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perish with them! Good God! what a horrid abuse is this of the divine authority! But this notorious transgression is excused, as they think by this, that a minister, called the bishop's surrogate, but who is indeed the chancellor's servant, chosen, called, and placed there by him to be his crier, no better; that, when he hath examined, heard, and sentenced the cause, then the minister forsooth, pronounces the sentence. Just as if the rector of a parish church should exclude any of his congregation, and lock him out of the church; then comes the clerk, shews and jingles the keys, that all may take notice that he is excluded. And, by this his authority, 'the chancellor takes upon him to sentence not only laymen, but clergymen also, brought into his court, for any delinquency: and, in the court of Arches, to sentence even bishops themselves.

I remember when the bishop of Wells, hearing of a cause corruptly managed, and coming into court to rectify it, the chancellor, Dr. Duck, fairly and mannerly bid him be gone, for he had no power there to act any thing; and therewithal pulled out his patent, sealed by this bishop's predecessor, which frightened the poor bishop out of the court." Behold! this is the person, Sir, whom you have the courage to represent as only assumed by the bishop, not to do any act that is purely spiritual, but only to be his assistant in his judicial proceedings.Pp. 64—66.

With regard to this particular instance, did one important circumstance never occur to Mr. Towgood, the fact that Bishop Crofts, strongly as he felt upon this subject, remained a churchman and a Bishop notwithstanding? How happened it that “ the great prelate" left to the greater Mr. Towgood (for such Mr. Towgood evidently, in this case, considers himself) the discovery, that this abuse was “a full justification of dissent from the Church of England ?” For such being the title of Mr. Towgood's work, the reader is requested to remember that no allegations against the Church, however true, can be of the slightest use to that gentleman's argument, unless they touch this point: all beside is crimination and invective. But Mr. Towgood is constantly setting “ dignities, emoluments, and powers," against “ truth" (i. e. dissent); he declares that “ high dignities and preferments, mitres and thrones, lordships and large revenues, have a mighty force to bias and pervert the mind in its searches after TRUTH ;" and takes great credit for his independent secession, as if he, good honest man, if he had remained in the Church, would ever have been exposed to any such temptations, and had “ greatness thrust upon” him. Perhaps, therefore, Bishop Crofts was dazzled on this subject by the glare of his mitre. But this supposition, charitable as it is, will not stand examination; there is one point so clear, that even an archiepiscopal mitre could not obscure it; and that is the following. If a man happens to hold an opinion inconsistent with his professions, he is not the less respected, as long as this fact is unknown; but let it be once divulged, he loses all consideration in society: the religious regard him as profane, the merely orderly pronounce him dishonourable and degraded. Now, if Bishop Crofts had suspected any inconsistency between his opinions and his situation, and yet had not the Christian fortitude to resign his temporal emoluments, would he have been so foolish as to disclose his sentiments ? No, assuredly : he would not have breathed them to a second self, And what was the judgment of mankind in general on his conduct ? Was he ejected from society, and marked out as an apostate and a reprobate, by the common consent of all who professed to regard a mere morality? No such thing. He suffered not in his character, as A few extracts here, as not inapplicable, may not be unacceptable to our readers.

While the church reposed with confidence under a government entirely and exclusively in communion with her, there might be no benefit resulting from such parliamentary attendance, to overbalance the inconveniences of it. But when the protection, which had been extended to the church by the civil power since the disuse of these assemblies, has been withdrawn, the church must now stand up in its own defence.

That societies of whatever kind can be preserved only by general meetings, is a truth which universal experience and daily observation prove. We have only to look abroad at the general practice of mankind; and whether national governments, constituted members of the state with peculiar functions, or private societies collected with whatever object, or of whatever extent, all retain the principle of their life, only while they continue to exercise their functions in a general assembly. The strength of the principle of association has just been shewn with tremendous force in the union of the Roman Catholics, who by the mere exercise of it within the bounds of law, were able to overpower the constitution.

Were the clergy of the Established Church not recognized by the State as a general body, they would be criminal in their public duties of delivering unimpaired to their successors, those means which our ancestors provided for the preservation of true religion, if they did not now fly together at the frightful portents that surround us, and cover the ark of God with their defenceless bodies, or clothed with that "armour on the right hand, and on the left,"'* which is from above.

The most timid of the creatures of nature, the unarmed sheep, that favourite image of our Lord in expressing the character of his disciples, seek refuge in a general union when danger seems to approach. And the very instinct of selfpreservation should now unite the clergy into one general body for their own protection. But they are not left by our wisely-provident constitution to be impelled together fortuitously by imminent necessity; their convocation is provided for by our most ancient and venerable laws. And our whole code must be torn to pieces before the church, in all its branches, can cease to be a constituent part of the realm.

To see the public resolutions (they cannot be called laws) which are enacted directly affecting the church, a forgetfulness seems to have taken place of our most ancient and fundamental laws; or that they are laid aside as rusty armour, or ancient weapons curious in their shape, but no longer useful since the improvements of modern warfare; our legislators, engaged in the study and display of eloquence, and the memories of our lawyers filled with the regulations of the minute details of modern society, have left these laws to the study of the antiquary.

“ Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,

Exesa inveniet scabra rubigine pila :
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes,
Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris."

Georg. I. 494. The posterity of these gigantic founders of our constitution, building their sheds of temporary convenience amidst the deep and sublime foundations of former times, behold the ruins of that constitution with as much indifference, with as much ignorance of its beauty, of the principles of its construction, and of the wisdom of its design, as the Arab, who, insensible of the grandeur and beauty which surround him, pitches his tent and pastures his flock within the walls of Palmyra.-Pp. 30–33.

* Sid TWY ORAWY rñs OlkulogÚvns TWY DECI@V kal upotepôv. 2 Cor. vi. 7. The Christian is to be provided not only with armour for defence in the shield worn on the left arm, but with weapons in the right hand for resistance.

If a national church is to be maintained, about which doubts can be held only by the infidel and enthusiast; the only means left are by the clergy assuming that power, which it has been shewn belongs to them by the constitution, in their corporate capacity; in which by having long ceased to appear, they have lost their general influence. While that philosophy, which is the declared and active enemy of all religion, has incorporated itself; and succeeded in attaining a position, where it has placed its power upon that fulcrum, which whoever are in possession of are enabled to move the world—the education of the people. Such signs of the times and others (in which the increasing influence of this philosophy appears, not confined as heretofore to the learned, but spreading among the people, relaxing their religious faith, and moral obligations, and bringing into danger our institutions) should remind the clergy, that they have not been, as a body, overlooked in the constitution, but enabled to make an united effort for the preservation of the religion and virtue of the community.

The church is now left to its unsupported exertions in these great causes; and therefore, more especially called upon, to exercise its general functions in its lawful assembly, as the only mode of securing its existence, since all human protection has been withdrawn from it. And in the maintenance of their independence which has been restored to them, the clergy will learn to use their own strength, which is the only source of all real security, personal, national, or of peculiar societies. We have slept long enough under the protection of test laws, and of a system of exclusion; that has been withdrawn, and our church will now receive a new and more decisive character, if we be true to the position which we really occupy in the country, and trust for our maintenance in it to our knowledge, and a prudent exercise, of those laws which have secured such a blessing to this country and to the world, as a reformed Catholic church.

This is the contitutional mode appointed, for the clergy exercising their sacred duty in a general body; these are the human means provided for the maintenance of our church; which however can be made effectual only by the care with which all its ministers and members conduct themselves, in their several stations, in the spirit of those terms in which the church daily seeks the continuance of the protection (now all that is extended over it) of the Creator and Preserver of all mankind; " that it may be so guided and governed by his good Spirit, that all who profess and call themselves Christians, may be led into the way of truth, and hold the faith in unity of spirit, in the bond of peace, and in righteousness of life.”—Pp. 53–55.

After these powerful and comprehensive remarks, we shall only observe, in reference to the present state of things, that we most sincerely hope that every attempt on the part of the ministry or legislature to commit further inroads on the Church, will be instantly met by a resolute declaration and exercise of the dormant rights of the Convocation.

We have now analysed Mr. Towgood's work, and the public must judge between the parties. We shall only request the indulgence of the reader for one more paper on this subject, the great importance of which renders it necessary not altogether to abandon it, without some short summary of the state in which the argument is left.

THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER'S CHARGE. Mr. Editor, — An official publication of the Lord Bishop of Winchester's primary Charge having been put forth, in which there is a very important omission, I send you the clause as it appeared in the Hampshire Chronicle of the 17th of August last, that a docu

A few extracts here, as not inapplicable, may not be unacceptable to our readers.

While the church reposed with confidence under a government entirely and exclusively in communion with her, there might be no benefit resulting from such parliamentary attendance, to overbalance the inconveniences of it. But when the protection, which had been extended to the church by the civil power since the disuse of these assemblies, has been withdrawn, the church must now stand up in its own defence.

That societies of whatever kind can be preserved only by general meetings, is a truth which universal experience and daily observation prove. We have only to look abroad at the general practice of mankind; and whether national governments, constituted members of the state with peculiar functions, or private societies collected with whatever object, or of whatever extent, all retain the principle of their life, only while they continue to exercise their functions in a general assembly. The strength of the principle of association has just been shewn with tremendous force in the union of the Roman Catholics, who by the mere exercise of it within the bounds of law, were able to overpower the constitution.

Were the clergy of the Established Church not recognized by the State as a general body, they would be criminal in their public duties of delivering unimpaired to their successors, those means which our ancestors provided for the preservation of true religion, if they did not now fly together at the frightful portents that surround us, and cover the ark of God with their defenceless bodies, or clothed with that “armour on the right hand, and on the left," * which is from above.

The most timid of the creatures of nature, the unarmed sheep, that favourite image of our Lord in expressing the character of his disciples, scek refuge in a general union when danger seems to approach. And the very instinct of selfpreservation should now unite the clergy into one general body for their own protection. But they are not left by our wisely-provident constitution to be impelled together fortuitously by imminent necessity; their convocation is provided for by our most ancient and venerable laws. And our whole code must be torn to pieces before the church, in all its branches, can cease to be a constituent part of the realm.

To see the public resolutions (they cannot be called laws) which are enacted directly affecting the church, a forgetfulness seems to have taken place of our most ancient and fundamental laws; or that they are laid aside as rusty armour, or ancient weapons curious in their shape, but no longer useful since the improvements of modern warfare; our legislators, engaged in the study and display of eloquence, and the memories of our lawyers filled with the regulations of the minute details of modern society, have left these laws to the study of the antiquary.

“ Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro,

Exesa inveniet scabra rubigine pila :
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes,
Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris."

Georg. I. 494. The posterity of these gigantic founders of our constitution, building their sheds of temporary convenience amidst the deep and sublime foundations of former times, behold the ruins of that constitution with as much indifference, with as much ignorance of its beauty, of the principles of its construction, and of the wisdom of its design, as the Arab, who, insensible of the grandeur and beauty which surround him, pitches his tent and pastures his flock within the walls of Palmyra.-Pp. 30–33.

ôà Tây 6mA@y Tĩs 6 Kaorurns Tập 66tâm cai uptategov. 2 Cor. vi. 7. The Christian is to be provided not only with armour for defence in the shield worn on the left arm, but with weapons in the right hand for resistance.

If a national church is to be maintained, about which doubts can be held only by the infidel and enthusiast; the only means left are by the clergy assuming that power, which it has been shewn belongs to them by the constitution, in their corporate capacity; in which by having long ceased to appear, they have lost their general influence. While that philosophy, which is the declared and active enemy of all religion, has incorporated itself; and succeeded in attaining a position, where it has placed its power upon that fulcrum, which whoever are in possession of are enabled to move the world—the education of the people. Such signs of the times and others (in which the increasing influence of this philosophy appears, not confined as heretofore to the learned, but spreading among the people, relaxing their religious faith, and moral obligations, and bringing into danger our institutions) should remind the clergy, that they have not been, as a body, overlooked in the constitution, but enabled to make an united effort for the preservation of the religion and virtue of the community.

The church is now left to its unsupported exertions in these great causes; and therefore, more especially called upon, to exercise its general functions in its lawful assembly, as the only mode of securing its existence, since all human protection has been withdrawn from it. And in the maintenance of their inde pendence which has been restored to them, the clergy will learn to use their own strength, which is the only source of all real security, personal, national, or of peculiar societies. We have slept long enough under the protection of test laws, and of a system of exclusion; that has been withdrawn, and our church will now receive a new and more decisive character, if we be true to the position which we really occupy in the country, and trust for our maintenance in it to our knowledge, and a prudent exercise, of those laws which have secured such a blessing to this country and to the world, as a reformed Catholic church.

This is the contitutional mode appointed, for the clergy exercising their sacred duty in a general body; these are the human means provided for the maintenance of our church; which however can be made effectual only by the care with which all its ministers and members conduct themselves, in their several stations, in the spirit of those terms in which the church daily seeks the continuance of the protection (now all that is extended over it) of the Creator and Preserver of all mankind; "that it may be so guided and governed by his good Spirit, that all who profess and call themselves Christians, may be led into the way of truth, and hold the faith in unity of spirit, in the bond of peace, and in righteousness of life.”—Pp. 53–55.

After these powerful and comprehensive remarks, we shall only observe, in reference to the present state of things, that we most sincerely hope that every attempt on the part of the ministry or legislature to commit further inroads on the Church, will be instantly met by a resolute declaration and exercise of the dormant rights of the Convocation.

We have now analysed Mr. Towgood's work, and the public must judge between the parties. We shall only request the indulgence of the reader for one more paper on this subject, the great importance of which renders, it necessary not altogether to abandon it, without some short summary of the state in which the argument is left.

THE BISHOP OF WINCHESTER'S CHARGE. Mr. Editor, — An official publication of the Lord Bishop of Winchester's primary Charge having been put forth, in which there is a very important omission, I send you the clause as it appeared in the Hampshire Chronicle of the 17th of August last, that a docu

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