Topographical Surveying: Including Geographic, Exploratory, and Military Mapping, with Hints on Camping, Emergency Surgery, and Photography

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J. Wiley & sons, 1900 - 910 páginas
 

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Contenido

Geological Survey Method of Topographic Surveying
20
Organization of Field Survey
22
Surveying Open Country
23
Sketching Open Country
28
Surveying Woodland or Plains
33
Sketching Woodland or Plains
35
Control from Public Land Lines
36
Sketching Over Public Land Lines
37
Cost of Topographic Surveys
40
The Art of Topographic Sketching
43
Optical Illusions in Sketching Topography
44
SURVEYING FOR DETAILED OR SPECIAL MAPS ART PAGE 21 Topography for Railway Location
47
Detailed Topographic Surveys for Railway Location
49
Topographic Survey for Canal Location
52
Surveys for Reservoirs
57
Survey of Dam Site
58
City Surveys
62
Cadastral and Topographic City Survey
64
Cost of Largescale Topographic Surveys
67
CHAPTER IV
68
Instrumental Methods Employed in Geographic Surveys
69
Geographic Maps
70
Features Shown on Geographic Maps
72
Geographic Reports
73
Scale and Cost of Governmental Geographic Surveys 35 Exploratory Surveys
74
Scale Cost and Relief of Government Geographic Maps
75
Exploratory and Geographic Surveys Compared
77
Methods and Examples of Exploratory Surveys
82
CHAPTER V
92
Military Reconnaissance with Guide Map 40 Military Reconnaissance without Guide Map 41 Detailed Military
95
Military Siege Maps
101
Military Memoirs 44 Cadastral Surveys
102
Scale and Cost of Cadastral Surveys
107
CHAPTER VI
108
Origin and Development of Topographic Forms
109
Physiographic Processes
110
Erosion Transportation and Corrasion 50 Topographic Forms
111
Classification of Physiographic Processes
112
Classification of Topographic Forms
122
GLOSSARY OF TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS PAGE 113 120 I 22
133
PART II
146
Planetable Surveying
147
Reconnaissance and Execution of Planetable Triangulation
149
Tertiary Triangulation from Topographic Sketch Points
151
Varieties of Planetables
152
Planetable Tripods and Boards 58 Planetable Movements
153
Telescopic Alidades
157
Adjustments of Telescopic Alidade
159
Gannett Planetable
160
Sightalidades
161
Folding Exploratory Planetable
163
Cavalry Sketchboard
164
CHAPTER VIII
167
Sliderule
168
Using the Sliderule
169
Planetable Paper
170
Preparation of Field Sheets
175
Manipulation of Pencil and Straightedge
178
Needle Points Pencil Holders and Sharpeners
179
CHAPTER IX
180
Error in Horizontal Angle due to Inclination of Plane table Board
181
Location by Intersection
182
CHAPTER X
195
Lettering
196
Drafting Instruments
197
Model and Relief Maps
198
Modeling the
199
Duplicating the Model Casting
200
PAGE
209
Logarithms of Numbers to Four Places
215
Logarithms of Trigonometric Functions
217
Transfer of Ends of Base to Triangulation Signals
223
WORKS OF REFERENCE ON TOPOGRAPHY
230
For Converting Wheelrevolutions into Decimals of a Mile
233
CHAPTER XII
236
Determining Horizontal Distances from Inclined Stadia Meas ures 249 107 Horizontal Distances and Elevations from Stadia Readings
249
ings
250
Determining Elevations by Stadia
258
Diagram for Reducing Stadia Measures
259
Differences of Elevation from Stadia Measures
260
Diagram for Reducing Inclined Stadia Distances to Horizontal
264
Effects of Refraction on Stadia Measurements
266
Stadiarods 269
269
CHAPTER XIII
272
Measuring Distances with Gradienter
274
Natural Sines and Cosines
275
Natural Tangents and Cotangents
277
WagnerFennel Tachymeter
280
Rangefinding
282
Surveying with Rangefinder
283
Traversing with Rangefinder
284
Weldon Rangefinder
286
Accuracy and Difficulties of Rangefinding
289
Rangefinding with Planetable
290
CHAPTER XIV
292
Principles of Phototopography
296
Camera and Plates
298
Fieldwork of a Phototopographic Survey
299
PART III
305
Time by a Single Observed Altitude of a Star
306
Approximate Time from
307
Engineering Spiritlevels
308
Target Levelingrods
311
Speakingrods
313
Benchmarks
316
Method of Running Single Lines of Leve
317
Instructions for Leveling
320
Notebooks
322
Platting Profiles
324
CHAPTER XVI
325
Geodetic Leveling
326
Precise Spiritlevel
327
Sequence in Simultaneous Doublerodded Leveling
329
Methods of Running
332
Manipulation of Instrument
336
Length of Sight
337
Sources of Error
339
Divergence of Duplicate Level Lines
343
Limit of Precision
344
Adjustment of Group of Level Circuits
345
Refraction and Curvature
347
Speed in Leveling 154 Cost of Leveling
349
Cost of Leveling per Mile in Various States
350
Cost and Speed of Government Precise Leveling
351
Handlevels
355
Using the Locke Handlevel
356
Abney Clinometer Level
357
CHAPTER XVII
359
Vertical Angulation
361
Vertical Angulation Computation 162 Vertical Angulation in Sketching
363
376
364
825
365
Vertical Angulation from Traverse
367
Trigonometric Leveling Computation
368
Logarithms of Radius of Curvature R in Meters
369
Errors in Vertical Triangulation
370
Refraction and Curvature
371
Leveling with Gradienter
372
Barometric Leveling
374
Methods and Accuracy of Barometric Leveling 170 Mercurial Barometer
375
Section Through Cistern and Tube of Mercurial Barometer
376
Barometric Notes and Computation
378
Example of Barometric Computation
381
Guyots Barometric Tables
383
Reduction of Barometric Readings to Feet
384
Correction for Differences of Temperature
392
Correction for Differences of Gravity at Various Latitudes
393
Correction for Decrease of Gravity on a Vertical
394
Aneroid Barometer 175 Errors of Aneroid
395
Using the Aneroid
396
Thermometric Leveling
402
Altitude by Boilingpoint of Water
403
PART IV
404
Map Projection
405
Kinds of Projections 181 Perspective Projections
406
Gnomonic and Orthographic Projections
407
Cylinder Projections
410
702
431
306
434
Use of Projection Tables
435
Areas of Quadrilaterals of Earths Surface 188 Platting Triangulation Stations on Projection
436
Lengths of Degrees of Meridian and Parallel
437
Arcs of the Parallel
438
Meridional Arcs Coordinates of Curvature 139
439
308
442
Scale Equivalents
446
4
447
CHAPTER XX
449
Contour Lines
450
Contour D Shadeline B and Hachure Construction A
451
Relief by Crayonshading
457
Contour Construction
459
Shaded Hachures
463
Conventional Signs Miscellaneous Symbols and Boundary Lines
469
Conventional Signs Lettering
475
Relief Map from Catskill Model
481
Relief Map from Contour Model
487
PART V
495
Accuracy of Base Measurement
498
Base Measurement with Steel Tapes 205 Steel Tapes
500
Tapestretchers
501
Coast Survey Tapestretcher
502
Laying out the Base
505
Measuring the Base 209 Compensated Base Bars
507
Contactslide Base Apparatus
508
Icedbar Apparatus
511
Repsold Base Apparatus
513
Cost Speed and Accuracy
515
514
516
CHAPTER XXII
517
Record of Base Measurement
518
Correction for Inclination of Base
519
Correction for
521
Reduction of Base to Sealevel
522
Summary of Measures of Sections
523
CHAPTER XXIV
538
CHAPTER XXV
545
449
549
CHAPTER XXVI
577
Methods of Measuring Horizontal Angles
584
Record of Triangulation Observations
588
Instructions for Fieldwork of Primary Triangulation
590
Primary TriangulationCost Speed and Accuracy
592
CHAPTER XXVII
594
Formulas for Solution of Rightangled Triangles
595
Solution of Plane Triangles
596
Given Two Sides and Included Angle to Solve the Triangle
598
Given Three Sides of a Triangle to Find the Angles
599
Threepoint Problem
600
CHAPTER XXVIII
602
Rejection of Doubtful Observations
604
Probable Error of Arithmetic Mean
607
Reduction to Center
608
Station Adjustment 269 Routine of Station Adjustment 270 Equations of Condition
612
Formation of Table of Correlates
614
Formation of Normal Equations and Substitution in Table of Correlates
615
Figure Adjustment
616
Routine of Figure Adjustment 275 Notation Used in Figure Adjustment 276 Angle Equations 277 Spherical Excess
617
Side Equations
618
519
622
Solution of Angle and Side Equations
625
Correlates and Normal Equations
627
Algebraic Solution of Normal Equations
628
Substitution in Normal Equations 283 Substitution in Table of Correlates
632
Weighted Observations
633
CHAPTER XXIX
636
Example
642
455
661
CHAPTER XXX
672
619
676
PART VI
678
Fundamental Astronomic Formulas
684
521
693
CHAPTER XXXII
695
CHAPTER XXXIII
707
Approximate Solar Azimuth
708
Azimuths of Secondary Accuracy
712
Primary Azimuths
719
Reduction of Azimuth Observations
720
Azimuth at Elongation
721
CHAPTER XXXIV
723
Approximate Solar Latitude
724
Latitude from an Observed Altitude
725
Astronomic Transit and Zenith Telescope
726
Latitude by Differences of Zenith Distances of Two Stars
728
Errors and Precision of Latitude Determinations
729
Fieldwork of Observing Latitude
730
Determination of Level and Micrometer Constants
732
Corrections to Observations for Latitude by Talcotts Method
738
Reduction of Latitude Observations
743
CHAPTER XXXV
744
Longitude by Chronometers
745
Longitude by Lunar Distances
746
Longitude by Chronograph
748
Observing for Time
751
Reduction of Time Observations
752
Record of Time Observations
754
Longitude Computation
757
460
761
Comparison of Time
774
CHAPTER XXXVI
777
Adjustment of Sextant
778
Using the Sextant 339 Solar Attachment
780
Burt Solar Attachment
781
Adjustment of Burt Solar Attachment
782
Smith Meridian Attachment
785
Adjustment of Smith Meridian Attachment
786
Determination of Azimuth and Latitude with Solar Attachment
789
Solar Attachment to Telescopic Alidade
791
CHAPTER XXXVII
793
The Camera and its Adjustments
794
Measurement of the Plate
797
Computation of the Plate
801
Sources of Error
804
Precision of Resulting Longitude
808
REFERENCE WORKS ON GEODESY
809
PART VII
811
Subsistence and Transportation of Party in Field
813
Selecting and Preparing the Camp Ground
814
Tents
817
Specifications for Army Wall Tents
820
Specifications for Army Walltent Flies
821
Specifications for Army Walltent Poles 359 Specifications for Army Shelter Tents Halves 360 Specifications for Army Shelter Tents Poles
822
Erecting the Tent
825
Camp Stoves Cots and Tables
827
Specifications for Army Sibley Tent Stoves 365 How to Build Campfires 366 Cookingfire for a Small Camp 367 Camp Equipment
830
Provisions
833
CHAPTER XXXix
836
Pack Animals and Saddles
837
Moore Packsaddles 372 Throwing the Diamond Hitch
841
Packmen
847
Transportation Repairs
848
Veterinary Surgery D o Oo
849
CHAPTER XL
850
Care of Health
853
Drinkingwater
854
Medical Hints
856
Diarrhea and Dysentery
857
Drowning and Suffocation
858
Serpent and Insectbites 383 Surgical Advice 384 Medicinechest 856 860
860
CHAPTER XLI
864
Cameras
865
Lenses and their Accessories
867
Dry Plates and Films
869
Exposures
872
Developing
875
Fixing
878
Printing and Toning
880
Blue Prints and Black Prints
883
523
887
774
888
462
893
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