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were high ; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last., I saw the rampushing westward, and northward, and southward; so. that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his liand; but he did according to his will, and became 'great. And as I was considering, behold an he-goat came from the west, on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. ' And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing bet fore the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close, unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him; and smote the ram, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon. him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. : Therefore the he-goat waxed very great': and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven” These first eight verses, together with the angel's explar, nation of them contained in the 20th, 21st, and 22d verses of the same chapter, are all that håve: been properly understood by commentators, of Daniel's vision of the ram and he-goat. And as these have been so ably explained by Mr. Mede; Bishop Newton, and others, it is unnecessary to: enter here into any great detail, as the celebrated works of these great 'men'aré already before the
public. It 'is, nevertheless, absolutely requisite that a few general observations should be here made upon them in order that the remaining part of the prophecy may be appropriately and perspicuously introduced. That the ram with two horns represents the Medo-Persian empire no person will attempt to call in question, as the angel himself, verse 20, says expressly to Daniel, “ The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.” The question is, Why should this empire have been called a ram. The answer which Bishop Newton and others have given appears to me sufficiently decisive, “ that it was usual for the king of Persia to wear a ram's head made of gold, and adorned with precious stones, instead of a diadem; for so Ammianus Marcellinus describes him. Bishop Chandler and others farther observe, that rams' heads with horns, one higher and the other lower, are still to be seen on the pillars of Persepolis.” * That the Medo-Per-' sian empire is called a ram on account of its appropriating this animal to itself in the manner already described is not without precedent in Scripture; for the Roman empire is evidently designated by an eagle in the Apocalypse; and even Christ's words, “Wheresoever the carcase is thither will the eagles be gathered together,” must be understood of the Romans who were the executioners of God's vengeance upon the Jewish nation. Of the ram it is
* See Bishop Newton on Dan, viii. and Wetstein on Rer.. jiji. 11.
said that it had two horns, that is, the empire represented by it was composed of the two monarchies of Media and Persia. One horn was higher than the other to shew that the kingdom of the Medes and that of the Persians were not equally powerful. The higher came up last, that is to say, the empire of the Persians, which was after that of the Medes, was the most powerful of the two. Cyrus, the founder of the Medo-Persian empire, “ was son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and by his mother Mandane was grandson of Astyages king of Media ;' and afterwards marrying the daughter and only child of his uncle Cyaxares king of Media, he succeeded to both crowns, and united the kingdoms of Media and Persia.”* The ram, or Medo-Persian empire, was seen “ pushing westward, and northward, and southward,” that is, this dominion was rapidly increased in these three directions. First towards the west by the conquest of the kingdom of Lydia by Cyrus B. C. 548, and of that of Babylon, B. C. 538; secondly towards the north, by subjugating the Armenians, Cappadocians, and various other nations; lastly, towards the south by the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, B. C. 525. It is true that the Persians conquered India, in the time of Darius, which lay to the east of them; but this is not mentioned in the prophecy, Bishop Newton supposes,“ because those countries lay very remote from the Jews, and were of little concern or
* Bishop Newton on Dan. viii.
consequence to them;; but this reason does not appear sufficient. The reason seems to be in the words “ pushing, so that no beasts might stand before him.” The Persians pushed, that is, obtained immense power with great rapidity towards the west, north, and south ; but their conquests in the east were not executed with that rapidity which marked the commencement of their empire; and consequently they could not be said, in this sense, to push eastward.: As no beasts, or dominions, could stand before the rant, he consequently did according to his will, and became great; the MedoPersian empire was, in its time, the most mighty empire in the world.: 1;: ....
As Daniel was considering the exploits of the ram, he saw an he-goat come from the west, on the face of the whole earth.” This the angel says, verse 26, “is the king of Grecia ;” so that there can be no difficulty in the application. The kingdom of the Greeks is called a he-goat, evidently from the circumstance of the goat being its ensign or standard. Bishop Newton says, “A goat is very properly made the type of the Grecian or Macedonian empire, because the Macedonians at first, about two hundred years before Daniel, were denominated Ægeadæ, or the goat's people; and upon this occasion, as heathen authors report. Caranus, their first king, going with a great multitude of Greeks to seek new habitations in Macedonia, was commanded by the oracle to take the goats for his guides to empire: and afterwards seeing a herd of goats flying from a violent storm, the followed them to Edessa, and there fixed the seat of his empire, made the goats his ensigns or standards, and called the city. Ægeæ, or the goat's town, and the people Ægeadæ, or the goat's people.” This he-goat came from the west; and it is well known that the kingdom of the Greeks was situated to the west of the Persian empire. He came upon the face of the whole earth.” The earth here means the Persian world ; therefore the goat came into the Persian dominions. He is represented as not touching the ground, to denote, as, Bishop Newton observes, the great rapidity of his marches and conquests. The goat had, also, '“ a notable horn between his eyes.” This the angel explains to be the first king; consequently the kingdom of Alexander is intended; as Alexander was not only the first king of the Greek or Macedonian empire properly so called; but the regal power was also the first form of government among the Greeks. The goat “ came to the rąm that had two horns and ran unto him in the fury of his power.” This is a striking figure of the rapidity with which the Greeks under Alexander came upon the Persians.
The goat also “ came close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.”. The complete conquest of the two