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Mark ii, 2. And straightway many were gathered together, inso- Capernaum,
much that there was no room to receive them, no, not so
much as about the door: and he preached the word unto
Lake v, 17. And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teach-
ing, that there were Pharisees and doctors of the law sit-
ting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee,
and Judea, and Jerusalem ; and the power of the Lord
was present to heal them.
Mark ii. 3. they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy,
Lake v. 18. a man which was taken with a palsy,
Matt. ix.2. lying on
Mark ii, 3. which was born of four :
Luke v. 18. and they sought means to bring him in, and to lay him
19. And when they could not find by what way they might
bring him in, because of the multitude,
Mark ii. 4. they could not come nigh him for the press ;
Lake v. 19. they went upon the house-top, and
Mark ii. 4. they uncovered the roof where he was ; and when they
had broken it up, they
Lake v. 19. let him down through the tiling, with his couch, into the
midst before Jesus. Mark ii. 5. When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the
Matt. ix.2. be of good cheer, thy sins be forgiven thee :
sins, which he demonstrates also by another miracle, and de-
clares himself greater than any prophet. Ho gradually reveals
his mission as the minds of his hearers were able to receive it,
and till the time should come when he should appear at Jerusa-
lem, before the rulers of the people.
The Jews believed that all disease was the consequence of
healed till the sins that occasioned them were forgiven. I
meet in Schoetgen this quotation. Nedarim, fol. 41. 1. Dixit
R. Chija fil Abba, nullusægrotus a morbo sanatur, donecipsiomnia
a T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 55. 1. Midrach Kohelet, fol. 70. 4. apud
Gill on Matt. ix. 2.
Kimchi too, on Ps. xli. 5. has observed, When God shall
heal the diseases of the soul, then, after the expiation of its
sins, the body also shall be healed. The Jews believed, on their
own principles, that he who could thus display the attributes of
Deity, was the Messiah. Our Lord appeals, therefore, on his
usual plan, to their received opinions, and asserted his high
digpity by actions.
Whitby, in Matt. ix. 3. supposes that the paralytic was suffering under the punishment of some particular sin, and the removal of the discase signified only the forgiveness of that particular offence. Whereas Lightfoot, on the contrary, argues that the restoration of the sick of the palsy was accompanied with the remission of all his past transgressions.-Vide Schoet. gen, Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. i. p. 93. Ligbtoot. Whitby and Gill in loc.
Lake v. 20. Man, thy sins are forgiven thee.
Capernaum. Matt. ix. 3.
Mark ii, 6. there were certain of the Scribes sitting there, reasoning
in their hearts;
Lake v. 21. and the Pharisees began to reason, saying
Matt. ix. 3. within themselves, This man blasphemeth :
Lake v. 21. Who is this which speaketh blasphemies?
Mark ii, 7. Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies?
Lake v. 21. Who can forgive sins but God alone ?
Mark ii. 8. And immediately, when Jesus perceived in his Spirit
that they so reasoned within themselves,
Matt, ix. 4. knowing their thoughts,
Lake v. 22. he, answering, said unto them,
Mark ii. 8. Why reason ye these things in your hearts ?
Mati, ix. 4. Wherefore think
hearts ? for 5. whether is Mark ii. 9. it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be for
given thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and
But that ye may know that the Son of Man hath
on earth to forgive sins :
. ix. 6. (then saith he to the sick of the palsy). Mark ii. 11. Ì say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy
way into thine house.
12, And immediately he
Lake v. 25, rose up before them, and
Mark ü. 12. took up the bed
Lake v. 25. that whereon he lay,
Mark ii, 12. and went forth before them all,
Lake v. 25, and departed to his own house, glorifying God,
Mark ii. 12. insomuch that,
Matt. ix. 8. when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and
Mark ü. 12. they were all amazed,
Loke v. 26. and were filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange
things to-day; Mark ii. 12.
we never saw it on this fashion. Matt. ix. 8. and (they] glorified God, which had given such power
MATT. ix. part of ver. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. ver. 7. and part of ver. 8.
2 And, hehold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsym.
and Jesus, seeing their faith, said unto the sick of the palsy,
Son-be forgiven thee.
3-certain of the Scribes said
4 And Jesus-said-
5 -easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise,
and walk ?
6 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on
earth to forgive sins-Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine
7 And he arosc, and departed to his house.
MARK ii. part of ver. 4. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12.
4 And when let down the bed whereon the sick of the palsy
7 - who can forgive sins but God only?
8 he said unto them
9 Whether is-
10 -(he saith to the sick of the palsy,)
12 -arose_and glorified God, saying--
LUKE v. part of ver. 18. 20, 21, 22. ver. 23, 24, and part of
ver. 25, 26.
18 -men brought in a bed-
20 And when he saw their faith, he said unto him-
21 And the Scribes-
22 But when Jesus perceived their thoughts-What reason
ye in your hearts ?
23 Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk ?
24 But that ye may know that thc Son of man bath power
upon earth to forgive sins, (he said unto the sick of the palsy,)
I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, and go unto
25 And immediately-took up-
26 And they were all amazed, and they glorified God-
The calling of Matthew ".
MATT. ix. - 9. MARK ii. 13, 14.. LUKE v. 27, 28.
Lake v. 27.
And after these things
Mark ii, 13. he went forth again by the sea side ; and all the multitude
resorted unto him, and he taught them.
30 Lightfoot, Archbishop Newcome, and Doddridge, place the calling of St. Matthew in its present order, and separate that event from the feast which was given afterwards in his house. They reason, from Luke viii. 41. and Mark v. 22. that many events occurred, and much time elapsed, from the calling of Matthew to the visit of Jairus, which took place at the feast, Matt. ix. 10-18. Michaelis, Pilkington, and Bedford in his Scripture Chronology, unite these events. I bave preferred the former conclusion, for the reasons assigned by Lightfoot.
Is it not probable that our Lord proposed some useful lesson
by thus calling Matthew from the receipt of custom. Tbe Jews
expressed the utmost contempt and hatred of all those of their
countrymen, who accepted the office now held by St. Matthew.
Io their opinion, vows made to thieves, murderers, and publi-
cans, might be broken. These persons were regarded by
them as profane, shepherds, almsgatherers, and publicans-
sidered very difficult. The Jerusalem Targum has the follow-
ing canon, Demai, fol. col. 3. 7ann 1798 7*0717 "na nwyw yan.
A pharisce that becomes a publican, they remove him from his
order : but if he leaves his profession they restore him to his
order again. St. Matthew appears to have been, from his ofi-
cial situation, which must have made bim more generally
known, the most suitable of all the apostles to become the
Mark ii. 14. and as he passed by
Matt. ix. 9. from thence, he saw a man,
Lake v. 27. a publican, named Levi,
Matt. ix. 9. named Matthew,
Mark ii. 14. the son of Alpheus,
Matt. ix. 9. sitting at the receipt of custom.
Luke v. 27, and he said unto him, Follow me.
28. And he left all, rose up, and followed him.
MATT. ix. 9.
9 And as Jesus passed forth-and he saith unto him, Follow
And he arose, and followed him.
XABK ij. part of ver. 13, 14.
14 -he saw Levi-sitting at the receipt of custom, and
said unto him, Follw me. And he arose and followed him.
LUKE V. 27.
27 —he went forth, and saw-sitting at the receipt of cus-
The Infirm Man healed at the Pool of Bethesda.
JOHN V. 1-15. Julian Pe 1 After this there was a feast of the Jews"; and Je- Jerusalern. riod, 4740. sus went up to Jerusalern. Volgar Æra, 27.
writer of the first Gospel; and he was an eye-witness also of
what he records. The others, excepting St. John, and perhaps
St. Peter, who probably dictated, or at least superintended,
St. Mark's Gospel, were mon of but little education, and not
much known to their countrymen. Our Saviour, by calling
St. Matthew, intended perhaps to reprove the self-righteous-
ness and arrogance of the Pharisees; and to shew them that the
most despised among men were preferred before them in the
sight of God (a).
In addition to the reasons assigned by Lightfoot for separat-
ing the invitation to the feast at the house of Matthew, from
the call of that Apostle, it may be observed, at that feast our
Lord spake in parables. But this mode of teaching was never
adopted till the Scribes and Pharisees had imputed his casting
out of devils to the agency of an evil Spirit.
I have not thought it deserving of consideration, whether Matthew and Levi were different persons. It is the general, and, I cannot but think the correct opinion, that they were
the same. I insert the words of Rosenmüller, as expressing my
• own opinion. An diversa tantum sint nomina unius ejusdem.
que personæ, an vero duo portitores simul vocati sint a Christo.
equidem definire non ausim. Quum tamen Marcus et Lucas in
plerisque cum Matthæo consentiant, et alii etiam apostoli bi-
nomines fuerint (Simon Petrus, et Lebbæus Thaddæus) præ-
ferenda esse videtur eorum sententia, qui Levin et Matthæum
diversa tantum esse nomina unius ejusdemque personæ existi-
mant.- Rosenmüller, Scholia N. T. vol. i. p. 193.
(a) See Talinud in Nedarim per 3. halac 4. and Sanhed. per 1. fol. 24.
ap Lightfoot, vol. i. p. 660.
a Tbere are four passages in St. John's Gospel which are
Julian Pe. 2 Now there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep-market, a Jerusalem. riod, 4740, pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, . VulgarÆra,
having five porches.
considered, by the majority of harmonizers, as intending to ex-
press the number of passovers, and the consequent duration of
our Lord's ministry. They are the following-
ii. 13. και εγγύς ήν το πάσχα των Ιεδαίων, και ανέβη εις Ιερο.
σόλυμα ο Ιησούς. The second is, v. 1. Μετα ταύτα ην εορτή των
'Ιεδαίων, και ανέβη ο Ιησούς εις Ιεροσόλυμα. The third vi. 4. ήν
δε εγγύς το πάσχα, η εορτή των Ιεδαίων. The fourth, xi. 55, ήν δε
εγγύς το πάσχα των Ιεδαίων. Upon the right construction indeed:
of the second of these, the question of the duration of our Lord's
ministry may be said to depend. The generally received opi-
nion is, that our Lord's ministry lasted three years and a half,
during which time four passovers were celebrated. The second
of these passages, however, does not appear to warrant the
supposition that a passover is the feast intended, and conse-
quently no argument can be deduced from these passages to
ascerain the duration of our Lord's ministry.
In all the other three passages, St. John uses the words tò
hráoxa, to express the passover, in the second he uses only the
word toprn. Now this, it is evident, does not assert that the
feast here meant was a passover. If we may judge from the
other passages of St. John, without taking into consideration
the other Gospels, we may say that the omission of the article
demonstrates that he could not mean a passover ; as the article
is inserted in every other passage where the word éoprn is used,
as referring to the feast of the passover. It is found also in the
seventh chapter, where the same expression is given in refer-
ence to the feast of tabernacles. On examining the other
Gospels, we shall see, that though St. Mark has once used the
word without the article, when speaking of the feast of the
passover, and St. Luke also has done the same thing, yet St. Mat.
thew, like St. John, has uniformly preserved it; and so indeed
have all the evangelists, with these two deviations only.
Matt. Xxvi. 2. Tò mácxa river.
5. μη εν τη εορτή.
xxvii. 15. κατά δε την εορτήν.
Mark xiv. 1. Gv đề rò ráoxa, ốc.
2. μη εν τη εορτή.
The exception referred to is,
Χν. 6. κατά δέ εορτήν.
Lake ii. 41. rũ zoPrõ rỡ TÍáoxa. But in
xxiii. 17. katoprnv.
John in this instance only uses the word toprń, without the
article. Compare the passages John ii. 23.- iv. 45.-vi. 4.
-vii. 2.-vii. 8. 10. 11. 14. 37.-xi. 56.-xii. 12. 20.xii.
These passages, in which coprn), without the article, may
denote the feast of the passover, may in fact be considered as the
same: and it may be observed, therefore, that the expression
kal' èopriv is an idiomatical phrase, similar and equivalent to
κατ' έτος, the construction of which depends on πάς, or έκαςος,
understood. In this manner we must supply the ellipsis by St.
Luke, who uses the expression karà tav oábbarov, (Acts xiii.
27.) καθ' εορτήν therefore will mean κατά πάσαν εορτήν, or feast
by feast; as kar' (Toc, signifies year by year : aud as the pro-
priety of the latter expression would be destroyed by the in-
sertion of the article rò, so, to render the phrase kao doprav,
analogous in its construction, it was necessary that the article