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Mat. xxi. 5. Tell ye the daughter of Sion, behold, thy King cometh Near Jeru
unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt, the salem, foal of an ass.
Judea, visit Jerusalem in such lowly state? Was theprophecy
fulfilled in Bagoses, when he espoused the cause of the usurper of
the high priesthood, and imposed a fine npon the priests for every
offering that was brought to the temple Did any Persian em-
peror ever enter Jerusalem; or can it be supposed that the
prophet alluded to any officer who bore an inferior title (d)? If
it be imagined that Zechariah predicted the conquest of the
Grecian conqueror, when he met the high priest Jaddua, and
venerated, amidst the astonishment of his attendants, the name
of Jehovah, glittering on his tiara (e)--Alexander was at the
head of his army, neither meek, nor poor, nor humblo (f ).
Do the pages of history unfold any similar event, which oc-
curred in the lives of either of the Ptolemies? whether of Lagus,
who entered the city on the sabbath, as an enemy and a con-
queror, and took away many thousands of the people as his
prisoners ? or of Philadelphus, who reversed the decree, and
restored them to their own country? or of Ptolemy Philopator,
who marked the wretched Jews with the ivy-leaf, in honour of
Bacchus, and sacrilegiously attempted to enter the sanctuary?
can we trace a similitude between these men and the King of
Israel, at whose coming the daughter of Zion was invited to
Let us turn our attention to another dynasty, and search
among them also for this meek and humble Saviour, and King
of Israel. Did Antiochus the great protect the people? It is
true that they welcomed, with acclamations, his army and their
elephants,—but where do we read that this king entered Je-
rusalem on a colt, the foal of an ass? Did Seleucus Philo-
pator fulfil the prediction, when he sent Heliodorus to plunder
the temple: or was his brother, the cruel oppressor, the savage
murderer, and the foulest idolater, of all the enemies of Israel,
more meek and humble, when he profaned the temple, and
slaughtered the people on the sabbath? If we look to the
history of the Maccabean family, we may still proceed in vain
to find one among them whose characteristics, as a leader of
Israel, correspond with this prediction of the prophet. Mat.
tathias excited the people to resistance in defence of their re-
ligion. Judas entered Jerusalem in triumph, purified the
temple, and dedicated it again to the worship of Jehovah; as a
religious and devout man, he perhaps might be called meek and
humble, but where is it recorded that he entered into Jerusa-
lem sitting upon a colt, the foal of an ass ? Shall we apply the
prediction to the idolatrous Bacchides, who captured the holy
city, and murdered the zealous Maccabee? or to any of the
sons of the Asmonæan family, the pious Simon-his warlike son
- the weak and profligate Aristobulus, who first assumed the
diadem, and surnamed himself the king of the Jews; or of his
fierce and cruel brother Alexander Jannæus? If it is possible
not to turn in disgust from the unnatural contests of this
man's sons, we might enquire if either of these were the meek
and holy King of Irael, before or after the Romans entered
Jerusalem on the sabbath, and assisted the royal Jew to slaugh-
ter bis countrymen on that holy day? Pompey, who spared the
gold of the temple, and Crassus who followed him, and de-
spoiled it : Gabinius, and Cæsar, and Antipater, with all the
mingled tribe of Parthian, Roman, and Jewish contenders,
who next crowd the scene, may be considered as alike falling
John xii. 16. These things understood not his disciples at the first : Near Jerubut when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that
short of the description of the prophet. We are now brought
to the days of Herod the king, the cotemporary of Jesus of
Nazareth, the tributary dependent on Rome, the fierce, im-
placable, and haughty murderer of his wife, his people, and his
children? Is this the portrait of the expected king of Israel?
Was the destroyer of Mariamne, the flatterer of Augustus, the
slaughterer of the innocents at Bethlehem, was he the meek
and humble Saviour, who was to ride into the city among the
acclamations of the people? Was Herod the king, who died
amidst the deep and indignant curses of a suffering people-was
he who was smitten of God-hateful to his own family--and ab-
horred by his subjects-was this the king for whom Zion was to
rejoice, and the daughter of Jerusalem to be glad? Surely
neither this man, nor his tyrannical son, nor his family of
tetrarchs, nor the corrupt and sanguinary governors from im-
perial Rome, can appear as candidates for the title of the true
King of Irael, Jesus of Nazarth. None but the Prophet of Galilee,
who worked miracles, who fulfilled every prophecy, who was
so poor that he had not where to lay his head; so humble, that
he washed the feet of his disciples, whom the people more than
once endeavoured to make their king ; and wbo was now received
among them with acclamations and Hosannas. None but He
accomplished this prediction of Zecharias, and entered into
Jerusalem, “just and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon
an ass, and upon a colt, the foal of an ass.”
Brethren of Israel, you acknowlege the miracles of Christ,
although you impute them to magic (9). Your fathers bore
witness to his blameless life, and to the union in his person of
many of the characteristics of your expected Messiab. When-
ever your promised Shiloh shall appear, he must manifest him-
self in the same manner as Jesus of Nazareth has already done
--He must appear in the second temple, and accomplish in his
own person all the predictions of your ancient prophets. That
this prophecy of Zechariah related to the King Messiah, you
are presented with proofs, not from the writings of the Evan-
gelists, (whom we indeed believe, like your ancient prophels,
to be inspired,) but from the writings of your own Talmu-
dists (h). `For of none other can it be said, out of all the rulers
or conquerors of Jerusalem, from the building of the second
temple after the Babylonian captivity, to its overthrow by
Titus ; of wone other can it be said, that he entered into the
holy city, riding upon an ass, amidst the acclamations of the
multitude, and the Hosannas of the children.
(a) Vide on the date of this prophecy, &c. &c. Arrangement of the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 762, and the references in the note. (b) 73 377 X 9Vx nonan-dx “ 'ay 7** Nehem. ii. 12. whereas the pre
-, nonxya. (c) Vide Arrangement of the Old Testament, vol. ii. p. 795. (d) Sub præsidibus alii minorum ordinum magistratus fuere ; qui aliquando il principes, Ezra ix. 1, 2. alias D'nin, nobiles, magnates, patricii, Neh. iv. 14. nonnunquam et max 90 principes patrum, seu familiarum, dicuntur, Ezra viii. 29, A quibus distincti fuisse videntur, quos D'apr seniores, aliquando et D'ID secundarios sive subalternos judices, sacra historia nuncupat. Quibus quandoque jungitur civium omnium cætus 7517an abap congregatio magna. Quorum ordinum diserta mentio Neh. v. 7. contendi cnm 5'nin nobilibus, et cun D]D secundariis judicibus, Junius vertit antistitibus, et indixi illorum caussa
,רכב על חמור ועל־עיר ,dicted King of Zachariah was to enter the city
עצת השרים congregationem magnam
8. memoratar קחלה גדולה
congregatio קהל הגולה senatus principum et seniorum
John xii. 16.
these things were written of him, and that they had done Near Jeruthese things unto him ".
deportatæ multitudinis. Sub auspiciis ducis seu præsidis provincialis
erat Hierosolymis secundarias quidam præfectus, seu legatus ipsias
præsidis, ex triba Benjaminis : ut colligi potest ex Neh. xi.
9. Ibi eniin
dum enumerantur Benjaminitæ Hierosolymis habitantes, landatur Juda
filius Senuæ quyn by nauna Secundarias supra civitatem.-Witsius His-
toria Herosol. Exerc. Sacræ, p. 11. sect. 23. (e) Alexander enim, ut
vidit e longinquo candidatom populum, et sacerdotes in amictu byssino,
pontificemque in stola hyacinthina anro distincta, tiaram in capite gestan-
tem cum præfixa lamina aurea insculpta nomine Jehovæ, solas ad eum
accedens, nomen illud adoravit, ac salutavit Pontificem. Judæis uno ore
Alexandrum consalutantibus, et in orbem cingentibus, Syriæ Reges et
reliqui obstupuerunt, vix credentes regem mentis esse compotem.Wit-
sius ubi sup. sect. 25, p. 562. 12mo.edit. (f) Josephus Ant. b. xi.ch. viii.
(9) See the Toldoth Jesu, in Wagenseil's Tela Ignea. (h) R. S. quoted
by Munster, in the Critici Sacri, :nventh byxbxninios 72BX ** Impos-
sibile est utinterpreteris de alio quam de Messiah. So Clarius—and Gro-
tius quotes also Abenezra and Rabbi Saadia Gaon, as referring this pas-
sage to the Messiah. Eidem Messiæ qui asino vectus est et humilem se
exhibuit, singularem in ipsa humilitate magnificentiam tribuunt. Sohar
Numer, fol. 83. col. 332. ubi mystice commentantur ad verba Deut. xxii.
10. Non arabis cum bove, et asino simul. Ille est asinus XTin Kabn raar,
Toby obwoh cai insidens Rex Messias dominaturas est. Et hoc quod
Scriptum est Zachar. ix. 9. Pauper et insidens asino. Inc pertinet
illud R. Josephi in Sanhedrim, fol. 98.2. Veniet Messias, et ego digous
habebor, qui sub umbra stercoris asini ejus sedeam, &c. &c.--Schoetgen.
Hor. Heb. vol. ii. p. 543. Brescith Rabba ad Genes. xlii. 2. apud Ray-
mundum Martini, part üi. distinct iii. 16. 1. Distrzos novon 750 873'va
Quando Messias Hierosolymam veniet ad redimendum להושיע ישראל
Israelitas tunc ligat asinum suum, eique insidet, et Hierosolymam venit,
17"ya 1388 273'w ut semet ipsum in humilitate gerat, q. d. Zach. ix. 9.
pauper et insidens asino. See Schoetgen. Horæ Hebraicæ, vol. ii. p.
69. De Messiah, lib. ii. continens loca veteris testamenti quæ Judæi,
antiquiores potissimum de Messiah interpretati sunt. Schoetgen. vol. ii.
p. 64. Schir Naschirim rabba, fol. 7. 3. ad verba Cantic. 1. Sohar.
Levit. fol. 28. col. 112. Schoetgen. vol. ii. p. 219. Dr. Gill's refer-
ences to the Talmudical writers on the application of this passage to our
Lord, are—T. Bah. Sanhedrim, fol. 98. and 99. 1. Bereshith Rabba,
fol. 66. 2. and 85. 3. Midrash Kobeleth, fol. 63. 2. Zobar. in Genes.
fol. 127. 3. and in Num. fol. 83. 4. and in Dent. fol. 117. 1. and 118. 3.
Raza Mehimna in Zobar. in Lev. fol. 38. 3. and in Num. fol. 97. 2. Mo-
dern Testimonies. Sarchi in Isa. xxvi. 6. Baal Haturim in Exod, fol.
88. 2. Abarbinel. Mashmia Jeshua, fol. 15. 4.
39 If the theological student will refer to the original of
Zech. ix. 9. he will observe that the expected King of Israel is
called yunpory. As the word yw is a passive particle, Gro-
tius would render it salvatus, and expresses his surprise that
this should have escaped the attention of the commentators.
Drusius, his cotemporary, who was a much more learned man,
has anticipated this remark, and replied to it. He also observes,
that the word yw is used as an epithet ; but his rule of inter-
pretation, as applied to this form of speaking, is, that where a
passive participle is thus taken, it implies action (a).
Sebastian Schmidt renders the words, justus, et servatus ille ; and in the margin of our authorized translation, "saving himself.”
With respect to the reading of the Aldine MS. (6) rúčuv åvres, it is not supported by the original, which reads 8777 ymm; had the reading of the first word been yur", as Grotius and Houbigant propose, and the word x17 omitted, and the pronominal affix inserted in its place, Dyum, the avreç might be admitted. In the absence of all authority from manuscripts, howovor, no conjectural emendation can be admitted (c).
And the disciples
Near JeruLu. xix. 32. that were sent went their way,"
Mat. xxi. 6. and did as Jesus commanded them,
Mark xi. 4. and found the colt
Lu. xix. 32. even as be had said unto them.
Mark xi.4. tied by the door without, in a place where two ways met;
and they loose him.
Lu. xix. 33. And as they were loosing the colt,
Mark xi.5. certain of them that stood there,
La. xix. 33. the owners thereof,
Mark xi. 5. said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt ?
And they said unto them,
La. xix. 34. The Lord hath need of him.
Mark xi. 6. even as Jesus had commanded : and they let them go.
And they brought
Mat. xxi. 7. the ass and the colt
La. xix. 35. to Jesus : and they cast their garments upon the colt, and
they set Jesus thereon. Mark xi. 7.
and he sat upon him. John xii. 17.
The people therefore that was with him when he called
Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from the dead,
For this cause the people also met him : for that they
heard that he had done this miracle.
MATT. xxi. part of ver. 1, 2, 3. 6, and 7.
| And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come
to Bethphage, unto the Mount of Olives--two disciples,
2 Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you,
and-and a colt-loose them, and bring them
3-ye shall say, Tho Lord hath need of them; and straight-
way he will send them.
7 And brought-and put on them their clothes, and they set
MARK xi. part of ver. 1, 2, 3, 4. and 7.
1 And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage
and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, he sendeth
2 --ye sball find a colt tied, whereon man never sat; loose
him, and bring him.
Grotius has committed a singular error in supposing that this prophecy can refer to the entrance of Zerobabel into Jerusalem; as Zerobabel had long been in the city after the return from the captivity, before the prophecy was written.
(a) Vide Drusius and Grotius' Annotations in Zech. ix. 9. Critici Sacri, vol. v. (6) Juxta LXX. sic legimus, Xaipe opóòpa, Qúyatep Σιων κήρυσσε, θυγατερ Ιερεσαλημ ιδε ο βασιλεύς σε έρχεται σόι δίκαιος και σώζων αυτος, πραίς, και επιβεβηκως επι υποζύγιον, και Tõdov véov. Gaude vehementer, filia Sion ; prædica, filia Hierosalem ; ecce Rex tuus veniet tibi justus et salvans ipsos, manuetus, ascendens super subjagalem, et pullam novum. Interpres legisse videtur avros, cum Aldina editio habeat aŭrec. Porro quod hic est salvator, Hebrais est yvia, alludens ad nomen Jesu-Unde locum bunc Judæi juxta historiam referunt ad Christum.-Erasmus ap. Crit. Sacri, vol. vii. p. 714. (c) Newcome's Minor Prophets, in Zech. ix. 9. (d) Vido Grotius in loc. Critici Sacri, vol. v.
3 And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this ? say ye that Near Jerethe Lord hath need of him
4 And they went their way-
7--the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him-
LUKE xix. part of ver. 29, 30, 31. 33, 34, and 35.
29 -he sent two of his disciples,
30 Saying, Go ye into the village over against you ; in the
which, at your entering, ye shall find
31 And if any man ask you-
33 -said unto them, Why loose ye the colt ?
34 And they said-
35 And they brought him-
From Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, to his Ap-
prehension--Sunday, the fifth Day before the last Pas
The People meet Christ with Hosannas-Christ approaches
Jerusalem'. riod, 4742.
MATT. xxi. 8–10. MARK xi. 8-10. LUKE xix. 36-40. Valgarðra, 29.
JOHN xii, 19. Mat. xxi. 8.
And Lu. xix. 36. as they went, Mat. xxi. 8. a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; Jerusalem.
others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed
them in the way. Lu. xix. 37. And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent
of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the dis
ciples Mat, xxi. 9. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed,
1 The several circumstances mentioned in the sections of this chapter, which relate our Lord's conversations, when for the last time he visited Jerusalem, as well as the nature of the questions proposed, present us with a most lively portrait of the manners and opinions of the Jews at this period. Schoetgen, and the other writers, who have proposed to explain the New Testament from the Talmudical writings, have bestowed much labour on the illustration of some of the phrases, &c. adopted by the Evangelists; but, in general, the discourses and conversations of our Lord are so plain, that none can misunderstand them-so short, vone can forget them so perfect, none can add to the force of their instruction, or the eloquence of their language. To add many notes would be “to throw a perfume on the violet."
The differences between the harmonizers of the Gospels, with respect to the contents of this and the following chapters of this arrangement, are of little importance. In general they are agreed. The principal differences in this chaptor refer to the number of times in which the buyers and sellers were driven from the temple-the question whether our Lord ate the Passover the same day as the Jews-and the precise time in which the discourses in St. John were delivered.