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related to it, or of real practical value to the boys. In a class for unskilled workers in the Wartenburg Street school, visited in April, 1914, the teacher told the story of the discovery and development of printing. After questioning the class for some minutes and calling on individuals to repeat parts of the story, he told them to write in their exercise books on "Gutenberg, the inventor of printing"-a subject rather remote from the activities of the average errand boy or page. The arithmetic of the same period deals with the four fundamental operations with integers and fractions, and with percentage, all as applied to problems arising in connection with entrance into industrial life. For example, exercises are given in reckoning the cost of advertising in the newspaper for positions, and in reducing the cost by careful wording.

A period of six weeks follows, devoted to the boy's place in the new society of workers. The character and purpose of the work book and the wage book are considered, the usual regulations affecting unskilled work; moral restraints, obligations to the employer, and restrictions on the employee in dealing with other men. The written work of this period includes use of the work book and work ticket, both of which require filling out, writing excuses for absence from work on account of sickness, and exercise work similar to that mentioned above. The arithmetic consists of exercises connected with personal needs and with wages. Eighteen weeks are then occupied with care of the health, under the four headings (1) personal regimen-food, temperance, alcohol; clothing, care of the skin; (2) care of health in home and workshop-ventilation, heat, light; (3) first aid in accidents; (4) use of leisure time for physical training, travel, play, improvement, information, and amusement. The writ ten work of this period is exercise work and letter writing and the arithmetic consists of exercises connected with the care of health.

A fourth period lasting seven weeks deals with welfare provisionsinsurance and welfare arrangements (1) in case of sickness, (2) in case of accident, (3) in case of invalidity and old age. In addition to exercises closely related to insurance, the written work includes filling out accident notices, invalidity cards, etc. The arithmetic exercises are connected with cases arising under the insurance laws and welfare arrangements.

The remaining four weeks of the first year are used in summarizing or reviewing the work of the year.

The general topic of the second year is "The youthful worker in his activity." The first half of the year is devoted to his activities in trade, particularly to things likely to come in the work of an errand boy. A study of trade within the city, accompanied by written exercises connected with orders, bills, receipts, package delivery, etc., is followed by study of railway or freight trade,

with written exercises in filling out bills of lading, shipping tags, etc., postal trade with exercises in addressing ordinary and registered packages, and the transfer of money by means of money orders, checks, and drafts. Additional written exercises are given with each stage of the work; also many problems in arithmetic, such as come up in the usual activities of the errand boy, or other unskilled worker in local, freight, or parcel-post trade.

The second half year begins with the boy's activities in the workshop, taking up a study of the most important products of handwork and industry in Berlin, laws regulating workshops, examples of division of labor and cooperation of effort, with suitable written and arithmetical exercises. Then follows a consideration of (1) the meaning and kinds of wages, protection of wages, and intelligent expenditure of wages; (2) laws affecting work relations, service contracts, labor contracts, responsibility for performance of accepted commissions; and (3) the meaning of work, its value to the individual, possibilities of promotion, and value of labor to the State and to society.

During the third year the worker's social and civic relations are considered under the general topic, "The Worker in Community Life." Eleven weeks are devoted to the worker in the family. The place of the family in civilization and in human welfare, the responsibility of parents for providing food, clothing, and shelter, thrift in domestic management, the most important things connected with parental authority, with inheritances and wills, with guardianship and education of wards, and with the duties of children are considered. Arithmetic exercises of this period are based on home management, savings accounts, life insurance, and fire insurance, and include family bookkeeping. Three weeks are occupied with the "The Worker as a Member of Societies and Associations"-rent and building associations, savings and loan associations, trade-unions, improvement and social clubs. Attention is given during eight weeks to the worker as a member of the community. Arrangements of the community for the welfare of its citizens-public health provisions, care of the poor and of orphans, provisions for education, local taxes, and the principal features of local government are discussed. Finally, the last 14 weeks of the course, aside from 4 weeks for review, are devoted to "The Worker as a Citizen of the State." The organization and authority of the Empire, the Kaiser, the Federal Council, the Parliament, the revenues of the Empire, the army and navy are given attention in turn, followed by a similar study of the Kingdom of Prussia. The arithmetic exercises of this period center around taxes and customs duties. Much of the written work of the third year is on the subject of authority.

It is customary for one teacher to have charge of all the work of a class, just as in the elementary school. The purpose of this arrangement is to secure unity and to give the teacher greater personal interest in his boys. All of the work except arithmetic is taught without textbooks. In arithmetic a small paper-bound textbook, planned especially to meet the requirements of the course for unskilled workers, is used. This book is one of a series of 12 arithmetics prepared by a group of continuation school directors or principals, the others being for the principal trades. The methods of teaching are those of the elementary school, with such modifications as are required by the difference in content of the course. To be sure, some teachers succeed better than others in making these modifications.

Discipline is a much more serious matter than in the industrial or commercial continuation schools. On the one hand, most of the boys who are troublesome in the elementary school because of bad conditions at home or lack of ambition find their way into the continuation school for unskilled workers. On the other hand, the school lessons are less interesting, make a less direct appeal to them, are less closely related to their work than is the case with apprentices. Designed to meet the needs of boys in all classes of unskilled occupations, these lessons do not meet the needs of any with such definiteness as characterizes the courses of the industrial continuation schools. Also, differences in ability between the two classes of boys, taking them as a whole, which influence discipline, are very marked. The writer observed more disorder and lack of attention in one class of unskilled workers in Berlin, mostly when the teacher's back was turned, than in the scores of industrial and commercial classes visited in Berlin and other parts of Germany; and the instructor informed me that the boys in a certain other section of the city were much more disorderly than in his school. Though many boys dislike to attend these schools, truancy is infrequent because of the severity of the punishment. A teacher pointed out to me a boy who absented himself one day without excuse. He was notified to report the next Sunday afternoon at the school, to spend three or four hours in making up lost time. He failed to report and was absent the following week. The next Sunday at 6 a. m. a policeman roused him from sleep, took him to the police station till 1 o'clock and then turned him over to the school, where he was kept during the afternoon. There was a note of satisfaction in the teacher's voice as he added, "That boy has not been absent since."

The most important feature of these schools is compulsory attendance for three or four years after the elementary school course is completed. This lengthened period of State responsibility for the education of all its employed youth not only constitutes the basis of

all that has been accomplished, but also makes possible large developments and improvements in the future which would be out of the question without the adoption of this principle. Compulsory attendance means much more to the schools for unskilled workers than to industrial continuation schools, for the latter have the encouragement and support of the guilds, and the technical subjects taught in them are essential to success in apprenticeship. No workers' organizations concern themselves about schools for unskilled workers, and the very term "unskilled" implies what has appeared so clearly in the course of study outlined above, that no technical knowledge is necessary. There is every reason to believe that if the compulsory attendance ordinance were repealed the industrial continuation schools would be affected but little, while the schools for unskilled workers would have to be discontinued for want of pupils.

It would be difficult to find anywhere a better coordinated course of study than the one presented above, in which, throughout a wide range of topics, the instruction, the written work, and the arithmetic. all focus on the same topic at the same time. Moreover, this course abounds in useful information and practice for the ordinary worker, covering a great variety of the aspects of his life. The teachers are mature men with thorough pedagogical training, and, generally, keen interest in their work. The facilities in every way appear to be quite as good, considering the work to be done, as those of the other continuation schools.

It must be admitted, however, that these schools do not compare in spirit, in interest, in quality of work done, or in benefits derived by the pupils with the industrial continuation schools. No one recognizes this condition more fully than the directors of the continuation schools themselves, one of whom said to me recently that the biggest problem of industrial education in Berlin lies with the 40 per cent who are in the continuation schools for unskilled workers. It may be argued with some justice that the course of study is too narrow and elementary; that it is worked out more with a view to improving industry than of making the largest contribution to the needs of the boy; that the aim is to produce healthy, thrifty, and efficient workmen and citizens without considering whether at the same time happy and contented workmen are produced. However, the problem is quite as much one of bringing the boy to the continuation school age with right attitudes, habits, and interests as it is one of providing him with a suitable course of study after he gets there. Here heredity and home factors enter, over which school authorities have little or no control. But the elementary school also enters as an important factor—a factor which must play a larger part in future consideration of the problem than German educators are yet willing to admit.

It is unfortunate that so many bright, capable boys who might render valuable service to society in skilled industrial, commercial, or even professional pursuits are bound to lives of unskilled labor simply because their parents are poor. To be sure this condition exists in all countries, and none can claim to have made great progress in remedying it. It is to be regretted, however, that the German scheme of industrial education, which is so comprehensive in character and has so many admirable features, should not only fail to provide a remedy, or partial remedy, but should actually close the door of opportunity on these boys. Some day we shall measure the efficiency of an educational system by its success in discovering and conserving ability and placing it where it can reach its highest development and render its largest service as well as by success in developing such ability as comes to the school in the ordinary course of events.

One other feature of these schools for unskilled workers must come in for a word of criticism, namely, the schedule of classes which places 60 per cent of the work after 6 o'clock in the evening. The objections to this are so obvious that it is not necessary to discuss them here. This compromise with employers, who objected to excusing boys during the busy part of the day, will, no doubt, be remedied in time.


In the many reports published in the United States concerning industrial and commercial education in Germany, comparatively little space has been given to continuation schools for girls. This has been due to the relative unimportance of these schools industrially and commercially as compared with the schools for boys. Recently, however, this condition has been changing rapidly. Munich, in 1914, reorganized her compulsory continuation schools for girls, and adopted new courses of study, in an effort to make as practical provision for girls as for boys, though recognizing that girls will not have the same place in industry as boys. Berlin, in 1913, established a compulsory continuation school system for girls, little less comprehensive, account being taken of the industrial opportunities of girls, than that provided earlier for boys. For some years previous to these dates voluntary continuation schools for girls and women in all parts of Germany had been growing steadily in importance and in enrollment.

The new compulsory continuation schools for girls in Berlin are of sufficient importance to deserve all of this section, but, for the sake of completeness, a brief account of the voluntary schools will be given also.

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