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the Brazilians, because they hated the people from Portugal; while all impartial men could not but be struck with the superior discipline, energy, and temper of the men of Talaveira. In this moody state of things, some insane blockhead, or desperate traitor, obtained an order from the king for a review and sham-fight, to take place a day or two afterwards around the palace of St. Christophe, in which the two parties were to try their skill in attack and defence. All sober-minded men became alarmed, and the very day before the review was to take place, it was discovered by accident that the Pernambucanos had provided themselves with balls, buttons, nails, and other missiles, for the purpose of doing mischief. The troops from Portugal were instantly ordered to their barracks, and being examined by their officers, frankly owned that they were not unaware of the mischief intended for them, and that if any one man among them was hit, they had agreed to disobey orders, to charge with the bayonet, and march over their opponents. It is scarcely necessary to add, that the review did not take place, and that the circumstance produced a spirit among the parties which it would be very difficult to control. In the full exercise of such rancorous feelings, I left the troops in the

year 1818."

In the subsequent part of the volume is some curious information respecting the internal police of the country, the regnal honours bestowed upon it, the acclamation of the king, and the increase of knowledge and taste, with sundry observations on slavery and the slave trade. We cannot enter on these particulars; and must now come to a conclusion by a few-notices concerning the commerce of Brazil.

“While looking at the intercourse of foreign vessels with Rio, every Briton must be gratified at the wonderful preponderance which his own country possesses in that branch of commerce, both as it respects the direct trade from British ports, from colonial ones, and between Rio and other foreign ports;-a branch of commerce almost new in itself, of great importance to every maritime people, and of immense value to our shipping interest, although it makes no figure either in our custom-house entries or our reports to parliament. This, however, loudly calls for legislative interference, not only to nurture and protect it, but to control and prevent it from doing mischief. It is certain that no vessel ought to navigate under the British flag, without the government knowing precisely where she is, and what she is doing. Every such vessel which goes from one foreign port to another, ought not only to take a consular clearance, but to specify, definitely, the port to which she intends to proceed; her arrival, or non-arrival there should be noted, the duration of her voyage, the nature of her cargo, and such other circumstances as may be thought connected with the object which she has in view.

“ These particular should be transmitted also to the Board of Trade, not so much with a view to make known the nature of the traffic in which the vessel is engaged, as to prevent British ships from abusing their privileges, and foreign ones from appearing under a protection to which they bave no title, and making use of the flag as a cloak, in distant seas, for such proceedings as the British government would not justify. In proportion as the commerce we are speaking of expands, care ought to be taken to maintain the purity of mercantile character, the acknowledged rectitude and generosity of the British ensign. Wherever that is displayed it should be the rallying point of the injured, the pavilion of the distressed,-always indicating a place of refuge to be sought, and never appearing as a beacon to be shunned.”

This branch of foreign commerce is of advantage to Brazil, as it takes off her surplus produce, and supplies her with British manufactures; for her trade is still only in the state of barter. American vessels call at Rio for bullion, which they carry to Asia to purchase cargoes that are distributed through Europe and the United States. “ In this important and lucrative branch of commerce, Britain,” says the author, " has no share: she prohibits it to herself!" Political relations, and a friendly intercourse subsist between Brazil and Spain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden, as well as some of the other states of Europe. Respecting the late marriage of an Austrian princess to the heir-apparent, Mr. Luccock remarks, that " from a connection of this kind, Austria could expect no immediate or direct advantage; and the state of banishment in which the princess must be placed, can be compensated only by the consideration, that Brazil, like South America, in general is a rich country, and affords a field for royal as well as commercial adventurers."

Art. XIII.-Letters from the West. Letter III. April 18th. This morning we left Wheeling. Retween this place and Marietta, there is little particularly worthy of attention, except the mounds and fortifications, on Mr. Tomlinson's farm at Grave Creek. The "Big Grave," as it is called, is about a quarter of a mile from Mr. Tomlinson's house, in a south-westerly direction; it is a circular mound, sixty-eight feet high, and fifty-five feet in diameter at the top. This is one of the largest mounds in the western country, and it exhibits every indication of great antiquity, its whole surface being covered by forest trees of the largest size, and the earth presenting no peculiarity to distinguish it from the adjacent soil.

The “ Long Reach,” where the Ohio pursues a direct course for

17 miles, may also be noticed in this place, as presenting a remarkable exception from the general character of this river.

19th. Marietta is beautifully situated at the mouth of the Muskingum river, and has an appearance of neatness and regularity, which is not usual in the villages of this country. The Ohio has occasionally overflowed its banks at this place, but its inroads might easily be prevented by a slight embankinent, and it is presumed that the inhabitants will not neglect a precaution so necessary to their health and convenience. Ship building was carried on here to some extent several years ago, and great expectations were entertained of the future commercial importance of the town; but as yet they have not been realised. As early as the year 1798 or 99, commodore Preble built a brig of 120 tons at this place, which probably was the first sea vessel lanched in the western waters.

I would gladly have stopped for a short time at this place, for I began to be heartily tired of the boat. A voyage of any kind is disagreeable enough at best, for give it what variety you may, it still involves confinement of the body, and a correspondent restraint of the mind. The fancy, it is true, may wander over boundless regions, but the feet are as fond of wandering as the imagination, and it is by no means pleasant to have them limited within the space of a few yards. Yet disagreeable as such a situation naturally is, I have found so many recreations to amuse me on the present occasion, so much novelty in the objects which are continually presented, and so much interest in the recollections which crowd upon my mind, that I cannot say my most idle moments have been wearisome; and I am convinced that with the aid of a little ingenuity, and some good humour, no man need ever despair.

The heart must be cold indeed that would not glow among scenes like these. Rightly did the French call this stream La Belle Riviere (the beautiful river). Its current is always graceful, and its shores every where romantic. Every thing here is on a large scale. The eye of the traveller, let it wander as it may, is continually regaled with magnificent scenes. Here are no pigmy mounds dignified with the name of mountains; no rivulets swelled into rivers. Nature has worked with a rapid, but masterly hand;



every touch is bold, and the whole is grand as well as beautiful; while room is left for art to embellish and fertilise that which nature has created with a thousand capabilities. There is much sanieness in the character of the scenery; but that sameness is in itself delightful, as it consists in the recurrence of noble traits which are too pleasing ever to be viewed with indifference; like the regular features which we sometimes find in the face of a lovely woman, their charm consists in their own intrinsic gracefulness, rather than in the variety of their expression. The Ohio has not the sprightly, fanciful wildness of the Niagara, the St. Lawrence, or the Susquehanna, whose impetuous torrents, rushing over beds of rock, or dashing against the jutting cliffs, arrest the ear by their murmurs, and delight the eye with their eccentric wanderings. Neither is it, like the Hudson, margined at one spot by the meadow and the village, and overhung at another by threatening precipices and stupendous mountains. It has a wild, solemn, silent sweetness, peculiar to itself. This noble stream, clear, smooth and unruffled, sweeps onward with regular majestic force. Continually changing its course as it rolls from vale to vale, it always winds with dignity, and avoiding those acute angles, which are observable in less powerful streams, sweeps round in graceful bends, as if disdaining the opposition to which nature forces it to submit. On each side, the romantic hills rise, piled on each other, to a tremendous height; and between them are deep, abrupt, silent glens, which at a distance seem inaccessible to the human foot, while the whole is covered with timber of a gigantic size, and a luxuriant foliage of the deepest hues. Throughout this scene there is a pleasing solitariness, that speaks peace to the mind, and invites the fancy to soar abroad, among the tranquil haunts of meditation. Sometimes the splashing of the oar is heard, and the boatman's song awakens the surrounding echoes; but the most usual music is that of the native songsters, whose melody steals pleasingly on the ear, with every modulation, at all hours, and in every change of situation. The poet, in sketching these solitudes, might, by throwing his scene a few years back, add the light canoe and war song of the Indian; but the peaceful traveller rejoices in the absence of that which would bring danger as well as variety within his reach. You are to observe, that I am speaking of the Ohio only so far as I have already seen it; after we leave this hilly region, its shores no doubt present a different aspect. We have just passed the Muskingum Island, and the country already seems to be much less mountainous, though not less romantic. The prospect immediately below this island is singularly characteristic and picturesque. The river making a long stretch to the west, affords an uninterrupted view for several miles. On one side are seen several log houses surrounded by newly cleared fields, exhibiting the first stage of improvement; a little further on a neat brick house surrounded by fruit trees, just putting forth their blossoms, indicates a more advanced state of civilization, and marks the residence of a more wealthy, or more industrious citizen. Beyond these are lofty hills, whose long shadows fall upon the water, and all around is the gloom of the forest. On the opposite bank a rude bridge thrown over a deep ravine is discovered through the trees, and near it a few frail inclosures fabricated of rough stakes, designate and protect the tombs of some of the early adventurers to this wild country.

I never was a friend to the incarceration of beauty, as I always believed that every pretty woman, to say nothing of the ugly ones, was intended to assist in beguiling the cares of some poor fellow, who, like myself, had more of them on his shoulders than he could well attend to. Yet, whenever I gaze on the silent shores of the Ohio, I am tempted to think how pretty a convent would look in one of these romantic vallies, where deep melancholy shadows curtain every spot, where no discordant sound disturbs the solitude, and where no unhallowed object intrudes upon the eye, that could excite “a tumult in a vestal's veins.” But this illusion is easily destroyed. When I forsook the deck, and struck into the country among the farmers, who fearing the atmosphere of the river, build their houses at a distance, leaving a strip of the forest standing to intercept the damps, I found something very different from nuns and anchorites.

To day, our boat struck on a sand bar, through the carelessness of the captain, who was sleeping below, when he should have been minding his business. The boatmen jumped into the water with great alacrity, and attempted to “ heave her oft;" but being unable

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