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the earth, or Latin world, raised their authority against that of the secular powers; and, in process of time, wrested the superintendence of ecclesiastical affairs from the secular princes. As the sevenheaded Beast is represented as having ten horns, which signify so many kingdoms leagued together to support the Latin church; so the Beast which rises out of the earth has also two horns, which must, consequently, represent two kingdoms, for

if horns of a Beast mean kingdoms in one part of : the Apocalypse, kingdoms must be intended by this

symbol whenever it is used in a similar way in any other part of this book. As the second Beast is the spiritual Latin empire; the two horns of this Beast denote that the empire thus represented is composed of two distinct powers. These, therefore, can be no other, as Bishop Newton and Faber excellently observe, than the two grand independent branches of the Romish hierarchy, viz. the Latin clergy, REGULAR and SECULAR. “ The first of these comprehends all the various monastic orders; the second comprehends the whole body of parochial clergy.” These two grand branches of the hierarchy originally constituted but one dominion, as the monks as well as the other clergy were in subjection to the bishops ; but the subjection of the · monks to their diocesans became by degrees less apparent; and in process of time, through the influ. ence and authority of the Roman pontiffs, they were entirely exempted from all episcopal jurisdiction, and thus became a spiritual power entirely in

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dependent of that of the secular clergy, as will fully appear from the following extract out of Puffendorf's Introduction to the History of the Principal States of Europe : “ Monks being as submissive to their superior as private soldiers are to their colonel, the pope had nothing to do but bring its head into his views, and every convent was a sort of regiment at his call. It having been found by playing them off, if the interest of Rome required it, against the secular clergy as well as against the laity, that they were of great service to the Holy see, monks were towards the end of the thirteenth century encouraged by the pope to throw off all obedience to their diocesans, and to put themselves under his immediate protection. This point being gained, popes, in the quarrels which from time to time arose between different orders, as for instance between the Dominicans and Franciscans, always took care to carry it with so even a hand that one could not oppress the other; and as neither could complain of partiality, both were thereby kept firm in their interest. By degrees monks engrossed alms and legacies, and interfered in other things to the great prejudice of the secular

clergy. This, of course, drew upon them the envy · and hatred of bishops, whose interest was strongly

connected with that of the secular clergy; but be.ing assured of the pope's countenance these were not regarded. Whenever any bishop disputed the authority of a pope, monks, like so many bulldogs, were set upon him: and the people, deluded by their hypocrisy, commonly sided with them. They besides kept a watchful eye over the behaviour of bishops, and constantly informed the generals of their respective orders, who resided at Rome, there

of; so that before any scheme to throw off his au· thority could be brought to maturity the pope had

time to take his measures." * That we may have the greatest assurance possible that the two-horned Beast is the spiritual Latin empire, it is called in Rev. xix. 20.“ the false-prophet,” + " than which," as Bishop Newton justly observes, “ there cannot be a stronger or plainer argument to prove, that false-doctors or teachers were particularly design- ; ed;" for prophet, in the Scripture-style, is not unfrequently used for a preacher or expounder of God's word, as in Exod. vii. 1. “And the Lord said unto Moses, See I have made thee a god unto Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.” In 1 Cor. xiv. this is unequivocally its meaning, where the apostle says, “ He that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. He that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth edifieth the church.” It hence follows that the two-horned Beast, which rose up out of the earth or Latin world, is an empire of false-doctors or teachers; and, consequently, it can be no other than the spiritual Latin empire, or the Romish hie

* Vol. II. pp. 84, 85.
4 Compare Rev. xix. 20. with Rov. xiii. 12-17.

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rarchy. The second. Beast is said to have stwo
horns like a lamb,” As lamb, in every other part
of the Apocalypse, evidently means Christ, who is
“the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of
the world,” it must have a similar import in this
passage; therefore the meaning here is evidently
that the two horns of the Beast, or the regular and
secular clergy, profess to be the ministers of Christ; ..
to be like him in meekness and humility; and to :
teach nothing that is contrary to godliness. The
two-horned Beast, or spiritual Latin empire, has in
reality the name, and, in the eyes of the Latin
world, the appearance, of a Christian power. But
he is only so in appearance, and that alone among
his deluded votaries; for when he spake, “ he spake
as a dragon.” The doctrines of the false-prophet
are very similar to those contained in the old Hea-
then worship; for he has introduced “a new spe-
cies of idolatry nominally different, but essentially
the same, the worship of angels and saints instead
of the gods and demigods of antiquity.” *

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* That the false-prophet spake like a Dragon is evident from his adoration of multitudes of fabulous saints and angels, as will fully appear from the following account given by Dr. Mosheim of the state of the Latin church in the ninth century: 6c The ignorance and corruption that dishonoured the Christian church, in this century, were great beyond measure; and were there no other examples of their enormity upon record, than the single instance of that stupid veneration that was paid to the bones and carcases of departed saints; this would be sufficient to convince us of the deplorable progress of

"And he exerciseth all the power of the first 'beast before him; and causeth the earth, and them

superstition. This idolatrous devotion was now considered as the most sacred and momentous branch of religion ; nor did any dare to entertain the smallest hopes of finding the Deity propitious, before they had assured themselves of the protection and intercession of some one or other of the saintly order. Hence it was, that every church, and indeed every private Christian, had their particular patron among the saints, from an apprehension that their spiritual interests would be but indifferently managed by those, who were already employed about the souls of others. The priests and monks set their invention at work, and peopled, at discretion, the invisible world with imaginary protectors. They dispelled the thick darkness which covered the pretended spiritual exploits of many holy men; and they invented both names and histories of saints that never existed, that they

might not be at a loss to furnish the credulous and wietched · multitude with objects proper to perpetuate their superstition

and to nourish' their confidence.—The ecclesiastical councils found it necessary, at length, to set limits to the licenticus superstition of these ignorant wretches, who, with a view to have still more friends at court, for such were their gross notions of things, were daily adding new saints to the list of their celestial mediators. They accordingly declared, by a solemn decree, that no departed Christian should be considered as a member of the saintly order, before the bishop in a provincial council, and in presence of the people, had pronounced him worthy of that distinguished honour. This remedy, feeble and illusory as it was, contributed in some measure, to restrain the fanatical temerity of the saint-makers; but, in its consequences, it was the occasion of a new accession of power to the Roman pontiff. Even so early as this century, many were of opinion, that it was proper and expedient, though not absolutely necessary, that the decisions of bishops and councils should he confirmed by the consent and authority of the Roman pontiff, whom they consi

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