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kas turned his attention to the traditions and mythology of the carly periods of the Northern Nations, much may be expected from so industrious and skilful a pen. The Icelandic Literary Society continues its labours with ininterrupted and indefatigable Zeal. The Sturlunga Saga, an undertaking of extraordinary magnitude, and of no less historical importance, is now completed. The society contemplates a other design of equal interest, namely -editing a collection of the best Icelandic poets. Professor Finn Magnussen observes, in his interesting papers on Northern Archæology, that the extraordinary attachme:t which Oluf lioskaldsen (who was Ilovding in Iceland in the tenth century,) had for sculpture, is now remarkably displayed in the illustrious í'horvaldsen, who is the twenty-fifth in descent from that personage.
Sola, another Spanish artist, has likewise exhibited a group of extraordinary merit. It represents a mother, who is instructing her infantine son to shoot, and assists him to draw the string of the bow with one hand, while she directs the arrow with the other. It is needless to inquire what is the history attached to these figures, or the particular incident bere represented, since their exquisite beauty and sportive grace sufficiently prove to the spectator that they are
Dame Venus and her sagittary boy
Who work to gods and men such sweet annoy. Roman Antiquities at Castır.-Since the late discovery of Roman remains at this place, there has been found a tesselated pavement of extraordinary splendour and beauty: it is surrounded by a strong foundation, and is in the most perfect state of preservation. There have been likewise discovered many other articles and curious specimens of Roman manufacture, such as floors of painted plaster, urns, coins, trinkets, and four pieces of elephant's horn.
Botanical Gardens. The most ancient Botanic Garden, of which there is any authentic record, is that formed by Theophras. tus, with the assistance of Demosthenes of Phalerus, about 300 years before the Christian æra. In the Capitularies of Charlemagne are to be found directions concerning gardens, and lists of the plants to be grown in them. At the request of Messer Guiltieri, the Republic of Venice formed a public garden for the cultivation of medicinal plants, in the year 1333; and in the sixteenth century Italy exhibited many similar establishments, although the French claim the merit of having given the first example of any thing of the kind in the botanical garden at Montpelier. This, however, did not exist until the reign of Henri IV; yet was certainly the first of the kind in that kingdom, and prior to the one at Paris by five-and-twenty y ars.
Panoramas.- Professor John Adam Breysig, an architect and scene painter of considerable eminence in Germany, and author
of various essays on perspective and theatrical decoration, has published a paper in the Berlin and Spener Zeitung, by which he lays claim to the merit of being the original inventor of the Panoramas, the principle of which he discovered before the ingenious Englishman, Barker.
Cleaning of Medals.-Professor Lancellotti, of the Royal Institute at Naples, read at a late sitting of that society, an account of process which he employs in order to remove from ancient silver medals the rust that covers, and often renders them illegible. He first lays the medal in oxydated acid of salts, afterwards in a solu+ion of sal-ammoniac for a short time; then rubs it with a piece of linen until all the rust disappears. His experiments have always been attended with success; and the discovery is of impor. tance to those who study numisinatics, since a greatnumber of silver medals, whose inscriptions have hitherto not been legible, may now be rendered so.
Mechanical Inventions.-M. Kuhajewsky of Warsaw, a very excellent mechanist, has produced the following inventions, viz. 1. Threshing Machine, which has the advantage of being very simple in its construition, durable, econoinic, and not expensive; and is likewise superior to every contrivance hitherto forined for this purpose, being the only one that injures neither the stalk nor the grain in separating the former from the latter. The machine consists of s veral wneels, two of which (one at either end) are furnished with 48 fails: these are put in motion by one man as he walks to and fro within the machine, and thus a single labourer is enabled to perform the work of a great number. The most complete success has attended the experiments that have been made, and there can be no doubt of the efficiency of the invention. 2. A Sawing Mill, which is also worked by a single person, without any assistance from water. 3. An Astronomical Watch, which indicates the difference of time in the principal places in different parts of the globe: this has been accepted as a present by the Emperor Alexander, who has sent M. Kuhaiewsky, in return, a magnificent snuff-box, and has assigned him a sum to enable him to continue his important labours.
Prophecies.-Councillor Lillienstern, of Frankfort on the Mayne, has published a very singular work, in which he attempts to prove argumentatively and methodically, that the predictions respecting Intichrist are now on the eve of being accomplished. Antichrist, he asserts, will appear in 1823; his arrival will be succeeded by ten years of religious wars; after which the millenium, as he assures us, is to commence in 1836.
Zoology.-M. Diard, a young French naturalist, found at Sumatra, in 1819, a tapir, an animal which, until then had never been met with except in the New World. It does not differ from the American tapir, except in colour; the extremity of the ears, the rump, the back, the belly, and the sides, being white: while every other part is of a deep black. This fact is the more worthy of notice, as it overturns the reasonings of Buffon, respecting the difference between the animals of Asia, and those of America.
Institute. The prize proposed this year, by the Academie Royale des Sciences,' in the class of Physics, is—to determine, by means of accurate experiments, what are the causes of animal warmth, whether chemical or physical The academy expressly requires that the quantity of caloric emitted in a given time, by a healthy animal; and the quantity of caloric produced by its respiration, be ascertained with the utmost exactitude; also that this caloric be compared with that produced by the combustion of carbon, in forming the same quantity of carbonic acid. The prize will be a gold medal, of the value of 5,000 francs, to be adjudged at the sitting of 1823.
Belzoni.The city of Padua, of which this celebrated traveller is a native, has struck a medal in commemoration of his discoveries, and in testimony of their gratitude for the valuable gift he made to this place, he having presented to it two curious pieces of antiquity,—two lion-headed statues of granite, now deposited in the hall of the Palazzo della Ragione.
An Italian translation of his interesting travels, is expected to appear about this time. It will contain some alterations made by the author himself,—and will appear in two volumes octavo, accompanied by six numbers of plates. The publisher is Bettoni of Milan. Lisbon.-Abolition of the Punishment of Death.
The Portuguese Cortes have, by the application of a long violated principle of justice and humanity, abolished this dreadful punishment, so opposite in its effects to the interests of society, and so degrading to civilization;
-one which has been so deservedly reprobated by Beccaria, and a number of other eminent philosophers and writers on the criminal and penal system. Public morality would be much better consulted by the adoption of solitary confinement as a punishment for crimes, than it is at present by the spectacle of death.
Portable Houses.-- The Swedish journals speak very highly of certain portable houses, that have been invented by Major Blom, who is celebrated at Stockholm for his knowledge of mechanics. These edifices, which are constructed of wood, may be elevated in a single day, and contain, if not every comfort, at least all that is necessary
for a sinall family. In cold weather they are warmed by a stove.
Spanish Literature.-Don Torribio Nunnez, Professor of the University of Salamanca, has collected the various writings of Jeremy Bentham, and formed them into a regular system of politics; such a one as he conceives to be particularly adapted to the wants of his countrymen at the present juncture. The title of this work, which has already met with great commendation, is Sistema de la
Ciencia Social Heado por el Jurisconsulto Ingles J remias Bentham, y puesto en egecucior conforme a los principios del autor original, por el Dr. 1). Torribio Nunnez, g-c.--Marshal De Haro's Account of the Defence of Gerona, Relation Historica de la defensa de Gerona, is a publication that may be consulted with advantage both by the historian and the military tactictioner, and is particularly rich in materials for a narrative of the important events of the late war. Several works have been translated from the English and French: even the Memoirs of Bergami, and the Queen's Trial, have found both translators and publishers But books of more permanent interest are rot overlookeil, as is proved by an annunciation of a Spanish version of Robertson's Charles V. and of the Principes de la Legislation Universel.The Thirteenth Volume of the translation of Mrs. Bennet's Novels has appeared, containing Rosi ó la nina Mendiga (the Beggar Girl); and a female writer, named Donna Juana Barrera, has translated another English Novel, under the title of Cæcilia ó el Padre y al Hija.-D. Vincente Fernandez Villares has produced a good translation from a French novel of Ducrav-Dumenil, called Dias en el Camp ó Pintura Historica de una piquena Familia. --Little original poetry has appeared; nothing indeed worthy of mention, except some political and patriotic Odes, and a performance of D. Rafael de C'æceres, which deserves notice merely from the extravagance of the subject, it being a system of myology in verse. The title of this curious poem is, Exposicion Metrica Suecinta y Exacta di todos los Musculos del Cuerpo Humaro ó sea la Miologia puesta en verso Castellano!
The first volume of an historical work of very superior merit, and indeed of more importance than any produced during the last century, has lately issued from the press at Madrid. It is entitled, La Historia de la Dominacion ile los Arabes en Espada, sacarla de Manuscritos y Memorias Arabigas and is written by the Academician Josef Antonio Conde, who died last year. The Spaniards have for a long time, been indebted to the researches of the literati of other countries, but have at length, applied themselves to the investigation of this interesting epoch of their national history; and, notwithstanding the number of documents that have been destroyed, enough yet remain to supply the deficiencies, and to correct the errors of the old chroniclers, and thus dispel the obscurity in which the annals of this æra are enveloped. Conde, whose early death is to be lamented as an irreparable loss to Spanish literature, ventured into this immense and be wildering mine, examined the valuable MSS. deposited in the various libraries of Madrid, as well as those in the archives of the Escurial, and, after attentively collating and studying them, produced a work that will confer immortal honour on his memory. The policy of the Arabian conquerors, their military tactics, their government and legislation, their system of taxation, the administration of their police, their institutions for public charity and education, their re
ligious toleration, manners and customs, form the principal objects of the author's attention; and the facts and documents are all original and authentic. He has, moreover, incorporated many fragments from the Arabian poets, partly for the purpose of elucidlatiny eveais and customs, and partly to give an Oriental air to the whole composition. He has, likewise, derived from Arabic sources of biography, much important information relative to those great men who distinguished themselves, either in literature or in arms. The work is divided into four books; the first of which commences with a brief account of the situation of the Arabians, at the time of their first irruption into Africa. The author then proceeds to describe their attact upon Spain; the government of the Omars; their poliry, and their conduct towards the people whom they conqueried; th feuds between the Oinars themselves; the events which brought Spain under the dominion of the Calip'is of Damascus; and, lastly, he presents a vivid picture of the actions and the charactèrs of the first Arabian conquerors in Spain, during the interval from 710 to 748. The second book treats of the Arabian Monarchy in Spain, (as it existed independent of the Caliphs);of the princes of this powerful dynasty, and the extension of their power, both within and without the peninsula; of the government, manners, wealth, arts and sciences of the Arabians, until the breaking out of the war in 1080, to which period we are brought down in the present volume, which consists of 660 pages in 4to. The third and fourth books will be comprised in the two succeeding voluines, which are partly printed. It was the intention of the author to give a glossary and explanation of all the Arabic words; and also a comparative grography, and a map of Arabian Spain; this, however, he has been prevented from executing by death, which seized him in the midst of his labours.
Russia.- According to the latest estimation, there are 350 livving authors in this country, about one-eighth part of whom are ecclesiastics, but the far greater proportion consists of persons of rank. Backmeister, in his Russian Library, computed that, previously to 1817, there existed about 4000 different works in that language. In the extensive collection of national literature belonging to the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, there were, in 1800, 3000 works printed in the Russian tongue; among which, only 105 belonged to the class of novels and romances. Since this period, authorship has increased so much, that last year no fewer than 8000 volumes were printed in this language. Translations are very numerous, particularly of dramas, novels, works of imagination, and the belles lettres. There are newspapers and journals, both German and Russian, published at St. Pitersburg, Moscow, Riga, Revel, Abo, and other principal cities. At the first of these places there are 15 printing houses, and 10 at Moscow.
A Poetical Journal,---entitled Die Muse, has teen commenced at Leipzig, by Kind. One of the most important articles that