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knowledge of the words of the language in sense, be ascribed to God, is clear even which he writes, art to arrange, and, what from the concession of the author. He is still more difficult, a fluency of expres

admits, that the prophetic part of Scripsion, and facility of composition. To the ture needed the inspiration of words; and writers of Scripture History, inspiration that in this, as well as in the rest of the of words was as necessary as inspiration of Scriptures, we have a characteristic style. facts. But had they been the most per- If then we have the style of Isaiah, even fect masters of language and composition, when all the words with their collocation to write a history that might be perfectly and syntax were chosen of God, is not the relied on as a part of the word of God, style his also ? For what is style abinspiration of every word was necessary.” stracted from the words that express it? Pp. 111, 112.

The distinction, then, between the matter

and manner of Scripture, as having differOn the same ground that the term ent authors, is visionary and groundless." Scripture’ includes the thoughts Pp. 15 and 16. and words, so also does it necessarily

Mr. Haldane on this subject comprehend the style in which it is written ; which is in fact nothing

says : more than the choice and arrange- The objection to verbal inspiration, ment of the words. This point is taken from the variety of style among the also insisted upon by our Authors, sacred writers, though at first sight it may in opposition to Mr. D. Wilson and seem plausible, is, in reality, both un

founded and absurd. It is taking for others, who object, that the diversity granted, that two or more accounts of of style, which is conspicuous in the the same thing, differing in phraseology, different books of Scripture, prove though substantially agreeing, cannot all be that the writers were in a measure the words of inspiration,-a notion which left to themselves. Messrs. Haldane

has not the smallest foundation in truth. and Carson contend, that though the

If variety of expression in relating the

same things in the Gospel, would not afstyle does peculiarly belong to each fect the truth of the narrative, on the writer ; yet, that

that it is a part of supposition that the writers were undivine wisdom to use this style; and inspired men, why is it presumed that that the writers are as much under

it would affect it on the supposition of the influence of the Spirit in this,

their being inspired ? and why should it

be thought improper for the Holy Ghost as in their conception of the most

to make use of that variety ? Or, because important doctrine.

one peculiar cast of style distinguishes

every man's writings, is it thought impos" That a human style (says Mr. C.) may, sible that the Spirit of God can employ a in another sense, be divine, may be made variety of styles; or is it supposed that intelligible to a child by an illustration.

He must be confined to one single mode Suppose, to give greater popularity to a

of expression ? The simple statement of work of genius, a writer should choose to

such an idea contains its refutation. It is imitate the style and manner of Sir Wal

evident, too, that variety of style militates ter Scott; and that the imitation should

no more against verbal inspiration, than be so perfect, that the public could not

against the supposed inspiration of superdistinguish. Now, such a style would be, intendence; for if the Holy Spirit sancin one sense, the style of Sir Walter ; but

tioned variety, it was equally consistent to in another, it would be the style of the

dictate variety. And it might be shown, author. In like manner, the style of the

that such variety is of essential importance Scriptures is the characteristic style of the

in the Gospel narratives, in bringing out different writers, but God is the author of

very interesting views, that could not be it. The style is as truly God's, as the exhibited in a single narrative." P. 96. matter; for if He has employed the style of different writers, he has likewise em

Exception is also taken by some ployed the expressions, thoughts, reason

to the circumstance, that the same ings, and arguments of the different writers." “ That the different styles of fact is often variously worded by the writers of Scripture may, in a certain

different writers of the Scriptures : - Those per

which is thus put by the writer in thing contained in the Bible, whether the the Eclectic Review.

words of the penmen, that contain the sons, therefore, (the advocates of mind of God, or the words of others, that

are inserted for the purpose of giving such plenary verbal inspiration,) do not information as he is pleased to impart, is shrink from maintaining, that the equally, according to the express declaravariations, equally with the coin- tions of Scripture, dictated by God. It cidences, even those which appa

should, however, be observed, that it is rently are the most unsusceptible

not at all implied by the assertion of ple- of being bent to reconciliation, all ple recorded in Scripture, without any

nary verbal inspiration, that every examproceeded from one and the same judgment expressed with regard to the

source, the verbal prescription of conduct of good, or even inspired men, “the Spirit of truth.” In reply to

should be for imitation." Hald, P. 98. which Mr. Carson says :

On which point we add from Mr. “I have distinctly avowed the senti

Carson's workment here alluded to; and I do not shrink from defending any thing I have advanced

“ This has no more difficulty when it on the subject. I have said, that any applies to the advice of Gamaliel, or the variety that is warrantable in the different letter of Claudius Lysias, the chief Caprehearsals of the same fact by an honest tain, than when it applies to the Sermon witness in the things of man, is equally

on the Mount. That every word of warrantable in the different relations of Scripture has been inspired, does not the same fact by the Holy Spirit. It is a imply that every speech or sentiment refanatical misconception of the nature of

corded there should be inspired. The truth and falsehood, to suppose, that what

Letter of Claudius Lysias was not inspired, is consistent with veracity in the language but it is inserted in the Scriptures by inof man, would be inconsistent with it in spiration; and for a purpose useful for the the language of God. To repeat a nar

edification of the man of God. To this rative with the exactness of a message in

view of inspiration I have never met an Homer's heralds, is not required by truth objection that could detain me for a moin the language of either God or man.

ment."

P. 71. And if there are any discrepancies in the accounts of the Evangelists, which do not In regard to another exception come under the protection of this shield, Mr. Haldane says: but are real errors, I maintain that they overturn the inspiration of the Scriptures It is no valid objection to verbal inaltogether, and are inconsistent with the spiration, that the sacred writers were ofdeclaration, that "All Scripture is given

ten acquainted beforehand with those facts by the inspiration of God.'' P. 91.

which they recorded, and that they were

directed to refer to this knowledge to esTwo or three other objections to

tablish their credibility. This no more this view are thus noticed :

proves that their relating these facts ori

ginated in themselves, than the previous “ It has been objected, that if the verbal

knowledge of a messenger of the contents inspiration of the whole of the Scriptures originated with himself

, or detracts from

of the message he bears, proves that it could be proved, it would follow, that the words of all the speakers, who are intro

its truth or authority. Nor does it form

any objection, that the penmen of Scripduced in them, (such as those of Job's friends, although their opinions were er

ture often appeal, in support of what they

advance, to its own evidence; or that roneous; nay, even the words of the devil

they reason from principles granted by himself,) were inspired. This objection is

those whom they addressed.

This was so absurd, that unless it had been sometimes gravely urged, it would be too trif

practised by the Lord himself; of whose ling to be noticed. Is it not sufficiently words, no christian will affirm, that they

are not the words of God." P. 99. plain, that while God dictated to the sacred penmen the words of those referred to, he dictated them to be inserted, not as

Mr. Haldane afterwards supports his words, but as their words ? Every his position by a most imposing

In

The

Lord ;

weight of testimony from Scripture,

not have been used; and if used improfor which we must refer the Reader perly, might have led to idolatry. to the Treatise itself.

The nature proof of the folly of their charge of blas

phemy, he refers the Jews to where it is of this testimony is as follows: written in their law, ' I said ye are gods.' “ That the holy men of old spake as The reply to this argument was obvious :

they were moved by the Holy -The Psalmist, they might answer, uses Ghost;"

that God at sundry the word in a sense that is not proper. times, and in divers manners, spake affirming, that the Scripture cannot be

But Jesus precluded this observation, by in time past unto the fathers by the broken, 'that is, not a word of it can be prophets; “ that the disciples altered, because it is the Word of Him on the day of Pentecost began to

with whom there is no variableness. Could

this be said if the choice of words had speak as the Spirit gave them

been left to men ? Here, then, we find utterance;" “ Which things we

our Lord laying down a principle, which speak (saith St. Paul) not in the

for ever sets the question at rest. words which man's wisdom teach- Apostles, in like manner, reason from the

eth, but which the Holy Ghost use of a particular word. Of this we have " teacheth.The prophets also, it

an example, Hebrews ii, 8, where the inis urged, continually introduce their terpretation of the passage referred to de

pends on the word ' all.' Again, Galatians messages with

Thus saith the iii, 16, a most important conclusion is and in some instances they drawn from the use of the word seed, in speak more directly in the person of the singular, and not in the plural number. the Deity; as Elijah to Ahab,—

A similar instance occurs, Hebrews xii, Behold I will bring evil upon

27, in the expression once more,' quoted

from the prophet Haggai.” P. 138. thee :” on which Mr. Scott observes,

Elijah was the voice, the Lord Thus, although the manner of was the speaker.” And the Apostles communicating the revelation may repeatedly quote the words of the differ, and though the instrument Prophets and of the Psalms as being may sometimes be voluntary and

spoken by the Lord,” or as those conscious, and sometimes not, God “ which the Holy Ghost spake by is nevertheless the author of the the mouth of his servant David.” revelation in the fullest and most The nature of the promises, both to absolute sense. In the words Prophets and Apostles, are further spoken by the ass of Balaam, we alleged, as exemplifying the same “ have an example of this compoint : e. g. “ I will be with thy

munication, through an unconmouth and teach thee what thou “ scious and involuntary instrument. shalt say ;” (Exod. iv. 11, 12,) and

In Balaam himself we have an “ I will give you a mouth and wis- “ example through one, who, in the dom, &c,” (Lake xxi, 15.) So declaration he made respecting Iscompletely indeed do our Lord and rael, was conscious, but involunthe Apostles treat the Scriptures, tary. In Caiaphas, through one and argue from them,

from them, on the ground “ who was voluntary in what he that every jot and tittle in them is said, but unconscious of its iminspired, that Mr. Haldane justly port. And in the Writers of the inquires

Scriptures we have an example of

agents both voluntary and con" On what principle but that of the

scious, but equally actuated by verbal inspiration of Scripture, can we ex- “ the Spirit of God." Touching plain our Lord's words, Jolin x, 35, The Scripture cannot be broken ?' Here the

which examples Mr. Haldane sarargument is founded on one word, 'gods, castically asks ; Under which of which without verbal inspiration might the kinds of inspiration that have “ been so ingeniously forged did the Bible, it is foolishness to

the men ass of Balaam speak? Was it

of the world. It not only disappoints " under that of Elevation ?

them in the nature of the facts which it

Or " shall the truth of the fact be re

relates, but also in the manner in which

they are exhibited. Owing to the truth 'jected altogether, because it is and impartiality of its narrations, the cha“ attended with difficulties ?"

racter of the people of Israel appears to IV. We shall notice another

them greatly worse than that of the grosspoint, which is likewise frequently Scripture of men, whose conduct on the

est idolaters; and the accounts given in insisted upon from the text so fre

whole stands approved by God, seems to quently recurring ;-viz. " that all them to sink below that standard of moral Scripture is profitable.'

rectitude, to which they imagine that they Mr. Haldane, in regard to some of themselves, and many of those who make the historical parts, the edification

no pretensions to religion, have attained.

It not only records truth, without the of which is denied by many, first smallest mixture of error; but also invarirefutes the opinion, that they were ably keeps in view the agency of God in written by men acquainted with the every occurrence,-in events the most mi. facts recorded, under a divine super- nute, as well as the most considerable ;

and thus it furnishes a perpetual comment intendence only, by which they were

on the sublime description of the Apostle, prevented from falling into any

any when, penetrated with admiration of the errors; and next gives an edifying riches both of the wisdom and knowledge sketch of the importance of the dif- of God, he exclaims,-- Of Him, and ferent historical parts ;—whether through Him, and to Him, are all things;

to whom be glory for ever.

Amen.'» they contain events of magnitude,

“ Had the wisest and best informed of or subjects of minor detail; whether the Scripture historians not been inspired of elaborately treated or slightly touch- God, but simply superintended, so as to ed upon ;-arguing as much for the prevent them from falling into error, the instructiveness of Scripture when it

histories recorded by them would be very

unlike those which they have actually is silent on some points, as for the

transmitted. Many of their narrations information it communicates

that exist would never have appeared, and others, which we might deem better others of them would have been very difsuppressed. One or two passages ferently modified. We might have disin this account appear to us to pos

covered in them the self-approving wisdom

of man, but not the seeming 'foolishness sess so much beauty and interest,

of God.' Would the united sagacity of all that we cannot forbear extracting the wise men in the world have led them them. Again quoting “ ALL Scrip- to relate the history of the creation of the ture is given by inspiration of God universe in one chapter of a book, as and is profitable, &c.” he continues : Moses has done, and of the erection of the

tabernacle in thirteen? Would the fond “ The above comprehensive declarations prejudices of the Jewish nation, or the include the historical as well as the pro- general desire fostered by so many of the phetical and doctrinal parts of the Sacred learned, to support what is called the digOracles, in short the whole of them. The nity of human nature, in both which object, therefore, of the historical records Moses no doubt participated, have perin the Scriptures, is essentially different mitted him to record so base an action as from that of all other histories. They are the selling of their brother Joseph as a not given to preserve the memory of cer- slave by the Jewish patriarchs,—the incest tain occurrences, in order to promote the of Judah, whose tribe was to be always knowledge of what may be useful in regard pre-eminent, -and the treachery and reto the affairs of this world, and to extend venge of Levi, from whom was to descend the sphere of human intelligence and er- the whole priesthood of Israel ? perience; but exclusively to teach the That there was a higher hand which knowledge of God and salvation. Scrip- directed the pens of Moses, and of the ture history is conducted in such a man- other writers of sacred history, may

be ner, that, like the doctrinal parts of the sufficiently manifest to all who have seen

on

:

in what that history has issued. There is “ there be, who imagine that Paul besides a combination and a harmony in would need an immediate revelation the historical parts, both of the Old and

“ from heaven, or a miraculous dicNew Testaments, which we have sufficient ground to believe in a great measure es

“tate of the Holy Ghost, to remind caped the notice of the writers, as has also Timothy of the cloak and writings been the case with thousands of those who which he left at Troas, or to adhave read them--a variety and a unity

" advise him to mingle a little wine which irresistibly prove that one only—

with his water.”b These passages He who knows the end from the beginning however in Timothy Mr. Haldane -is the author of the whole; who employed various individuals to produce a uniform sets forth in a manner so instructive, work, of which none of them either com- educing from them so great a variety prehended all that he had contributed to

of solemn, useful, and affecting conit, or knew for what reason he was directed siderations, that the pleasure afforded to record one thing and to omit another. Considering the purpose which the his

to us by this one portion of his book torical parts of the Scriptures were in. alone, has amply repaid us for its tended to serve, in exhibiting the character cost. He concludes his notice of and power of God, and his uninterrupted this subject, with the following imagency in the government of the world,

portant observations : and in pointing to Him who is the end of the law, we have sufficient reason to he

• The levity, not to say profaneness, of convinced, that neither Moses, nor the other sacred historians, nor all the angels tures, ought to be held in abhorrence.

this manner of treating the Holy Scripin heaven, though acquainted with all the

Their paramount authority, and their facts, and under the direction, and with

unity as the Word of God, are thus set the aid, both of superintendence and

aside. The Bible is converted into an. elevation, were competent to write the

other book; and another revelation, were historical parts of the Word of God.

such licentious principles of interpretation They neither possessed foresight nor wis

admitted, would become indispensable to dom sufficient for the work.” Pp. 126--128.

teach the humble christian, who takes it

for ' a lamp unto his feet, and a light unto Besides the objections to many of his path, what portion of it he is to conthe historical parts, certain passages

sider as from God, and what portion as are sometimes singled out as not

from man,—what parts of it are of ' a rebeing of a religious nature, and ligious nature, from which he may derive

edification, and in which he may converse therefore not inspired. Two pas- with God,--and what parts relate only to sages in Timothy may be instanced common or civil affairs,' with which he viz. “ Drink no longer water, &c.” has no concern, and which it would not be and The cloak which I left at prudent to speak of, as inspired. If, in Troas, &c.”--the vindication of

this manner, inspiration is first denied to

the words, and next to such things as are which is waived by Dr. Doddridge supposed not to be ‘of a religious nature, in terms highly censurable, as not the progress to the non-inspiration of only yielding the point of their in- whole books of Scripture is perfectly easy spiration, but as in some measure

and natural ; and, if whole books are rederiding it. With objections against inspiration of the whole of the Scriptures

jected, then, both the authenticity and these texts, he says, he has no con- are subverted. For, if the canon has ad

“ because they affect only mitted one uninspired book, there is no such a degree of inspiration, as I security that it has not admitted more ; think it not prudent, and I am

and if that canon has been recognised by

Jesus Christ with one uninspired book, sure it is not necessary to assert. “ I leave them therefore to be spired, notwithstanding that recognition.

every book in the collection may be unin“ answered by those, if any such The discovery, likewise, of one single pas

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