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we give the language referred to, and place in juxtaposition to it that of Dr. Taylor. 1. The language of Dr. Junkin.

2. The language of Dr. John Taylor. " Now innocence is freedom from 6 Adam could not be originally creguilt,—the state and condition of a ated in righteousness and true holi. moral being who has not transgressed. ness, because habits of holiness canIt is rather a negative than a positive not be created, without our knowledge, quality or condition. Adam, the concurrence, or consent ; for holiness, moment of his creation, was innocent. in its nature, implies the choice and Righteousness implies positive quality, consent of a moral agent, without activity in compliance with laro ; and which it cannot be holiness."' if the law prescribed a course, and proposed a reward, the compliance must cover the whole course,-the obedience must be entire and positive, in order to its being entitled to the reward. Adam had rectitude of nature and was innocent, but he was not righteous."

It was against this tenet that Edwards directed the powers of his mighty mind. See Orig. Sin, Part II. Chap. I. Sect. 1. Works, Vol. 11. p. 406—417. Even John Wesley, in his

Original Sin," and Richard Watson, in his “ Theological Institutes," not only refute it, but speak of the principle with the utmost abhorrence. These men, though Arminians, viewed the principle as opposed not so much to any particular system, as in direct contravention of the gospel itself.

The earlier history, also, of this sentiment, is sufficient to stamp it with suspicion in the minds of Calvinists. Just as it is expressed in the foregoing quotations, it is almost the ipsissima verba of the Polish Socinians, who flourished contemporaneously with the Reformers. They were the most strenuous as well as the ablest opponents of Calvinistic theology that its advocates have ever had to contend with. In proof of the identity of their language with that above quoted, we cite the Confession of Faith approved by their churches. It is entitled Compendiolum Socinianismi." The title of Chapter II. is De statu primi hominis ante lapsum, that is, Of man's primitive state before the fall : and Section 1. thus reads: “Our churches teach that Adam was created truly good, and without sin, Gen. i. Eccles. vii. Yet not with any original righteousness ; seeing that this is perfectly voluntary, and not natural. It is what the man might have obtained by obedience if he had wished it, yet the thing itself he had not.*

* “ Vindication,” ut sup.

+ "Original Sin."

The reader cannot but be forcibly impressed with the striking contrast between the preceding quotations and the pointed condemnation of both their sentiment and phraseology by the reformers. We will add only one brief specimen of the kind, from the admirable Syntagma of one of the most celebrated of the Calvinistic reformers. His words are : Damnamus Osiandrum, qui primum hominem ex creatione justum, neque injustum fuisse asseruit: that is, We condemn Osiander, who asserts that the first man was neither righteous nor unrighteous by creation.Syntag. Tileni. Soc. 33. Thes. 44. p. 211. Osiander's doctrines were expressly written against by Calvin, Ursinus, and all their celebrated orthodox contemporaries.

[The remaining two sections of this Article, viz. The Views of the Reformers on Faith and the Active Obedience of Christ, are deferred for the want of room in the present No. of the Repository. They have been prepared with much labor and research, and contain a portion of dogmatic history, which is well suited to exert a corrective influence in some parts of the American churches at the present time.-EDITOR.]

Ecclesiae] Docent illum (scil. Adamum] fuisse creatum 'a Deo bonum quidem et absque vitiis, Gen. i. Eccl. vii. Non tamen cum aliqua originali justitia: cum haec sit perfectio voluntaria, non naturalis, quam bomo poterat quidem si voluisset, obediendo comparare sed reipsâ tamen non habebat."

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ARTICLE VI.

HEBREW LEXICOGRAPHY.

Hebräisches und chaldäisches Schulwörterbuch über das alte Testa

ment, mit Hinweisung auf die Sprachlehren von Gesenius und

Ewald, von J. H. R. Biesenthal. Berlin, 1837. Natorff u. Comp. A Complete Hebrew and English Critical and Pronouncing Dic

tionary, on a New and Improved Plan, containing all the words in the Holy Bible [sic], both Hebrew and Chaldee, with the vowel points, prefixes and affixes, as they stand in the original text: together with their derivation, literal and etymological meaning, as it occurs in every part of the Bible, and illustrated by numer. ous citations from the Targums, Talmud and cognate dialects. By W. L. Roy, Professor of Oriental Languages in New York. New York, 1837. Collins, Keese & Co.

Reviewed hy Dr. I. Nordheimer, Prof. of Oriental Languages in the University of the city

of New York.

It may with confidence be asserted, that in no respect have the recent improvements in the science of philology been more fruitful in practical results, than in the interesting and bighly important department of lexicography. In former times a lexicon was a mere magazine, in which the words of a language, together with their respective meanings were collected with a greater or less degree of care, but with no other system than an alphabetical arrangement, and without any attempt to seek out the hidden bond of connection running through entire families of words which is indicated both by their form and signification. Much less did it occur to the minds of the early lexicographers, to investigate either the mode in which words are formed from others already in existence for the purpose of expressing nearly related ideas, or that in which the often numerous and apparently widely different meanings of a single term have grown out of the unique idea which it was primarily intended to convey. These investigations, which constitute the very soul of modern lexicography, were then almost entirely overlooked ; latterly however they have profitably exercised the powers of some of the acutest and most philosophic minds; and the result has been, that lexicons continue more and inore to assume the character of scientific productions.

At the present day, therefore, no lexicographer can justly claim to have advanced the study of a language unless his work both in its contents and general plan shall prove him to have entered upon his task with comprehensive and philosophical views of language in general, and with both the will and the ability to execute it in accordance with those natural principles which are disclosed by a profound study of the infinitely diversified forms of human speech. The lexicographer must enter upon his undertaking firmly impressed with the conviction that a language is not a mere mass of unconnected phenomena, the results of a blind chance, but is the true and lively representative of the human soul ; and that, as the soul of man is in all times and situations subject to much the same impressions, and as its operations are regulated by never varying laws, the languages of all nations, which are the immediate results of its movements, must bear throughout the stamp of uniformity.

The full development of this fundamental truth is owing to the indefatigable researches of modern philologists, who have not suffered themselves to be deterred by the striking differences which the structure of individual languages presents, from endeavoring to discover the internal principle by which each is connected to one vast whole. The secret of their success is to be found in the fact, that they carried their inquiries beyond the mere outward form of language, and subjected to a rigid scrutiny its hidden sources. By this means they were enabled to prove to demonstration, that phenomena both lexicographical and grammatical of the most opposite character are frequently the best evidences of the radical nature of the connection existing between all languages, and furthermore that the occurrence of such apparent discrepancies might have been predicted from the very constitution of speech.

In granting the faculty of speech to be a necessary part of the nature which man has received from the hand of the Almighty, we acknowledge in effect that, even should it never become externally manifest in the shape of articulate sounds, its virtual existence is rendered coëval with that of man by the creation of the mental powers requisite for its production. This internal speech or language of the soul usually obtains an external existence through the medium of the organs of speech: yet should this be prevented by the malformation or total want of one or more of these organs, some other mode of communication will be substituted, such as gesticulation, the touch, etc.; thus showing that the productive energy of the soul constantly remains, although deprived of the usual mode of exhibiting its effects. When, however, no such difficulty occurs, and the organs are capable of freely seconding every impulse of the soul, the latter, as soon as excited by the impressions made on it by the external world, manifests a disposition to exercise its powers in the production of audible speech. As the operations of the soul and the movements of the organs admit of indefinite modification, the articulate sounds which are their joint production exhibit an almost endless variety, and this is still further increased by the combination of the individual sounds into words. Thus, although audible speech is in the main a faithful transcript of the sensations and reflections of the mind, the immense variety in the external circumstances of nations, as well as in their mental development and cultivation, constitutes a fruitful source of diversity in the very outset of the formation of language- La diversity which is increased ad infiņitum by the reaction of the external world immediately succeeding the embodying of the language of the soul in words, and which results in the formation of dialects and sometimes of independent languages.

When a word has experienced the effects of all the influences brought to bear upon it during its gradual formation, it obtains a place in the world of language together with its inherent idea, the two bearing to each other the mutual relation of body and soul. The path thus laid open by the mind for the communication of an idea is naturally sought by it again on the recurrence of the impression, by which it was first excited to action, and in this manner the primitive word obtains a permanent existence. It, however, still remains subject to the influences both internal and external which affected its formation ; and hence, although created to be the sole representative of a single idea, it is liable to changes both in its material structure and in its animating principle. Thus, essential alterations in the form of a primitive may gradually be produced by the repeated change or suppression of one or more of its elements arising from defective organization or imperfect recollection, while the idea which the word is intended to convey retains its original character without any modification whatever. When such changes in form have reached a certain amount, a new dialect is the result. Changes in the signification of primitive words may be produced by alterations in the physical or social

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