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A Pharisee wonders, that Christ did not wajh before Dinner. 9 9 sanctifying Spirit, without which our corrupt Hearts will find out a ready Sect. 109. Way to abuse the choicest of his Providential Favours, to the Dishonour O-v^vJ of his Holy Name, and the deeper wounding of our own miserable Souls! Ver" *3*


Our Lord dining at the House of a Pharisee, seriously admonishes him and his Brethren of their Guilt and Danger; by which they are exasperated, rather than reformed. Luke XI. 37, to the End.

AND as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to Meat.

Luke XI. 37. Luke XI. 37.

\JOfV after our Lord had delivered these Things, Sect. 110;
1 y it happened one Day, that as he was speaking 0"-v\j
to the People about the great Concerns of their Lukc XI*
eternal Salvation (a), a certain Pharisee then pre- 37'
sent invited him to dine -with him; and with what-
ever View he might do it, Jesus, that he might
not seem morose, or insensible of a Civility, ac-
cepted the Offer, went in to his House, and sate
down to Table.

Æd when the Pharisee, in whose House he was, 38
saw that he did not, according to the Tradition of
the Elders, and the constant Custom of their Sect,
first wash before Dinner, he wondered [at it,] con-
sidering the Character he had for an extraordinary
Degree of Sanctity.

But the Lord perceiving his Thoughts, and 39
knowing that in some Circumstances a faithful
Reproof is the most valuable Token of Friendship
and Gratitude, said to him, As I fee you are now

offended •

(a) It happened one Day, as he was speaking, &c] The attentive Reader will easily observe, that I have here omitted what occurs from the End of the lyh, to the Beginning

n* 31tbFerSe- That Passage is inserted, Sea. 6i, 64. because it is exactly parallel

to Mat. xu 22, tsfseq. and Mark iii. 22, Us seq. I could fee no Proof, that the fame Discourse, with just the very same Circumstances, happened again here; and as this seemed improbable, in Proportion to the. Variety and Resemblance of those Circumstances, I thought it was better thus to transpose Luke's Story, than to take the Repetition for granted. The rhrase & /t ra /«Aw«, while he was speaking, will, I think, fairly admit the Turn I have given it in the Paraphrase; but if any judge otherwise, it will be easy to turn back to the silage as inserted before, Vol. i. pag. 371, fcf seq. and all I have said above to introduce u* Beaton before us will be true on that Supposition, ■

N 2 (I) Oh

38 And when the Pharisee sawir, he marvelled that he had not first washed before Dinner.

39 And the Lord said unto


40 Ye Fools, did not he that made that which is without, make that whichis within also?

ioo the Inward Part is more to be regarded than the Outward,

Sect. 110. offended at my neglecting the Ceremony of wash- unt0 nim> Now do >'e Pna-
ing before Dinner, I cannot but plainly tell you, S^SfSS?
that you Pharisees are too much like those vain but your inward Part is fulh
People, that cleanse only the Outside of the Cup and of Ravening and Wicked^
the Dip, while the Inside, which is of much nese'
greater Importance, is left dirty and foul; for
with regard to many of you, your Inward Part,
even your very Heart and Conscience, is defiled,
being full of Rapine, and of all the foulest: Kinds

40 of Pollution and Wickedness. But let me seri-
ously ask you, oh ye thoughtless Creatures (Jb), and
let me charge you that ye ask yourselves, Did not
he that made the Outfide, make also that which is
within? Did not the fame God, that created the
Body, create the Soul too? and must he not in-
timately know his own Work, and discern and
abhor all those secret Abominations, which, in
Contempt of his Omniscience, you study so art-
fully to conceal from your Fellow-Creatures?
(Compare Psal. xciv. 8, 9.)

41 I would therefore, from the sincerest Concern
for your true Honour and Happiness, exhort you,
not only to purge yourselves from secret Wicked-
ness, but to abound in the Exercise of universal
Goodness, and particularly to give Alms with Li-
berality in Proportion to your Substance fe); and
then, if it be done from a right Principle, behold,
God, the great Proprietor of all, will accept and


(b) Oh ye thoughtless Creatures.']. As nypom is a milder Word (han //»p«, I chose to render it thus, rather than as in our Translation. (See Note (1) on Mat. v. 22. Vol. i. tag. 229.) The learned Eisner (Observ. Vol. i. p. 227.) explains the latter Part of the Verse, as if it had been said, " There is a great deal of Difference between cleaning the Outside, and clean"ing that which is within, and no such necessary Connection between them, as you seem ** to suppose." To justify this, he urges 2 Sam. xix. 24. and one Passage in Arijlophanes, sphere vunf signifies to cleanse; but the Sense is so unusual, and that commonly received so much more lively and important, that I could not persuade myself to deviate from our Translation here.

(c) In Proportion to your Sub/lance.] Thus Grotius understands it. The learned Bos (Extreit. peg. 26.) has, I think, abundantly proved, the Words To. ivofl*. (for >ut]a. Ta vo-fla.,) will very justly admit this Sense, and are thus used by some of the best Greek C.rssics. No other seems to agree so well with the Connexion; not even that ingenious Turn of Rapke

lius, (Annot. ex Xen. pag. 93, 96.) who explains ra '.ml*, by To iv\at r* <wolnpiv Km Tvc

-oa.^iS'of, Mat. xxiii. 26. or that which is within the Cup and Dijh, as if it had been said, "Give Meat to the Hungry, and Drink to the Thirsty, and make a liberal Distribution "of those Things that are within the Cup and Dish." But the last View in which To '.ruby had been mentioned, was, as expressing the Temper os the Heart, (ver. 4C.J which is a strong Objection against this great Man's Interpretation.

41 But rather give Aim*

of such Things as you have:


and behold, all Things are dean unto you.

42 But Wo unto you, Pharisees: for ye tithe Mint and Rue, and all manner of Herbs, and pass over Judgment, and the Love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

Woes are denounced againji the Pharisees as Hypocrites. 1 o 1

bless you; and tho' you should not be so exact in Sect. no.
this outward Washing, all 'Things are pure to you, f-OC^'
so that you may use them with Comfort; whereas . x .
now you do, as it were, pollute and profane every
Thing you touch, and all the Water in the World
cannot wash away the Stain. (See Tit. i. 15.)

But alas, you seem little disposed to attend to 42
this kind and faithful Advice, and therefore my
Character obliges me solemnly to warn you of
those approaching Judgments, which, if speedy
Repentance does not prevent, will shortly overtake
your whole Sect, numerous and honoured as it is.
Woe therefore unto you Pharisees j jor, to gain the
Admiration of the Priests and the People, you most
scrupulously pay the Tithe of Mint, and Rue, and
every [other] trifling Herb that grows in your Gar-
dens, and expect to recommend yourselves to the.
Divine Acceptance by such Kind of Observances j
but at the fame Time you shamefully pass by, and
carelessly neglect the Practice of righteous jfudg-
ment to your Fellow-Creatures, and of the Love of
GOD your Creator, as if they were Matters of
but little Importance 5 whereas indeed these are
the Duties, that you more especially ought to have,
done; and yet I.own, you ought not to negleSl the
other, as even the least of G o D's Commands are.
to be revered and obeyed. (See Mat. v. 19.)

Woe u/ito you Pharisees, on Account of your 43;
Pride, which appears on every Occasion, and in
every Affair of Life; for you love the uppermost
Seats in all Assemblies, even in the very Synagogues,
where you meet to humble yourselves before God;
and mightily affect Salutations in the Markets, and
other publick Places, by Titles of distinguished »
Respect,. as the Guides and Fathers of the People,.
the Oracles of Truth, and the Standards of HolU
ness. (Compare Mat. xxiii. 6,—10. Sect. 157.)

Woe unto you, oh ye Scribes and Pharisees also,. 44.
on Account of your Deceit, as under all those Ap-
pearances of the strictest Sanctity, you are the
most egregious Hypocrites of the Age (d) j for I


(d) Ob ye Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites.] Tho' some Copies want these Words, and) Gntius and Dr. Mill give them up, I think Dr. lVI)itby is right in retaining them; especially because they so much illustrate ver. 45. See Whish, Exam. Mill. pag. 46.

(e) Are

43 Wo unto you, Pharisees: for ye love the uppermost Seats in the Synagogues, and Greetings in the. Markets.

44 V7ounto you, Scribes

and Pharisees, Hypocrites:


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10 2 A Woe is likewise added to the

JSect. 11 o. may truly fay, that you are like concealed Graves (e), which being overgrown with Grafs, Men walk over, and are not aware of [them,] till they stumble at them, and are hurt, or at least defiled by the Touch of them.

And one of the DoSiors of the Law (f), who happened to be present, observing that in this last Woe Jesus mentioned the Scribes, who were a Body of Men, to whom he arid his Brethren belonged, answered and said unto him. Master, in saying these Things, thou reproachefl not only the Sect of the Pharisees, but us too, in a Manner unbecoming the Dignity of our holy Profession, as the Depositaries of the Sacred Oracles.

But Jesus was so far from palliating the Matter to ingratiate himself with them, that be plainly and couragioufly said, Nay, it is a righteous Rebuke, and I intend it for you, and therefore particularly repeat it for your Admonition: Woe unto you also, ye professed Interpreters of the Law ; for by your rigorous Decisions on the Ceremonial Parts of it, and the human Traditions which you have added to it, you load other Men with insupportable Burthens, and unmercifully lay them on, while you yourselves will not touch the Burthens with one of your Fingers (g), but suffer your Lives to contradict


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for ye are as Graves which appear not, and the Men that walk over them, are not aware of them.

45 Then answered one of the Lawyeis, and said unto him, Master, thus saying, thou reproachefl us also.

46 And he said, Wo unto you also, ye Lawyers: for ye lade Men with Burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the Burdens with one of your Fingers.

(e) Are Hie concealed Graves."] The Discourse against the Pharisees, which is recorded Mat. xxiii. {Seel. 157, 158.) was plainly delivered at another Time, and in very different Circumstances. Our Lord there compares them to whited Sepulchres, ver. 27. adorned on the Outside, but defiled within; but here to Graves overgrown with Grafs, which might often happen to be by the Way-Side, (compare Gen. xxxv. 19.) and so might occasion such Accidents as are here referred to.

(f) One of the Doctors of the Law.] I apprehend that nyuxat may well be rendered a Doctor, or Interpreter of the Law; which I generally chuse, rather than the Word Lawyer, because that nnturally suggests to us, a modern Idea of an Office, which did not exist among the Jews at this Time, and has strangely misled some Interpreters. These Jewijh Lawyers, ("as our Translation calls them,) were th3 most considerable Species of Scribes, who applied themselves peculiarly to study and explain the Law. Probably many of them were Pharisees; but it no ways eflential to their Office, that they should be so. What touched the Person here speaking was, that our Lord in his last Woe, ver. 44. had joined the Scribes with the Pharisees.

(s) WM "it touch the Burthens with one of your Fingers.] Perhaps their Consciences might charge them with some private Contempt of the Injunctions, they most rigorously imposed upon others, in Ceremonial Precepts, as well as Morals; or it may refer to the Want of a <lue Tenderness for the Comfort of Men's Lives, which they imbittered by such Rigour. This seems to prove against Trigland, {de Karais, pag. 58, &seq.) that these Lawyers were not Karaites; for these added not Traditionary Burthens to the Law.

(h) And

They approved

47 Wo unto you: for ye build the Sepulchres of the

Prophets, and your Fathers killed them.

48 Truly ye bear Witness that ye allow the Deeds of your Fathers: for they indeed killed them, and ye build their Sepulchres.

44 Therefore also said the Wisdom of God, I will fend them Prophets and Apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:

50 That the Blood of all

the Prophets, which was shed


os their Fathers falling the Prophets. 103

tradict your Precepts, even in some of the most Sect. no. important Instances. Ks~*s^+J

I also solemnly denounce a Woe unto you all, for Luke XI.
the Malignity and Cruelty of your Tempers under 47 •
this Mask of Piety and Devotion ; for at a great
Expence you build and adorn the Sepulchres of the
Prophets, as if you had a mighty Veneration and
Affection for them, tho' your Fathers flew them.
But as you imitate your Fathers in your Conduct, 4.8
and are regardless of the Instructions that the Pro-
phets- gave, you do indeed bear Witness to your Fa-
thers, rather than against them, and in effect ap-
prove and vindicate the Works of your Fathers (h) \
for as they indeed Jlew them, and you build their
Sepulchres, one would imagine that you erected
those Monuments, not so much in Honour of the
slaughtered Prophets, as of the Persecutors by
whom they were so wickedly destroyed. (Compare
Mat. xxiii. 29,—32. Sect. 158.)

Therefore also the Wisdom of G OD hath said {i), 49/
and I am in his Name commissioned to declare it
as his determinate Purpose, 1 will yet send them
other Prophets and extraordinary Messengers, par-
ticularly the Apostles, who shall declare my Gos-
pel to them, as the last Expedient for their Reco-
very and Salvation ; but such I know to be the,-
Hardness of their Hearts, that they will generally*
despise and reject them -, nay, [some] of them they
will kill, and will persecute the rest: So that 50
they will bring such a terrible Destruction upon
themselves, that the Blood of all the Prophets and


(h) And in effect approve and vindicate the Works of your Fathers.] A'rchlistop Tillotsan. {Vol. ii. sag. 195, 196.) has set this Text in a most strong and beautiful Light, and hinted the Turn which I have given it in the Paraphrase.

(i) Therefore also the Wisdom of GOD hath said.] Dr. Guyse (with Marktus, Exerc. fag. 669.) paraphrases this Clause as the Words of the Historian, and supposes him here to. apply this Character to Christ, and to declare, that Christ the IVisdom of GOD farther said,.

I will send them Prophets, fcSV. 1 doubt not but Christ might with great Propriety be

spoken of by that Phrase; but with all due Respect to that learned and pious Interpreter, Lr cannot apprehend it to be the Sense of this Passage; not only because the Phraseology is unexampled in the Evangelists, but chiefly because our Lord does not fay, I fend lo you, but to them. Yet I fee no Reason to conclude, (with Mr. IVhiston, in his Essay for restoring the Old. testament, pag. 228.) that this isa Quotation from any antient Writer. Christ was impowered, without any such Voucher, to declare what the Counsels of Divine IVisdom had determined j and this Manner of speaking strongly intimates, that he was so} in which View it has, on this Interpretation, a peculiar Beauty and Propriety.

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