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Matt. v. 19. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least

Commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called
the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall
do, and teach them, the same shall be called great in the

kingdom of heaven.
20. For I say unto you, that except your righteousness

shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Phari

sees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. 21. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, ExplanaThou shalt not kill : and whosoever shall kill, shall be in tion of the

sixth comdanger of the judgment:

mandment. 22.

But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judge ment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council : but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire *6.

46 Here are three gradations of crimes mentioned by our : Lord, and three degrees of punishment respectively annexed to each. The first is causeless anger, unaccompanied with any abusive expressions to aggravate it; the second may be supposed to arise from the same source, increased by an exclamation, which denotes the triumph of vanity, mixed with insult and contempt; the third seems naturally to rise one degree higher, and occasions the opprobrious epithet, “Thou fool.' The two former, we may observe, are threatened with the temporal punishment or animadversion of the Jewish tribunals, the council and the judgment, which were now deprived of the power of life and death, and could therefore take cognizance only of minor offences.

Now, it is highly analogous to our Saviour's reasoning to suppose, that the punshment annexed to the last crime would be of a temporal nature also, particularly as it can only be considered as an abuse of speech, like that of the preceding, though in a more aggravated form. On the contrary, to imagine that, for the distinction between 'Raca, and thou fool, our blessed Lord should instantly pass from such a sentence as the Jewish Sanbedrim could pronounce, to the awful doom of eternal punishment in hell-fire, is what cannot be reconciled to any rational rule of faith, or known measure of justice. But a critical examination of the original text will remove this difficulty.

What we render - in danger of hell-fire,” is in the Greek tvoxos ësai łis thv yéeyvav ti trupós," shall be liable to the Gehenda, of fire ;' or, " the fire of Gehenna.” It is well known that Gehenna is not a pure Greek word, but a compound formed of yñ, land, and a proper name to correspond with the Hebrew expression the valley of Hinnom, or rather from the two Hebrew words, x', a valley, and on, Hinnom, the name of its possessor. (See Schleusner in réeyva, and Lightfoot's Chorogr. Cent. ch. xxxix.) In this desecrated spot the Jews burnt bones, the dead carcases of animals, the refuse and offal of the numerous victims, &c. and from the loathsome scene which this place exbibited, as well as from the fires which were kept constantly burning there, it was frequently used as the emblem or symbol of hell, and of hell torments in a state of eternity. But our blessed Lord may well be supposed to use it here in its literal sepse, without any reference to its metaphorical meaning; and this will serve to clear the text of its supposed difliculty. For, when we consider what immense quantities of half

Malt. v. 23. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there

rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; 24. Leave there thy gift, before the altar, and go thy way;

first be reconciled to thy brother; and then come, and offer thy gift 7.

putrid and offensive animal substances must have been consumed in that valley, to prevent contagion in so hot a climate, and in such a city as Jerusalem ; we may with certainty inser that a great number of persons must be constantly employed in carrying al} kinds of filth and offal to the spot, in supplying fuel, in attending on the fires, &c.

Now this must have been the lowest, most degrading, and offensive employment, in the estimation of a Jew, to which any buman being could be devoted; and to this wretched state Christ declares, that he who indulges himself in the habit of treating his fellow-creatures with insolence and contempt, is in danger of coming. It is a common saying, that a man would rather be thought a knave than a fool : the appellation of thou fool, therefore, is attended with a degree of insult that is not easily forgiven;

and he who practises such abuses of the tongue must every where expect to find an enemy, instead of a friend; till at length he sinks to the most loathsome offices that can be allotted to him, in order to gain a wretched subsistence.

This exposition derives further countenance from the use of the Greek adjective évoxos in the original, which, connected with the future, ésai, may mean, shall be held, or bound, as a slave is to his master.—See Hewlett's Commentary in loc. Matt. v. 22.

17 It has excited surprise among some writers, that the Gospels should be written in Greek, instead of the Syriac, or Aramaic, or Syro Chaldee dialect. The observation will only apply to St. Matthew's Gospel. The three other evangelists addressed their Gospels to Grecian or Roman converts. But the necessity of adopting the Greek language, as the dialect of all others most universally spoken, will appear from the remarkable fact that the Jewish writers who were cotemporary with our Lord, or the immediate successors of the apostles, have used many Greek words in their Hebrew, apparently without knowing that the Greek was foreign to their language. Many instances bave occurred of this kind among the extracts I have met in Dr. Gill, Lightfoot, and Schoetgen, though it did not seem necessary to observe them. I have, however, collected some few.

1. II poopépeis dūpov 08, Matt. v. 23. 117770 nx gobyna Tun DV na pab Tanchuma, fol. 54. 2.

2. 'Ig0. évvoữv ro úvriðisy cov, Matt. v. 25. 7op908 zuvinib Debarin rab. § 5. fol. 257. 1.

3. 'Evita Enuaros, Judæi retinent vocem græcam, na'a Scho. etgen. vol. i. p. 235.

4. Kúple , 'Ix quo Schemoth rabba, $ 46. fol. 140. 2. ap Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 232.

5. Ilún, yoo yon by ano po y Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 252.
6. 'YTOTódov, 'yu 7°710*9** Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 192.

and 225 tava 17915'N Targum Jerusalem on Exod. xxiv.
7. Verit quidem servum emere cupiens et dixit ad dominum

: karnyópos, an xalokayabos est? Schemoth rabba, Š 43. fol. 138. 3. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 214.

8. 'Anávrnous, ybra Svo 3DS XN87" Tanchuma, fol. 56. 1. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 216.

9. Ludapiov, Luke xix. 20. nyomtyd •17 goy non pocunias sudario

the way


Matt. v. 25. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art in

with him ; lest at any time, the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. 27. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, ExplanaThou shalt not commit adultery.

tion of the 28.

seventh But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a commandwoman, to lust after her, hath committed adultery with ment,

her already in his heart.
20. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast

it from thee : for it is profitable for thee that one of thy
members should perish, and not that thy whole body

should be cast into hell.
30. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it

from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy
members should perish, and not that thy whole body

should be cast into hell.
31. It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife,
let him give her a writing of divorcement.

But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his
wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to
commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is

divorced, committeth adultery. 33. Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of Swearing old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt per

form unto the Lord thine oaths.

But I say unto you, Swear not at all ; neither by hea-
ven, for it is God's throne:
35. Nor by the earth ; for it is his footstool ; neither by

Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
36. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou

canst not make one hair white or black.
37. But let


communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay : for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil. 38. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an Of revenge.

eye, and a tooth for a tooth :
39. But I


ye resist not evil ; but who-
soever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him

the other also.
40. And if any one will sue thee at the law, and take away

thy coat, let him have thy cloak also.
ligavit. Ketuvoth, fol. 67. 2, &c. 97101 7778 Rasche et Bava
Mezia, fol. 42. 1.

Many others might be selected from the writers who have en-
deavoured to illustrate Scripture from the Talmudical wri $;
but these are sufficient to justify us in asserting that the Greek
language was in general uso in Judea, as well as in other parts
of the Roman empire; and was the language therefore most
suitable to the designs of the Evangelists.-

say unto




Matt.iv. 41. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with

him twain.
42. Give to him that asketh of thee; and from him that

would borrow of thee, turn not thou away :
Luke vi. 30. and of him that taketh away thy goods, ask them not again.


And as ye would that men should do unto you, do ye

also to them likewise. Matt, v.43. Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt love Christians thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy.

are to love

their ene44. But I say unto you, Luke vi. 27. which hear, Love your enemies ; do good to them Matt.v. 44. that hate you ; bless them that curse you ; and pray for

them which despitefully use you : 45.

That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven : for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on

the good ; and sendeth rain on the just, and on the unjust. 46. For if ye love them which love you, what reward have Christians

are to do Lake vi. 32. for sinners also love those that love them :

good to all Matt, v. 46. do not even the Publicans the same?

47. And if ye salute your brethren only, what do you more

than others? Do not even the Publicans so? Luke vi. 33. And if ye do good to them which do good to you,

what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same. 34. And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive,

what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to

receive as much again.
35. But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hop-

ing for nothing again; and your reward shall be great,
and ye shall be the children of the Highest, for he is

kind unto the unthankful, and to the evil.

Be ye therefore merciful,
Matt. v. 48. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is

in heaven is Lake vi. 36. merciful, (and) Matt. v. 48. perfect. Matt. vi. 1. Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be Directions seen of them; otherwise ye have no reward of your Fa

on almsgir.
ther which is in heaven.
2. Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a

trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do, in the syna-
gogues, and in the streets, that they may have glory of

Verily I say unto you, they have their reward.

But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know
what thy right hand doth :
4. That thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father

which seeth in secret, himself shall reward thee openly.
5. And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypo- How to

crites are : for they love to pray, standing in the syna- pray. gogues, and in the corners of the streets, that they may be




Mall, vi. 6. seen of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their

6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and

when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father, which
is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret, shall

reward thee openly.
7. But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the hea-

then do; for they think that they shall be heard for their

much speaking.
8. Be not ye therefore like unto them ; for your Father
knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask

9. After this manner therefore pray ye : Our Father

which art in heaven", Hallowed be thy name.
10. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it
is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread.
12. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
13. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from

evil : for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the

glory, for ever. Amen.
14. For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly
Father will also forgive you :

But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will
your Father forgive your trespasses.
16. Moreover, when ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, of a How to

sad countenance; for they disfigure their faces, that they fast.
may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you,

They have their reward.
17. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash

thy face;
18. That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy

Father, which is in secret : and thy Father, which seeth

in secret, shall reward thee openly. 19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth; where to lay op moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break treasure in

Heaven. through and steal : 20. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven; where

neither moth nor rust doth corrupt; and where thieves do

not break through and steal.
21. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be

22. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye Christian
be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.

simplicity 23. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full enforced.

of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be
darkness, how great is that darkness?



Lightfoot and Schoetgen have shewn, at length, that the various clauses of the Lord's prayer were similar to, and were probably borrowed from, various phrases used in the liturgical services of the Jews.

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