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Zaccheus gets up into a Tree to see JESUS. Sect. 143. informed that he was coming by that Way, be Jesus who he was, and could w diligently fought an Opportunity to see this cele, not for the Preis, becaule he

fougbi an Opportunity to see us Cice was little of Stature. Luke XIX.

brated Jesus, what sort of a Person be was; but
be could not compass his Design because of the Croud
about him ; for be himself was very little of Sta-
ture. And running therefore before the rest of 4 And he ran before, and
the Company, without regarding what they might climbed up, into a Sycamore-
think or fay of him, he got up into a Sycamore- to pass that Way.

tree to see him ; for he was
Tree, that he might see him there distinctly ; for
he perceived be was to pass that Way, and the Tree

stood so near the Road, that he must go close 5 by it. And Jefus, when he came to the Place 5 And when Jesus came

where he was, looked up, and saw him; and know- to the Place, he looked up ing his Disposition, Character, and Circumstances, him, Zaccheus, make hafte,

and saw him, and said unto he immediately said to him, Zaccheus, make baste, and come down ; for Toand come down for To-day I design thee a Vigt, day I must abide at thy

House.
and must abide for a while at thine House ; and
fully satisfied that I shall be a welcome Guest,

I take the Liberty to invite myself thither.
6 And Zaccheus was fo overjoyed that Jesus should 6 And he made haste,
distinguish him in such a Manner, that he came and came down, and re-

ceived him
down with all the Speed he could, and gladly en-

joyfully.
tertained him at his House, thinking himself high-
ly honoured by the Presence of so excellent a
Perfon,

And the Pharisees, and other felf-conceited y And when they saw it, Persons wbo saw [it,] were very much offended they all murmured, saying, at the particular Regard that Jesus thewed him ; Guest with a Man that is a

That he was gone to be and they all murmured saying, He is gone in to Sinner. refresh himself at a Man's House (d), who is certainly a notorious Sinner, fince he follows the

fcandalous Employment of a Publican. 8 But as Zaccheus now was quite another Man 8 And Zaccheus stood, than he had been before, and Divine Graçe had and

before and Divine Grace had and said unto the Lord, Be. changed his Heart, that he might fully obviatė

hold, Lord, the Half of my

Goods these Reflections, and manifest the Truth of his Conversion, he food forth in the Face of all the Company, and said to the Lord with great Reverence and Affection, Behold, ob Lord, I acknowledge the Sins of my past Life, and desire to

testify

(d) He is gone in to refresh himself &c.] The Phrase xalaaurat mape Two properly signifies, to bait at a Person's House on a journey, referring to their laying down their own Burthens, os loosening them from their Beasts, at such Times and Places. See Wolf. Vol. i. pag. 733.

1. pag. 733 1

PA

Jesus goes to his House, and he promises to restore four-fold. 275
Goods I give to the Poor : testify my Repentance for them by an entire and Sect. 143.
and if I have taken any immédiate Reformation ; as the First-fruits of m y
thing from any Man by
falle accusation. I restore which I openly declare, that the Half of my Goodsbuke sa.
bim four-fold.

I give to the Poor ; and out of the Remainder,
if I wrongfully have taken any thing from any Man
by injurious Charges or oppressive Claims (e), I
am ready, not only to restore a Fifth Part more
than the Principal, (which is all that the Law
requires in such cases besides the Trespass-Offer-
ing, Lev. vi. 2,-5. and Numb. v. 7, 8.) but

even to return shim four-fold (f).
9 And Jesus said unto And Jesus said to Žaccheus, and to them that 9
him, This Day is Salvation were about him. Surely To-day is Salvation come to
come to this House : forso-
much as he also is the Son

this Houfe ; and it is evidently to be seen, that
of Abraham.

spiritual Bleffings are imparted to it, and designed
for it, when such a penitent and religious Tem-
per is expressed ; fince notwithstanding all his Sins,
it is now manifest, that even this Man also is a
true Son of Abraham, not only descended lineally

from him (g), but of a Character in some mea-
10 For the Son of Man sure worthy of so honourable a Descent. And 10
is therefore, notwithstanding all your Murmurings,

I rejoice

(e) If I wrongfully have taken any thing, &c.] The Word eruxopay/noa (as Heinsus has abundantly shewn,) may properly signify any Kind of Oppression, especially under the Pretence of Law. (Compare Ecclef. iv. 1. and v. 8. Septuag.) It seems therefore not so proper to limit it, as our Transation does, to an Injury done by a false Accufation, which implies something of a formal Trial, and Defence of the Party accused; whereas many Frauds and Oppressions might be practised by such a Tax-Gatherer, where nothing of this Sort occurred.

O I restore him four.fold.] This was the utmost that the 7 ewis Law required, even in Cases of a fraudulent Concealment and Conviction ; (unless where an Ox had been killed or Jold, and so its Labour lost to the Owner, and the Discovery rendered more difficult ; Exod. xxii. 1.) for the Phrase of restoring seven-fold (Prov. vi. 31.) seems only Proverbial, to express making abundant Satisfaction. But if a Man not legally convicted or accused, voluntarily discovered a Fraud he had committed, besides his Trespass-Offering, he was to add to the Principal only a fifth Part. Lev, vi. 5. Zaccheus therefore news the Sincerity of his Repentance by such an Offer. - Some Commentators (with Salmafius, de Fæn. pag. 242.) have remarked, that oppressive Publicans were by the Roman Law required to restore four-fold : But this was only after Judgment obtained, where they had been guilty of, extorting by Force ; whereas before Conviction it was enough to make Reftitution of what had been taken ; and even after it, in common Cases, all that the Law required was Feitoring twice as much. (Leg. locatio Vestigal. $. quod illic and L. hoc edi&to effic. Digeft. Le Publicanis.) Archbishop Tillotson juftly observes, that had more than an Eighth Pari

ccheus's Possessions been unjustly gotten, he could not have been able to make such ritution, after having given away Half of what he now had to the Poor, even tho' he nad now stripped himself of all. Tillots. Works, Vol. iii. pag. 86.

18). Defcended lineally from him. 7 The Name of Zaccheus (which is the same with Laccai, Ezr. ii. 9.) thews he was a Jew. See Lightfoot, Hor. Hebr. in lo

de Fæn. pag. 386.

10.

276

RefleEtions on the Conversion of Zaccheus, Sect. 143. I rejoice in the Confequences of this happy Visit is come to seek and to save e to him, as answering the great Purposes of my

that which was lost.. Luke XlX. Life ; for the Son of Man, as I have formerly de

clared, (Mat. xviii. 11. Sect. 9.4.) is come to seek and
to save that which was loft, and it is the grand De-
sign of his Abode on Earth to recover those, that
like this poor Zaccheus in his unconverted State,
were wandering in the way to everlasting Ruin.

IMPROV E M E N T.

Ver. 9.

T HUS did our Lord Jesus Christ, wheresoever he came, scatter

| Bleslings around him, both to the Souls, and the Bodies of Men. Luke xix. Who can wonder, that Zaccheus had a Curiosity to see such a Person! And 2, 3. how happily did that Curiosity end ? Christ graciously observed' bim, and

with an amiable Frankness and Openness of Heart, invited himself to be Ver. 5.

a Guest at his House ; chusing to accept the Entertainment of a Publican, and to distinguish with a particular Regard one that was so desirous to see him. And let us diligently observe, how happy a Change this Visit produced in the Master of the Family. Oh Zaccheus, well wast thou repaid for thine Hospitality, when Salvation came to thine House, and the Saviour himself bore Witness to thee as a Son of Abraham!

What cannot the Grace of God effect? This Publican was in the

Morning contriving only how he might increase his Esate by all possible Ver. 8. Methods of Gain, and before Evening he cries out, Lord, the Half of

my Goods I give to the Poor. Thus does the Spirit of Christ operate on the Soul, producing in it the Fruits of Righteousness and Charity to our Fellow-Creatures, as well as of Love to God, and Faith in the Redeemer. And surely the Miracle, by which the Walls of Jericho were many Ages before thrown down by the Sound of Rams-Horns, was not greater in its Kind, than that which now triumphed over the Heart of Zaccheus, and threw down all the Obstacles which corrupt Nature had formed against the Entrance of Christ into it.

Now were his Eyes opened, and he saw in a Moment, how much more valuable the Pearl of Price was, than all the Riches he could part with to procure it. And he judged rightly of Religion, when he saw the Necessity, not only of Faith, but of Charity too, and not only of Cha

rity, but of Restitution also to those whom he had injured, without 1 which, Pretences to Charity are but presenting to God Robbery for a

Burnt-Offering. Mark x. 46, Our Lord's Progress is marked with another Work of Divine Power

and Beneficence, in opening the Eyes of the Blind. With what Importunity was the Cure desired ? And when the Petitioner was for a while discou

raged,

& feq.

277

and on the Cure of the Two Blind Men. raged, with what Eagerness was that Importunity repeated ? Thou Son of Sect. 143. David, bave Mercy on me! Thus will the Sinner cry to Jesus, when he sees how much he needs him. But, alas, Men are not aware of their spiri- Ver. 48. tual Indigence and Distress : They say, they are rich, and increased in Goods, and have need of nothing ; and know not, that they are wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked. (Rev. iii. 17) .

When once they come to be awakened to a just Sense of their Case. there is then Room for Hope, and great Encouragement for their Address. We may in such Circumstances say to them, as was said to Bartimeus, Be Ver. 49. of good Courage, rife, be calleth thee. With Pleasure should we deliver fuch a Message ; with Pleasure should we lead on the Lame and the Blind, the Weak and the Trembling, in their Application to Christ; and in all the Instances, in which his victorious Grace is exercised, should join with those who have received it, in glorifying GOD, and in celebrating the Luke xviit: Praise of this Deliverer, whom he has mercifully raised up for his people. 43.

SECT. CXLIV.
CHRIST delivers the Parable of the Ten Pounds committed

by a Prince to his Servants, and represents the Vengeance
taken by him on his rebellious Subjects. Luke XIX. 11,---28.

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LUKE XIX. 11.

*Luke XIX. 11. AND as they heard these N OW Jesus, orf Occasion of Zaccheus's. Con- Sect. 144. A Things, he added and I version, having expressly said that he was spake a Parable, because he was nigh to Terufalem, and come to be a Saviour, the People, as they heard Luke As. because they thought that these Things, were ready to conclude, that at his the Kingdom of God should coming to Jerusalem, he would openly declare immediately appear.

himself to be the promised Messiah"; but he con-
tinued [his Discourse,] and spake a very useful and
instructive Parable, because he was now drawing
near to Jerufalem (a), and he perceived they
thought, that the Kingdom of GOD would immé-
diately be revealed among them, and that he, as
the Messiah, would assume the Government, and
not only free Ifrael from the Roman Yoke, but

spread

(a) Because he was near to Jerusalem.] The following Parable considered in this View, as suited to the Circumstance of Time, and to the Case of those to whom it was delivered, will appear a moft wise and seasonable Admonicion ; and by neglecting the Instruction it: was designed to give them, the Jews deservedly brought Ruin on themselves.

(6) Ilent

12.

278 CHRIST delivers the Parable of the Ten Pounds. Sect. 144. spread his Triumphs over all the Heathen Nations.

In order therefore to rectify their Notions on this 12 He said therefore, A Luke XIX. Head..and to warn them · Head, and to warn them of the Danger they certain Noble-man went in

of the Danger they to a far Country to receive would incur by rejecting him, when they saw for himself a Kingdom, and those secular Views disappointed, be offered to to return. their Consideration this Similitude ; and said,

A certain Person of a noble, Birth went to a distant Country, in order to receive from a superior Prince there an Investiture to a Kingdom, which was then fallen to himself, and of which the Place where he dwelt made a Part (6), intending afterwards to return, and fix his Residence in his own

And before he set out on his four 13 And be called his Ten ney, having called Ten of his Servants, be deli- Servants, and delivered them

Ten Pounds, and said unco vered to them Ten Pounds (c), lodging One Pound them, Occupy till I come. in the Hands of each, and said unto them, Trade with this Money, till I come back to take an Account of your Improvement. (Compare Mat. xxv.

14, & feq. Sect. 165.) 14. But in the mean Time some of his Citizens, 14 But his Citizens hated among whom he had before lived in a more pri

him, and sent a Message af.

ter him, saying, We will vate Character and Station, bated him, and sent

not an Embassy after him (d) to prevent his Establishment in his Kingdom; expressly saying, We are at all Adventures determined, that we will not

bave

(6) Went to a distant Country to receive a Kingdom, &c.] The Parable seems to suppose this Noble Person to be the Son of a Prince, who, on some domestick or publick Revolution, was to enter upon the Possession of his Dominions, and to be confirmed in the Government of them by the Approbation of some more potent State ; as the Kings of Judea, and other neighbouring States, frequently were by the Romans : (See Yoseph. Antiq. lib. xiv. cap. 14. (al. 26.) §. 4, 5. & lib. xvii. cap. 9. al. 11.) He is therefore described, as setting out with the View of being owned at his Return as their undoubted Sovereign. (Sce Le Cleri's Harmony, pag. 397.) This Representation of the Matter is so natural, that one would wonder what Room there could be for the Controversy between Mallemanfius and Athanafius de Paris about it. It is quite needless to pretend, that this is an Historical Narration, that Archelaus is the Nobleman referred to, &c.

(c) He delivered to them Ten Pounds.] The ura, or Mina, as it is commonly called, contained Sixty Shekels ; (Ezek. xlv. 12.) and therefore according to the common Calculation of the Worth of a Shekel, placing it at Half a Crown of our Money, it was Seven Pounds Ten Shillings ; but according to Dr. Prideaux, who sets the Shekel at Three Shillings, the Mina was Nine Pounds Sterling. - Our Lord probably chose to mention this small Sum, to illustrate the Munificence of the Master, in bestowing on the faithful Servant so great and noble a Reward. Compare ver. 17.

(d) Sent an Embally after him.] This is expressed in such a Manner, as may intimate their sending Embassadors to the superior Court, to enter their Proteft against his being admitted to the Regal Power, and to delare their Resolution to oppose his Accesfion. And so it well represents the folemn Manner in which the Jews renounced Christ, acting as in the Name of the Lord, and with a pretended Zeal for his Authority and Glory.

(e) Be

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