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ceive; because the powers represented by the Beast and Dragon are different. Therefore Bishop Newton aims at a more probable interpretation in counting the horns as they stood in the eighth century, when the Pope was advanced to temporal authority. “ The principal states and governments,” he tells us, “ then were, 1. of the senate of Rome, who revolted from the Greek emperors, and claimed and exerted the privilege of choosing a new western emperor; 2. of the Greeks in Ravenna; 3. of the Lombards in Lombardy; 4. of the Huns in Hungary; 5. of the Alemanes in Germany; 6. of the Franks in France; 7. of the Burgundians in Burgundy; 8. of the Goths in Spain ; 9. of the Bri- ' tons ; 10. of the Saxons in Britain," * The grand , objection against Bishop Newton's scheme is, that these ten were not the principal Latin monarchies which subsisted during the temporal authority of the church; for of the horns of the Beast the angel thus speaks : sThese have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast;” therefore the ten horns must be the principal strength of the Latin empire, that is to say, this empire is to be under the dominion of ten monarchs, independent of each other in every other sense, except in their implicit obedience to the Latin church. That this must be the meaning may be gathered from the angel's words: “ The ten horns which thọp sayest are ten kings which have re

* See his Dissertation on the seventh chapter of Daniel.

ceived no kingdom as yet, but receive power as king's one hour with the beast.” That is to say, though the Latin empire be now in existence, the ten horns refer to ten Latin kingdoms yet in futurity, and consequently they have received no dominion As YET; for that part of the Latin empire now in power is the sixth head, or imperial government of the Heathen Cæsars. But the ten states of the Latins receive dominion as monarchies or independent powers one time* with the Beast, that is to say, at the same time with him ; consequently the Latin empire here intended, is the one which is yet to arise. .“ These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.” The ten powers

* The most common meaning of co., here translated hour, is seuson or time; and in Hederic's Lexicon the first Latin meaning given is tempus, which signifies time or season. The evident sense of try šaçuren upay in Polybius is “the spring season.” Sce his Mag. Hist. Lib. iii. p. 356. Amstel. 1670. And even in the New Testament usa is sometimes translated time as in Mark vi. 35. xai i an pa monnie; ( and now the time is far passed.” See also Rom. xii: 11. Midy ci cay must, therefore, meani, one time, that is to say, the ten horns are in existence one time (the same time) with the Beast. Midy ywering in the following verse, is translated one mind, and evidently means that the ten kings had the same mind. Vitringa's translation of usãy có par by the Latin words uno eodemque tempore, “in one and the same time," I am satisfied contains the sense of the original; as does also the French version en un meme teinps, words of the same import.


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of the Beast must compose the kingdom of Antichrist, for they make war with the Lamb, who is Christ Jesus. This is perfectly true of all Popish states; for they have constantly opposed, as long. as they have had any power, the progress of pure Christianity. They maké war with the Lamb by persecuting his followers ; but the Lamb shall in due time overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; all lords have their authority from him; and no king can rule without him; there: fore the ten Latin kings are God's ministers to exécuté his vengeance upon the idolatrous nations. But when these Antichristian monarchies have executed the Divine purpose, those that are with the Lamb, the called, the chosen, and the faithful, those who have kept the truth in the love of it, shall, must, prevail against all their adversaries, because their battles are fought by the Lamb, who is their God and deliverer.

-“ And he saith unto me, The waters' which thou şawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” “So many words,” Bishop Newton observes, “ in the plural number fitly denote the great extensiveness of her power and jurisdiction :-She herself glories in the title of the Catholic church, and exults in the number of her votaries as a certain proof of the true religion. Cardinal Bellarmin's first note of the true church is the very name of the Catholic church: and his fourth note is amplitude, or multitude and variety of believers'; for the truly catholic church, says

he, ought not only to comprehend all ages, but likewise all places, all nations, all kinds of men,”*

“And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire,” Here is a clue to lead us to the right interpretation of the horns of the Beast ; and I totally dissent from Bishop Newton, who. thinks that the ten horns are here put by a common figure, of the whole, for a part. It is said the ten horns shall hate the whore, by which is evidently meant, when connected with what follows, that the whole of the ten kingdoms in the interest of the Latin church, shall finally despise her doctrines, be reformed from Popery, assist in depriving her of all influence, and in exposing her follies; and in the end consign her to utter destruction. From this it follows that no Roman Catholic power which did not exist as late as the Reformation can be numbered among the horns of the Beast; the ten horns must, therefore, be found among the great states of Europe at the commencement of the Reformation. These were exactly ten, viz. France, Spain, England, Scotland, The Empire, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Hungary, and Portugal. In these were comprehended most of the minor states, not styled monarchies; and which, from their first rise to the period of the Reformation, had been subdued by one or more of the ten grand Roman Catholic


* See his Dissertat. on the Prophecies, in loc.


powers already named. Consequently these ten constituted the power and strength of the Beast; and each minor state is considered a part of that monarchy under the authority of which it was finally reduced previously to the Reformation. : THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE, the first monarchy in the interest of the Latin church, had the powerful duchy of Normandy annexed to it in 1204, and the kingdom of Nayarre in 1512. The first Roman Catholic monarch of the Franks was Clovis, who was baptized, in 496.

THE KINGDOM OF Spain was originally divided into a great number of states. The principal nation in this peninsula was that of the Visigoths who embraced Arianism at the time of the dismemberment of the Western Roman Empire. In this creed they continued above 123 years till the reign of their king Reccared or Recared I. surnamed The Catholic. The conversion of this monarch to the Romish religion had been early brought about by Leander, metropolitan of Seville ; but the declaring hiinself a Catholic publicly, was considered a very delicate point. At length, after a great victory which he obtained over the Franks, it was resolved that the king should propose, to the grandees and prelates about his person, introducing the Catholic religion throughout his dominions, which he accordingly did, in October, A. D. 586; and in 589 King Reccared, being very desirous to settle the affairs of the church on so firm a basis that it should never be shaken, summoned for that purpose a council

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