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XXXIX.-Dikes at Columbus, Ky. (See page 182.)

XL.–Anchorage used at Hickman, Ky. (See page 192.)
XLI.--Revetment at Hickman, Ky. (See pages 18 and 190.)
XLII.-Revetment at New Madrid, Mo. (See page 194.)
XLIII.-Dikes at Caruthersville, Mo., 1898. (See page 196.)
LXIV.- Revetment at Caruthersville, Mo., 1899. (See page 19.)

XLV.-Revetment at Daniels Point, Plum Point Reach. (See page 199.) XLVI.—Revetment at Ashport Bend, Plum Point Reach. (See page 206.) XLVII.--Revetment at Fletchers Bend, Plum Point Reach.

20 and 209.) XLVIII.--Revetment at Upper Osceola and part of Lower Osceola Bars,

Plum Point Reach. (See page 216.)
IL.-Revetment at Lower Osceola and Bullerton Bars. (See page 217.)
L.-Revetment in Memphis Harbor. (See pages 9, 133, 136, 146, 161,

and 177.)
LI.-Map of Helena, Ark., and vicinity. (See page 183.)
LII.--Revetment at Helena, Ark. (See page 229.)
LIII.-Section of Mat Barge. (See page 240.)
LIV.-Anchorage of Barges and Mats. (See page 242.)

LV.-Construction of Fascine Mat. (See pages 189 and 245.)
LVI.--Head of Fascine Mat. (See pages 189 and 245.)
LVII.--Map of Plum Point Reach, 1882. (See pages 32, 49, 50, and 264.)
LVIII.--Map of Plum Point Reach, 1884. (See pages 32, 49, 128, 165, and

264.) LIX.--Map of Plum Point Reach, 1888. (See pages 32, 49, 74, 166,

and 264.) LX.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1889. (See pages 32, 49, 75, 168,

and 264.) LXI.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1890. (See pages 32, 49, 77, 169,

and 264.) LXII.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1891. (See pages 32, 49, 171, and 264.) LXIII.--Map of Plum Point Reach, 1892. (See pages 32, 49, 173, and 264.) LXIV.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1893. (See pages 32, 49, 80, 81, 89,

and 264.)
LXV.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1894. (See pages 32, 49, 84, and 264.)
LXVI.---Map of Plum Point Reach, 1895. (See pages 32, 49, 84, and 264.)
LXVII.--Map of Plum Point Reach, 1896. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)
LXVIII.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1899. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)
LXIX.-Map of Plum Point Reach, 1900. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)

LXX. Levee Map, First Part. (See pages 273 to 276.)
LXXI.-Levee Map, Second Part. (See pages 30, 273, 275, and 276.)
LXXII.---Levee Map, Third Part. (See pages 30, 273, 275, and 276.)
LXXIII.-Levee Map, Fourth Part. (See pages 19, 273, 275, and 276.)

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A RESUMÉ OF THE OPERATIONS IN THE FIRST AND
SECOND DISTRICTS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER

IMPROVEMENT

BY

Major E. EVELETH WINSLOW

Corps of Engineers

PART I

-Dikes at Columbus, Ky. (See page 182.)
--Anchorage used at Hickman, Ky. (See page 192.)
- Revetment at Hickman, Ky. (See pages 18 and 190.)
-Revetment at New Madrid, Mo. (See page 194.)
--Dikes at Caruthersville, Mo., 1898. (See page 196.)
-Revetment at Caruthersville, Mo., 1899. (See page 19.)
- Revetment at Daniels Point, Plum Point Reach. (See page 14
- Revetment at Ashport Bend, Plum Point Reach. (See page 20.
Revetment at Fletchers Bend, Plum Point Reach. (See page

20 and 209.)
- Revetment at Upper Osceola and part of Lower Osceola Bar

Plum Point Reach. (See page 216.)
Revetment at Lower Osceola and Bullerton Bars. (See page 217.
levetment in Memphis Harbor. (See pages 9, 133, 136, 146, 167

and 177.)
(ap of Helena, Ark., and vicinity. (See page 183.)
levetment at Helena, Ark. (See page 229.)
ection of Mat Barge. (See page 240.)
inchorage of Barges and Mats. (See page 242.)
Construction of Fascine Mat. (See pages 189 and 245.)
ead of Fascine Mat. (See pages 189 and 245.)
ap of Plum Point Reach, 1882. (

(See pages 32, 49, 50, and 264.
ap of Plum Point Reach, 1884. (See pages 32, 49, 128, 165, and

264.)
ap of Plum Point Reach, 1888. (See pages 32, 49, 74, 166,
and 264.)
ap of Plum Point Reach, 1889. (See pages 32, 49, 75, 168,
and 264.)
ip of Plum Point Reach, 1890. (See pages 32, 49, 77, 169,
and 264.)
p of Plum Point Reach, 1891. (See pages 32, 49, 171, and 264.)
p of Plum Point Reach, 1892. (See pages 32, 49, 173, and 264.)
p of Plum Point Reach, 1893. (See pages 32, 49, 80, 81, 89,
ind 264.)

of Plum Point Reach, 1894. (See pages 32, 49, 84, and 264.)
) of Plum Point Reach, 1895. (See pages 32, 49, 84, and 264.)
1 of Plum Point Reach, 1896. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)
- of Plum Point Reach, 1899. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)

of Plum Point Reach, 1900. (See pages 32, 49, and 264.)
e Map, First Part. (See pages 273 to 276.)
- Map, Second Part. (See pages 30, 273, 275, and 276.)

Map, Third Part. (See pages 30, 273, 275, and 276.)
Map, Fourth Part. (See pages 19, 273, 275, and 276.)

The Mississippi River Commission was organized in accordance with the river and harbor act of June 28, 1879, and has, in addition to other duties, general supervision of the improvement of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Ill., to the head of the passes, a distance of about 1,160 miles. For convenience, this part of the river was, in August, 1882, divided into four parts, called districts.

The immediate execution of the work and the carrying out of the various projects have been put in charge of officers of the Corps of Engineers, detailed as secretary of the Commission, and to the different districts,

The First district extends from Cairo to the foot of Island 40, a distance of about 220 miles. The Second district extends from the foot of Island 40 to the mouth of White River, a distance of about 175 miles. From the organization of the districts in 1882 until 1885 these two districts were in charge of different officers with separate offices, but in the latter year they were both placed in charge of the same officer and the offices united, and since that time the two districts have formed practically but a single district, in charge of what in the Proceedings of the Commission is designated as the “First and Second district officer." (The officers who have been in charge of these districts are mentioned in the accompanying table.)

List of Officers in Charge of First and Second Districts, Improring Mississippi Ricer.

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Capt. Jas. B. Quinn

--, 1881 May 29, 188? Capt. J. G. D. Knight. May 29, 18 Apr. 14, 1887 Lieut. T. W. Symons - Dec. 19, 188% June 6, 1843

Assistant to Capt.

Knight. Capt. A. M. Miller.

1881 Sept. 1, 1884 Capt. C. B. Sears

Sept. 1, 1884 Mar. 10, 1885 Temporarily in

charge; (aptain Sear's was at that time Third Di

trict Otheer. Capt. Smith S. Leuch - Apr. 14, 1885 Mar. 2), 1888 Mar. 10, 1885 Mar. 25, 18KDuring term

(opt. Leach the Districts were united.

First and Second Districts

Names of Officers.

Remarks.

From

To

Capt. W’m. T. Rossell, Mar. 25, 1888 July 7, 1884 Temporarily in charge: Capt. Rossell was at

that time Third District Ofcer. Capt. Smith S. Lench - July 1, 1888. June 19, 1890 second tour. Cipt. S. W. Roessler June 19, 1890 Jan). 7, 18951 (apt. Graham D. Fitch Jan. 7. 189.5 May 18, 1897 Capt. M. M. Patrick -- May 18, 1897 Dec. 5, 1898 Capt. E. E. Winslow Dec. 5, 1898

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Within these districts the work has consisted of snagging, surveys, dredging, regulation works, and levees.

SNAGGING

This work is carried on independently of the Commission by an officer of the Corps of Engineers stationed at St. Louis, and not coming under this office, no further mention of it will be made.

in Charge of First and Second Districts, Im proring Mississippi Pita

SURVEYS

First District.

Second District.

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---, 1881 May 29, 1862 t. May 9, 194. Apr. 14, 1887 Dec. 19, 1897 June 6, 1883

Assistant to

Knight. 1881 Sept. 1, 1884 Sept. 1, 1884 Mar. 10, 1885 Temporar

charge; Sears was at time Thiri

trict Officer Apr. 14, 1885 Mar. 25, 1888 Mar. 10, 1885 Mar. 25, 1868 During tert

Capt. Leach Districts united.

The river throughout these districts has been well and carefully surveyed and the results embodied in maps on various scales. The work was begun in 1876, before the organization of the Commission, in connection with the Lake Survey, and since the Commission was organized the work has been completed. This general survey has been carried on under the direction of the secretary, and such minor surveys as have been made under this office have been confined to local surveys of levee districts or of localities where work was going on, and all such work has been based upon permanent marks established by the General Survey. Consequently, no general description of the subject of surveys would properly come from this office.

First and Second Districts

DREDGING

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Mar. 25, 1858 July 7, 1888 Temporarily in charge; Capt. Rossell 59

that time Third District Officer.
July 1, 1888 June 19, 1890 Second tour.
June 19, 1890 Jan. 1, 1895
Jan. 7, 1845 May 18, 1897
May 19, 1897 Dec. 5, 1898
Dec. 5, 1898

As will be mentioned later, the principal obstructions to the navigation of the Mississippi River consist of sand bars built up at interyals of a few miles by the action of the current during high water, in many cases until the crest of the bar is above the level of the water surface at low water. Through these bars the current is compelled, as the river falls, to cut low-water channels, and it was thought that this action of the current could be assisted and hastened by dredging. In November, 1891, a committee of the Commission was appointed to consider the matter, and acting upon the recommendation submitted in the report of this committee (see Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1893, page 3570), the Commission ordered the construction of an experimental dredge. This dredge, the Alpha, was completed and put in use in 1894, and was so successful that other and larger dredges were built.

The first experiments of this character were carried on under this office, but the work was in 1896 transferred to the care of the secretary, and since it has been in his charge it has been developed until now it is one of the most important works under the Commis

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sion. As this work was only in its experimental stage when under this office, no further account of it will be given.

There is one small piece of dredging work that has remained continuously under this office, the improvement of Wolf River, but as this is a small work, carried on with a small dipper dredge, and as no unusual engineering features are involved, it will not be described.

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LEVEES AND REGULATION WORKS

The main work under this office has consisted of the construction of levees and regulation works, but before discussing them it will be well to give a brief description of the river and of the hy. draulic forces to be contended with in these construction works, restricting the description to those points only which are of importance in connection with the regulation of the river. In this description and in the discussion of the regulation works it will be necessary to refer to different localities by names not in all cases well known, and the custom now in use in official communication will be followed of referring to all such places by their distance below Cairo, and their location on the left or right bank. Thus (242 R) refers to a place 242 miles below Cairo and on the right bank.

DESCRIPTION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE

FIRST AND SECOND DISTRICTS

The Lower Mississippi, as the part of that river below Cairo may be designated, belongs to the class of silt-bearing rivers flowing through alluvial deposits, and does not differ in its essential characteristics from other streams of the same class, though in its size and in the magnitude of its hydraulic forces it far exceeds any other river, the regulation and control of which has been attempted.

The general course of the river, and the size and shape of its alluvial bottom are perhaps best shown on a map issued by the Commission that is known as the Map of the Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi River.

The alluvial bottom through which the river flows is from 30 to 60 miles wide, and is bordered on either side by bluffs many feet above the reach of even the highest flood. Between these bluffs the land is generally, or would be were there no levees, subject to overflow at stages of from 5 to 10 feet below the maximum height that the floods have reached. Though generally flat, the bottom land is

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