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"He gains her heart-and then when he has won her,
Thus in suspense, to you and us distressing,
ART. XVIII.-Literary and Scientific Intelligence.
A third edition of Sig. Carlo Botta's history of the War of the American Revolution, in the original Italian, has been transmitted by the author to the American Philosophical Society. This edition was printed at Milan, in 1819 "with some corrections" by M. Botta.
The French House of Deputies caused to be published in 1818, a complete list of the pensioners of government, with the amount of their several pensions. This list is printed in 10 vols. 4to. The whole number of pensioners is, 196,205, and the amount of pensions is nearly twelve million of dollars. The greater part of these pensions is paid for services rendered to Bonaparte, and either were granted before the restoration, or have been given to the military who have since retired from service. The pensioners are thus divided into three classes:
Military and Widows, 132,918
Compensation to Authors. In the case of Power v. Power, lately tried in London, it appeared in evidence that in the year 1811, the plaintiff entered into an engagement with Mr. Moore for a period of seven years, during which time the latter was to supply the former annually, with one number of Irish Melodies, and certain other works specified, for the consideration of five hundred pounds sterling, (82,220), at the expiration of the seven years, a further agreement was entered into for the term of six years.
Mr. Jackson has published a translation of "An account of a Journey from Fas, to Timbuctoo, performed in or about the year 1787: by El Hage Abd. Shabeeny." Shabeeny is a musselman, a native of Tetuan, who, at the age of fourteen, accompanied his father to Timbuctoo: here they resided three years, and then proceeded to Housa; their residence in this place was for two years, when they returned to Timbuctoo, resided 7 years there, and then came to Tetuan. From this account it is evident that this person, if in the least intelligent, and to be depended upon, is extremely well qualified to give information respecting a part of Africa scarcely known to Europeans. Mr. Lucas, the British Consul at Tetuan, was well acquainted with him, and the information this work contains was obtained through Mr. Lucas, in answer to questions put by Mr. Beaufoy. It is a very important work, clear in its details, and, as far as internal evidence goes, entirely worthy of credit.
The "Travels to the sources of the Senegal and Gambia," are from the pen of M. Mollien, who was sent by the French government to discover the sources of the Senegal, Gambia, and Niger; to ascertain if any communication existed between the two former, to descend the Niger, to traverse Bambouch, and visit its gold mines; and to return by way of Galam. The more novel and difficult parts of this expedition he was not able to execute: he has, however, added considerably to our knowledge of the geography of this part of Africa-having ascertained the sources of the Gambia to be distinct, though very near to each other, and having explored the source of the Senegal. The information he received. respecting the Niger agrees with that which all the natives of this part of Africa, and the travellers to Timbuctoo, give-viz. that it falls into the Nile. Except in a geographical point of view, M. Mollien's work is not entitled to much praise; many of his adventures and accounts are tinctured with egotism or the marvellous.
Mrs. Bailey, of Philadelphia, has issued proposals for republishing, by subscription, a scarce and valuable work entitled, A complete view of Episcopacy, as exhibited from the fathers of the Christian church until the close of the second century, containing an impartial account of them, of their writings, and of what they say concerning bishops and presbyters; with observations and remarks, tending to show, that they esteemed these one and the same order of the ecclesiastical officers, in answer to those, who have repre
sented it as a certain fact, universally handed down, even from the apostles' days, that governing and ordaining authority was exercised by such bishops only, as were of an order superior to presbyters. By CHARLES CHAUNCY, D. D. Pastor of the first church of Christ in Boston. Price one dollar. This title is so ample as to supersede the necessity of any explanation from us. To those presbyterians who wish to obtain a clear view of the powers pecufiar to the office of bishops in the apostolic age, this work may be recommended with great confidence.
James Hall, Esq. of Illinois,' late of the United States army, is preparing a Treatise on Military Law, on an enlarged plan. It will be put to press as soon as sufficient encouragement is received. There is no work in which this subject is treated so fully and fundamentally as its importance requires; and if we take into consideration the number of courts martial which are created in this country, and the gross ignorance which is too often displayed by the judges, it may be affirmed that there is no book more wanted. On the law of evidence, for instance, these gentlemen, who, without the intervention of a jury, are called upon to decide questions which may affect the honour or the life of an individual, are often as ignorant as a stupid justice of the peace. They have been known to reject, with scorn, rules deduced from the gravest authority, merely because they did not coincide with the imperfect notions which they had rashly adopted. To some practical experience in military affairs, Col. Hall has the advantage of adding the professional knowledge of a lawyer, and we may therefore expect from his pen a systematic treatise on this anomalous branch of jurisprudence.
Nismes.-The beautiful temple known by the appellation of the Maison Carree, has undergone considerable repairs. The roof has been restored to its ancient shape; and the cornice in the eastern façade, which was much decayed and very loose, has been rendered quite firm, and secure. It is now intended to clear away the rubbish below, which has accumulated to a depth of nearly nine feet, and to restore the bases of the columns; so that the . temple will be completely visible, although much sunk beneath the level of the surrounding place, from which it will be separated by a handsome iron pallisading placed on the top of the stone facing of the area surrounding this beautiful relic of ancient architecture. These repairs are undertaken in consequence of the exertions of the General Council for the Department du Gard, seconded by the liberality of the King.
Denmark.-Grumbach has translated, from the Anglo-Saxon, an ancient Gothic heroic poem, entitled Biowulf's Drapa; a composition of very great antiquity, having been written more than ten centuries. Professor Rahbeck has also produced a translation of the Mala or Saga of Brennunia, one of the oldest and most curious of Icelandic Sagas. It is printed in the first volume of his Northern Tales. Since this eminent writer and elegant poet
has turned his attention to the traditions and mythology of the early periods of the Northern Nations, much may be expected from so industrious and skilful a pen. The Icelandic Literary Society continues its labours with uninterrupted and indefatigable zeal. The Sturlunga Saga, an undertaking of extraordinary magnitude, and of no less historical importance, is now completed. The society contemplates another design of equal interest, namely -editing a collection of the best Icelandic poets. Professor Finn Magnussen observes, in his interesting papers on Northern Archæology, that the extraordinary attachment which Oluf ioskaldsen (who was Hovding in Iceland in the tenth century,) had for sculpture, is now remarkably displayed in the illustrious Thorvaldsen, who is the twenty-fifth in descent from that personage.
Sola, another Spanish artist, has likewise exhibited a group of extraordinary merit. It represents a mother, who is instructing her infantine son to shoot, and assists him to draw the string of the bow with one hand, while she directs the arrow with the other. It is needless to inquire what is the history attached to these figures, or the particular incident here represented, since their exquisite beauty and sportive grace sufficiently prove to the spectator that they are
Dame Venus and her sagittary boy
Who work to gods and men such sweet annoy.
Roman Antiquities at Caster.-Since the late discovery of Roman remains at this place, there has been found a tesselated pavement of extraordinary splendour and beauty: it is surrounded by a strong foundation, and is in the most perfect state of preservation. There have been likewise discovered many other articles and curious specimens of Roman manufacture, such as floors of painted plaster, urns, coins, trinkets, and four pieces of elephant's horn.
Botanical Gardens.-The most ancient Botanic Garden, of which there is any authentic record, is that formed by Theophras tus, with the assistance of Demosthenes of Phalerus, about 300 years before the Christian æra. In the Capitularies of Charlemagne are to be found directions concerning gardens, and lists of the plants to be grown in them. At the request of Messer Gualtieri, the Republic of Venice formed a public garden for the cultivation of medicinal plants, in the year 1333; and in the sixteenth century Italy exhibited many similar establishments, although the French claim the merit of having given the first example of any thing of the kind in the botanical garden at Montpelier. This, however, did not exist until the reign of Henri IV; yet was certainly the first of the kind in that kingdom, and prior to the one at Paris by five-and-twenty y ars.
Panoramas.-Professor John Adam Breysig, an architect and scene painter of considerable eminence in Germany, and author
of various essays on perspective and theatrical decoration, has published a paper in the Berlin and Spener Zeitung, by which he lays claim to the merit of being the original inventor of the Panoramas, the principle of which he discovered before the ingenious Englishman, Barker.
Cleaning of Medals.-Professor Lancellotti, of the Royal Institute at Naples, read at a late sitting of that society, an account of process which he employs in order to remove from ancient silver medals the rust that covers, and often renders them illegible. He first lays the medal in oxydated acid of salts, afterwards in a solution of sal-ammoniac for a short time; then rubs it with a piece of linen until all the rust disappears. His experiments have always been attended with success; and the discovery is of importance to those who study numismatics, since a great number of silver medals, whose inscriptions have hitherto not been legible, may now be rendered so.
Mechanical Inventions.-M. Kuhaiewsky of Warsaw, a very excellent mechanist, has produced the following inventions, viz. 1. A Threshing Machine, which has the advantage of being very simple in its constrution, durable, economic, and not expensive; and is likewise superior to every contrivance hitherto formed for this purpose, being the only one that injures neither the stalk nor the grain in separating the former from the latter. The machine consists of several wheels, two of which (one at either end) are furnished with 48 flails: these are put in motion by one man as he walks to and fro within the machine, and thus a single labourer is enabled to perform the work of a great number. The most complete success has attended the experiments that have been made, and there can be no doubt of the efficiency of the invention. 2. A Sawing Mill, which is also worked by a single person, without any assistance from water. 3. An Astronomical Watch, which indicates the difference of time in the principal places in different parts of the globe: this has been accepted as a present by the Emperor Alexander, who has sent M. Kuhaiewsky, in return, a magnificent snuff-box, and has assigned him a sum to enable him to continue his important labours.
Prophecies.-Councillor Lillienstern, of Frankfort on the Mayne, has published a very singular work, in which he attempts to prove argumentatively and methodically, that the predictions respecting Antichrist are now on the eve of being accomplished. Antichrist, he asserts, will appear in 1823; his arrival will be succeeded by ten years of religious wars; after which the millenium, as he assures us, is to commence in 1836.
Zoology.-M. Diard, a young French naturalist, found at Sumatra, in 1819, a tapir, an animal which, until then had never been met with except in the New World. It does not differ from the American tapir, except in colour; the extremity of the ears, the rump, the back, the belly, and the sides, being white: while every