precious gift ever given by God to man. But it is very useful that we should be brought to think about what we thus readily confess; that we should not repeat a number of words without meaning, lest we most fatally deceive ourselves; that we should not talk of the Gospel as being the greatest blessing in the world, when in reality it is one of those for which we care the least; which goes the least way towards making us happy, and whose loss we should in our hearts endure with the least regret.-Pp. 55, 56.
The Doctor sometimes stoops to the familiar style of anecdote. Take this instance, which occurs in the same Sermon whence we have quoted the preceding extract. He is contrasting the different degrees of attention paid by us to our bodily and our spiritual wants.
We are ever taking thought what we shall eat, and what we shall drink, and wherewithal we shall be clothed. But the wants of the soul do not so easily win our attention : the love of our spiritual life, the love of life eternal, is not half so strong within us as the love of our natural life. The meat and drink of our souls, their raiment, their exercise, their rest, all that is required to keep them in health and vigour, how easily do we consent to part with this! I knew a case of a person who was going to live abroad, and when this purpose was mentioned to one who was a sincere Christian ; his first question was, what means of grace were likely to be met with in the country to which his friend was going. This was said in private conversation to a common friend; it was spoken quite naturally, just as much so as any of us might have asked about the healthiness of the country, whether provisions were cheap or dear in it; what was its society, and what its general conveniences of living. It was the simple question of a true disciple of Christ, who was used to think the soul of more consequence than the life that now is; 'who was accustoined to look upon the kingdom of God and his righteousness, as on things which we were most concerned to seek, and which it was of the first consequence to secure the means of gaining:-Pp. 59, 60.
From the Head Master of Rugby School we naturally look for something characteristic of his profession touching the education of youth, and the much mooted point of the compatibility of secular and classical with Christian learning ; nor are we disappointed ; and it is with pleasure that we are enabled to indulge our readers with the subsequent quotations touching these two topics. We are taking an extract from the twenty-seventh (perhaps the best) Sermon in the volume before us :
The most natural time for sowing the seed of eternal life, as well as of our reasonable life in this world, is in our early childhood. This can never be repeated too often; not, indeed, for our own sakes chiefly, who have long since passed our childhood, and to whom, whether it has been improved or wasted, it can never be recalled ; but for the sakes of those whose salvation (it is a very awful thought, but yet it is no more than the truth) may depend upon our care or neglect of them. And here it may be said, that it is not to cultivate the spirit to teach sacred things in the way of lessons, or even to make a child familiar with the history of the Bible. This may be done, and yet the mind or understanding may be alone the better for it. But in whatever degree we can make Christian feelings powerful within him, in proportion as we can make him obedient, humble, meek, and self-denying, in so far we are preparing his spirit for its eternal dwelling-place, and are training him up as an immortal creature. It were a great blessing, indeed, that he should add to all this the love and fear of God, and, above all, the love of God in Christ. And it is certain that children can understand and feel something about these things much earlier than is often believed: but then these feelings are conveyed to them by talking at different times and often about God's goodness, and Christ's love for them, much more than by lessons, or learning the catechism ; and the earlier that we endeavour to awaken them in the mind of a child, it is so much the better. All children, however, will not receive them equally; and pious parents may be sometimes shocked to see their children perfectly careless about all that is told them of God and Christ, while at the same time, in other respects, they may be good and obedient to their parents, and striving against falsehood and selfishness. ..... To walk by faith and not by sight, is, indeed, the work of the Christian ; but then the Christian is man in his highest possible state of perfection; and this spiritual perfection can no more be tooked for in a child, than the perfection of the understanding or of the body. ..... While, therefore, every good parent will long earnestly to see his child's mind open to the sense of heavenly things, and will strive to bring it to that understanding of them, he yet need not be discouraged if he sees his efforts to awaken the attention to these points at present quite unsuccessful. It is a most universal truth, “that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterwards that which is spiritual.” Î'rain a child to habits of obedience and self-denial; encourage his feelings of confidence and love towards his parents, of kindness and attention towards every one; and you are preparing him surely and steadily for that more advanced state, when his heavenly parent may succeed as the object of those feelings which are now directed only towards his earthly ones, and when the hope of eternal glory may take the place of those lower hopes of some future reward if he withstand present temptation, by which alone he, as yet, is capable of being affected.—Pp. 356—359. See also pp. 48, 49, & 327.
We would willingly, did our space permit, copy out the whole of the next paragraph, “But now for ourselves, &c.” It is in our Author's best manner. We must content ourselves, however, with laying before our readers the concluding part of it, assuring them that it is the most favourable example of Dr. Arnold's style in the whole volume. He is describing the changes and rapid successions of our mortal state:
Looking onwards twenty years more, and what will be our remaining interest in the worldly objects that now most delight us? We shall have reached the evening of our life, and the slanting shadows and the softer light will tell us how many hours have passed since the sun was in his noon-day strength. The body then will have certainly lost much of its vigour ; the mind, perhaps, will have suffered something also; there will be manifest signs that their day of work will soon be over. But how will it be with the spirit, and with spiritual desires and interests? They will be looking forward with a more lively hope to the first faint streaks of the dawn of the everlasting day; while the body and mind, like those who have spent the night in revelling, regard the coming light as a signal that their time of enjoyment is over. Twenty years yet again, and our bodies will be inouldering amongst those whom we pass by to enter these walls; and our minds and earthly schemes will be no more than those of the merest madman. And where shall our spirits then be, my brethren? With Christ, or with the devils; in the first opening spring of an eternity of joy, or in the beginning of such an endless death as is too dreadful to be regarded for an instant.—Pp. 360, 361.
How far Christians may interest themselves in worldly knowledge, farther than may be required by their particular profession, our