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must signify as many kingdoms, is evident from the
seventh chapter of Dạniel, where the angel, speak-
ing of the fourth beast, says, that “the ten horns out
of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise;" and '.
in this view of the passage many commentators are
agreed; who also admit that the ten kingdoms are to
be, met with “amid the broken pieces of the Romani
empire." And it is evident that nothing less than
the dismemberment of the Roman empire, and its
division into ten independent kingdoms, can be in-
tended by the angel's interpretation just quoted. If
therefore, the ten horns of Daniel's fourth beast
point out as many kingdoms; for the very same,
reason must the horns of the Dragon have a similar,
meaning. But the Roman empire was not dis,
membered, and divided into several kingdoms, till
a considerable time after it became Christian. In
what sense then can it be said, that the different
kingdoms into which the Roman empire was divided
by the barbarous nations are horns of the Dragon?
I answer, in two senses. First, they may be con-
sidered as horns of the Dragon, because they were
gencies of the state. Part of them were plebeians, and the rest
of patrician families. When they had subsisted about 70 years,
not without some interruption, the office was totally abolished,
and consuls again elected, one of which was chosen, out of the
plebeians. The triumvirate was first established B. C. 60, so
denominated from three officers who were put in possession of
the whole power of the Roman state. This power was abolished.
by the battle of Actium of September 2, B, C. 31, and was suc-'
ceeded by the imperial, the last form of government of the Hea-
then Roman world. This form of government continued about
508 years. See Lempriere's Classical Dictionary.

founded by great hosts of Heathen barbarous não tions, which at first threatened the utter subversión of Christianity. Secondly, they were horns of the Dragon, because it was the Róman monarchy, in its seventh Draconic form of government, which was dismembered by the barbarians. For, though the Roman empire was not divided into ten kingdoms till a considerable time after it became Christian, it is well known that the depression of the Heathen idolatry, and the advancement of Christianity to the throne, effected not the least change in the form of government : the Romans continued still to be under subjection to the imperial power ; and conses quently, when the Heathen barbarous nations divided the Roman empire among themselves, they might very properly be denominated horns of the Dragon, as it was by means of their incursions that the imperial power, FOUNDED by the Heathen Cæsars, was abolished. Bishop Newton in his Dissertation upon the seventh chapter of Daniel, gives us the enus meration of the ten kingdoms according to different authors. Mr. Mede reckons up the ten kingdoms thus in the year 456, the year after Rome was sacked by Genseric, king of the Vandals: 1. The Britons. 2. The Saxons in Britain. 3. The Franks. 4. The Burgundians in France: 5. Tlie Wisigoths in the south of France, and part of Spain. 6. The Sueves and Alans in Gallicia and Portugal. 7. The Vandals in Africa. 8. The Alemanes in Germany. 9: The Ostrogoths whom the Longobards succeeded in Pannonia, and afterwards in Italy: 10. The Greeks in the residuc of the empire. Sir Isaac Newton numbers them thus: Į. The kingdom of the Vandals and Alans in Spain and Africa. 2. The kingdom of the Suevians in Spain. 3. The kingdom of the Visigoths. 4. The kingdom of the Alans in Gallia. 5. The kingdom of the Burgundians. 6. The kingdom of the Franks. 7. The kingdom of the Britons. 8. The kingdom of the Huns. 9. The kingdom of the Lombards. 10. The kingdom of Ravenna. Machiavel, in his history of Florence, names them as follows: 1. The : Ostrogoths in Mæsia; 2. The Visigoths in Pannonia; 3. The Sueves and Alans in Gascoigne and Spain; 4. The Vandals in Africa; 5. The Franks in France; 6. The Burgundians in Burgundy; 7. The Heruli and Thuringi in Italy; 8. The Saxons and Angles in Britain ; 9. The Huns in Hungary; 10. The Lombards at first upon the Danube, afterwards in Italy. Bishop Lloyd names them as follows: 1: Huns about A. D. 356. 2. Ostrogoths 377. 3. Wisie goths 378. 4. Franks 407. 5. Vandals 407. 6. Sueves and Alans 407. 7. Burgundians 407. 8. Herules and Rugians 476. 9. Saxons 476. 10. Longobards began to reign in Hungary A. D. 526, and were seated in the northern parts- of Germany about the year 483. Dr. Mitchell gives us the following list of them in 455: "In the north of Gaul the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks had got possession of Batavia, and a tract of country on the right and left banks of the Lower Rhine: the Burgundians occupied the middle provinces of Gaul, from Switzerland to the ocean: the Visigoths possessed the southern

provinces, from the foot of the Alps to the Bay of
Biscay: the Saxons, in 455, established themselves
in Britain: the Suevi and Alans, united in one king-
dom, were settled in Gallicia in Spain, and the coun-
try now called Portugal: the Vandals occupied part
of Spain and Africa: the Alemanni were settled in
Rhætia, the north of Switzerland, and Swabiá: the
Boii reigned in Noricum, now called Bavaria, and
Austria: the Thuringians held the western part of
Mæsia': and the Ostrogoths held the strong country
of Pannonia, new called Hungary."* Of these va-
rious accounts of the tei kingdoms the two first will
not suit our purpose; for'in Mr. Mede's scheme the
kingdom of the Britons, and that of the Greeks, cani
in no sense be considered horns of the Dragon, be-
cause they were not separated from the empire till
after the time that they became Christian. And it'
appears improper to unite the Ostrogoths and 'Lon-
gobards into one kingdont, as one was founded upon
the ruin of the other. In Sir Isaac Newton's scheme,
the kingdom of Ravenna cannot be called a Día-
conic horn, because it was a Greek power dependent
upon the eastern empire. The principal objection
I have to Dr. Mitchell's list is, that he numbers
them at too early a period, even before the entire
dissolution of the western empire. The lists of Ma-
chiavel and Bishop Lloyd appear to me by far the
most probable; as the whole of the powers named by
these authors were Heathen nations at the time when
the barbarians settled in the different parts of the

* See Dr. Mitchell's New Exposition of the Revelation, in loc.

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Roman dominions. The following must be, therefore, the ten horns of the Dragon :

1. The kingdom of the Huns.
2. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths.
3. The kingdom of the Visigoths.
4. The kingdom of the Franks.
5. The kingdom of the Vandals.
6. The kingdom of the Sueves and Alans.
7. The kingdom of the Burgundians. :
8. The kingdom of the Heruli, Rugii, Scyrri,

and other tribes which composed the

Italian kingdom of Odoacer. 9. The kingdom of the Saxons.

10. The kingdom of the Lombards.* It is remarkable that the Draconic horns are not said to be crowned as those of the Beast are. The 'reason of which is, that though the Barbarians invaded the empire in their idolatrous heathen state, yet their almost universal conversion to Christianity, so soon after their transmigration, caused their dominions to pass from being horns of the Dragon, or Heathen empire, to those of Daniel's fourth Beast, or Roman empire. It is also remarkable that the Dragon is said to have “seven crowns upon his heads,” which denotes that in every form of Roman government the heathen religion has been that of the state; and also that it was supported by the civil power. This, therefore, is an additional evidence to what has been

ren

* See Faber on the Prophecies, Vol. II. p. 270, Edit. Lond.

+ Rev. xiii. 1

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