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may be assigned for the æra of their highest elevao tion; as, about that time, their territorial possessions had their largest extent: they had then made their greatest progress in exempting the clergy from the civil power, and they then experienced least resistance to their general claim of Divine right to temporal power. They might, therefore, at this time be thought to have secured the duration of their temporal power.”* The beast upon which the woman sits is of the colour of scarlet, to : denote the splendour and great parade in which the Latin empire has constantly delighted, scarlet being often used figuratively for splendid and rich attire. The beast is also “ full of names of blasphémy.” Blasphemy signifiés impious speaking when applied to God: it also means the unhallowed use of sacred things: a name of blasphemy must be, therefore, the prostitution of, a sacred name to an unholy purpose. That this is the meaning of blasphemy in Scripture is evident from the 9th verse of the second chapter of the Apocalypse, where God says “ I know the blasphemy, of them which say they are Jews, and are

after it had been governed by the Latins fifty-eight years. Ib. p. 116.-Προς δε την δευτέραν ο Ουρβανός έγραψεν να κυρώση, ότι όστις Χριςιανός πορευθείη εις Ιερεσαλήμ βοηθήσαι τοϊς Λατίνοις xará Tux Eapannyür, civai Touroy cugnayWpy, uvor. Urban wrote to the second synod that a decree might be passed, that whatsoever Christian should go to Jerusalem to assist the Latins against the Saracens should have his sins remitted. Dosith. Patriarch. Hierosolymit. Book viii. c. 7. $ 1...

* See his Revolutions of the Germanic empire.

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not, but are the synagogue of Satan.” It is well known that the nations in support of the Latin or Romish church have abounded in blasphemous appellations; and have not blushed to attribute to themselves and to their church the most sacred titles. The king of France was addressed by the title of Christianissimus, * (Most Christian,) the imperial palace was called sacrum, (sacred,) a name given to it at least as early as the year 874.f The church of Rome is called sancta, I (holy,) sacrosancta, s (most holy). . The Pope is or has been addressed by Sanctissimus et beatissimus Pater, || (Most holy and blessed father,) Beatissimus et Deo amabilissimus Pater, 1 (Most blessed father, most beloved by God,) Sanctissimus et beatissimus Romanorum archiepiscopus,** (The most holy and blessed archbishop of the Romans.) Innocent III. in the beginning of the thirteenth century, appropriated to himself the title of Vicarius Jesûs Christi, ++ (The Vicar of Jesus Christ.) The Roman

* See Mabillon De Re Diplomaticâ, Lib. ii. c. 3, 5:5. + Ib. Lib. vi. p. 544.

See in Rymer's Fædera, frequenter. $ Ibid. || See Mabillon, prope initium. 1 Ibid. ** Ibid.

++ Ib. Lib. ii. c. 2, $ 12. The use which the Roman pontiff has made of this title is sufficiently evident in the following blasphemous words which form a part of the benediction of Pius V. in his inauguration of Cosmo Medici into the office of Grand Duke of Tuscany: “Sanctus Christi vicarius' in te inspiret, ut quemadmodum hic tibi ditiones terrestres contulit, ita in coelis præmia tibi æterna largiatur.” The holy vicár of Christ breathes on thee, that as he hath conferred on thee terrestrial possessions,

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pontiff is styled Sua Sanctitas, * Ejus Sanctitas, † (His Holiness.) He is addressed by Sanctitas Vestra, (Your Holiness), Sanctissimus Dominus noster Papa, þ (Our most holy Lord, the Pope.) The see of Rome is called, Sancta Sedes, || (The Holy See.) The college of Cardinals is denominated Sanctum Collegium, Sacrum Collegium, (The sacred college). The crown of the kingdom of Hungary was styled, sacra corona, sancta corona, (The holy crown.) 1 The form of this appellation in the state instruments was, Sacræ nostri Regni Hungariæ Corona, Sacram nostram Regni Hungariæ Coronam, ** (The holy crown of our kingdom of Hungary.) In one place I have met with it in the following form : Nostram sacri Regni Hung. Coronam, (Our crown of the holy kingdom of Hungary.) tt The Papal councils were styled sanctæ, (holy,) sacrosanctæ, (most

so also he may bestow on thee everlasting rewards in heaven. See Selden's Titles of Honour, Part 11. chap. i. § 31.

* See Limborch's History of the Inquisition, Lib. i. c. 30. + See in Burnet's History of the Reformation, frequenter.

Ibid. -.. $. This is one of the most common titles by which the Pope has been addressed. See in Dumont, sæpissimè.

|| See Burnet’s History of the Reformation, and also Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores Germanicos ab Henrico Meibomio, and other historians. ..

1 See in Scriptores Rerum Hungaricarum à Schwandtnero, sæpissimè.

** See in Dumont's Corps Diplomatique, frequenter. ..++ Ib. Tom. II. p. 358.

holy,) as may be instanced in Sacrosancta generalis Synodus Basileensis, * (The most holy general synod of Basil,) Sacrosancta generalis Synodus Constantiensis, f (The most holy general synod of Constance,) Sancta Synodus, I (The holy synod,) Sacrum Concilium, (The holy council,) &c. &c. The title of the instruments issued by the general councils was generally as follows: “ Sacrosancta Generalis Synodus — in Spiritu Sancto legitimè congregata, Universalem Ecclesiam representans, ad perpetuam rei memoriam.” (The most holy general synod,—in the Holy Spirit legally gathered together, representing the Universal Church,—to be held in perpetual remembrance.) Here is then a beast full of names of blasphemy, appropriating the most sacred titles to itself and its most idolatrous religion; not only blaspheming by the improper use of sacred names, but even by applying to its bishop those names, which alone belong to God; for God hath expressly declared, that he “will not give his glory to another, neither his praise to graven images.”.

" And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations and filthiness of her for

:.* See Dumont's Corps Diplomatique, Tom. II. p. 290, et ia aliis locis.

+ Ib. p. 90, et in aliis locis. .. See in Dumont, frequentissimè. See in Dumont's Corps Diplomatique, frequenter.

nication.” This verse cannot be better explained, I think, than in the following words of Bishop Newton, “ The woman is arrayed too in purple and scarlet colour, this being the colour of the popes and cardinals, as well as of the emperors and senators at Rome. The woman is also decked with gold and precious stones, and pearls : and who can sufficiently describe the pride, the grandeur, and magnificence, of the church of Rome in her · vestments and ornaments of all kinds ? Alexander Donatus hath drawn a comparison between ancient and modern Rome, and asserts the superiority of his own church in the pomp and splendour of religion. You have a remarkable instance in Paul II. of whom Platina relates, that in his pontifical vestments he outwent all his predecessors, especially in his regno, or mitre, upon which he had laid out a great deal of money, in purchasing at vast rates diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, chrysoliths, jaspers, and all manner of precious stones, wherewith, adorned like another Aaron, he would appear abroad somewhat more august than a man, delighting to be seen and admired by every one. But lest he alone should seem to differ from the rest, he made a decree, that none but cardinals should, under a penalty, wear red caps; to whom he had in the first year of his popedom given cloth of that colour, to make horse-cloths or mule-cloths, of when they rode. You have another conspicuous instance in the Lady of Loretto; the riches of whose-image,' and house, and treasury; the

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