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TO ILLUSTRATE THE LATIN CLASSICS,
BY EXPLAINING WORDS AND PHRASES, FROM THE RITES AND CUSTOMS

TO WHICH THEY REFER.

BY ALEXANDER ADAM, LL.D.

RECTOR OF THE HIGH SCHOOL OF EDINBURGH.

THE TWELFTH EDITION,

CORRECTED, IMPROVED, AND ENLARGED,

BY THE REV. J. R. MAJOR, M.A. M.R.S.L.

HEAD MASTER OF KING'S COLLEGE SCHOOL, LONDON.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR T. CADELL; LONGMAN, REES, AND co.; J. G. AND F. RIVINGTON ;

J. BOOKER; BALDWIN AND CRADOCK; T. TEGG ; HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO.;
J. DUNCAN; COWIE AND CO.; WAITTAKER AND CO.; SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL;
ROULSTON AND SON; J. PARKER, OXFORD; BELL AND BRADFUTE, AND
STIRLING AND KENNEY, EDINBURGH.

1835.

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PREFACE

TO THE TWELFTH EDITION.

Dr. Adam's work on Roman Antiquities has been for so many years before the public, and its merits are so well appreciated, that it is wholly unnecessary to advocate its claims to general attention, as a safe and judicious guide in the study of the Latin writers. From the numerous editions through which it has passed since its first appearance in 1791, it is manifest that it has proved a most useful auxiliary to the acquisition and communication of classical knowledge. In directing the attention of intelligent pupils to the progressive stages in the fabric of the Roman constitution, as depicted in the pages of Livy; or to the course of judicial proceedings, in connection with the orations of Cicero; or to the minor, but no less interesting allusions to life and manners, in the writings of the sagacious Horace, or the sarcastic Juvenal; whatever be the author, or the era, this comprehensive Manual has ever been an invaluable aid to the assiduous instructor.

Having had this practical experience of its utility for many years, I consented, at the request of the Publishers, to conduct a new edition through the press. In undertaking this responsi, bility, I had principally in view to insure a faithful and accurate reprint of the original; correcting it where necessary, and supplying such observations as subsequent researches might suggest

. From the many publications *, however, which have appeared

The following may be noticed, as those to which the Editor has been principally indebted :

Blair's Enquiry into the State of Slavery amongst the Romans.

Burgess's Description of the Circus on the Via Appia ; and Antiquities of Rome.

Burton's Antiquities of Rome.
Crombie's Gymnasium.
Eustace's Classical Tour.
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,
Gifford's Juvenal,

iv

PREFACE TO THE TWELFTH EDITION.

since Dr. Adam's time, tending to illustrate the various subjects which his work embraces, and of which no former, editor has availed himself for its improvement, I have gleaned additions far exceeding the limits which I had at first contemplated, The information extracted from these sources cannot fail to be in some degree interesting, as well as useful, to the student; and I have been careful to append in every case the exact reference to the author and the page, that if the quotation should from its brevity be obscure, or be calculated to invite farther enquiry, no difficulty may occur. This remark may be particularly applicable to the passages which I have selected from Niebuhr's singularly profound and original investigation into the early period of Roman history. Extracts may serve to indicate some conclusions to which that acute and philosophic writer has arrived ; but the unbroken chain of his deductions, and the process of thought by which he has unravelled the perplexities of “many an ancient mystery,” can only become intelligible from a close and diligent study of his entire work. All such additions I have gener rally given in the form of notes to Dr. Adam's text, reserving those of an inconvenient length for an Appendix; and whatever I have inserted in the text itself, as a brief remark or refer. ence, is included in brackets [ ], and therefore at once disa tinguished

In stating that I have faithfully adhered to the plan on which Dr. Adam framed this compilation, it may be necessary to notice an objection sometimes made to the frequent introduction of authorities, as causing embarrassment to the reader in following the chain of observations on any particular point. It may be admitted, that references to Festus, Varro, Macrobius, A. Gellius, or Dionysius of Halicarnassus, are not adapted to the purposes of tyros in classical learning : but it is well known that this summary enjoys, in a high degree, the confidence of mature scholars; an advantage clearly attributable to the scrupulous accuracy with which every statement is confirmed by its corresponding authority. The necessity, moreover, for references, generally, is so closely involved in the very construction of the work, that little would be gained, with regard to perspicuity,

1

Henderson on Ancient Wines.
Hooke's Roman History.
Keightley's edition of Ovid's Fasti; and Mythology.
Middleton's Life of Cicero,
Niebuhr's Roman History.
Sketches of the Institutions and Domestic Manners of the Romans.

Professor Anstice's Oxford Prize Essay on the Influence of the Roman Con-
quests upon Literature and the Arts.
Anthon's editions of Horace, Sallust, and Lempriere.
Encyclopædia Britannica and Metropolitana, &c.

PRÉPACE TO THE TWELFTH EDITION.

v

by a partial removal of them, even for those less advanced. For Dr. Adam expressly states in the title-page, that his design was, " to illustrate the Latin Classics, by explaining words and phrases, from the rites and customs to which they refer.” This clearly establishes the propriety of specifying, in juxtaposition, the sources from which those words and phrases are derived ; it being manifestly of importance, that a learner should be able to discriminate, whether an expression is to be traced to oratorical, to historical, or to colloquial usage, to a prose writer, or to a poet; and unless the eye at once connects the one with the other, that necessary distinction will not be made. In this also, as in other works of reference, the young scholar is pleased and encouraged, by frequently finding the very passage of an author, in which he may have met with difficulty or obscurity, at once quoted and explained. I would farther suggest to the student, as a method of converting the authorities cited to his real improvement, to verify, transcribe, and commit to memory, those that relate to the writers with whom he is most familiar, particularly the poets ; in order that the rite or custom, along with the word or phrase derived from it, may be more firmly impressed on his mind. Let him combine with this profitable exercise the use of the excellent series of Questions * recently published at Oxford, and his knowledge of the leading facts, no less than the phraseology relating to Roman affairs, will thus become sound and extensive. The reading of works of a more popular nature (for instance, “ Sketches of the Institutions and Domestic Manners of the Romans,” to which I am indebted for several interesting notes,)

may be advantageously united with the study of Dr. Adam's Roman Antiquities; but, from the essential difference in design to which I have alluded, the one cannot supersede the other.

The Latin Index, the most valuable appendage to a publication of this nature, has been hitherto singularly deficient; 1 have taken care that it should be, in this edition, as full and comprehensive as possible. I have added, moreover, a running title to each page, to supersede the unmeaning repetition of “Roman Antiquities;" by this change, facility of reference will be gained, and a compendious syllabus of contents be furnished. The Plan of Rome has been carefully prepared by a comparison with those in the works of Nardini, Lumisden, Sir W. Gell, and Burgess; and will, it is presumed, be found an accurate and useful accompaniment to the Sections on the Hills of the City, and its Public Buildings.

Questions on Adam's Roman Antiquities. By the Author of " Ques. tions on Ancient Geography, adapted to Laurent's Introduction.” Oxford: MDCCCXXXII.

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